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Патент USA US2404864

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July 30, 1946.
Y 2,404,854
Filed Feb. 11, 1945
. ,9. WEA/ZEL .
Patented July so, 1946
Abraham Sandow, Plain?eld, and Albert A.‘
Wenzel, West Orange, N. J.
Application February 11, 1943, Serial No. 475,504
3 Claims.
(01. 29-15626)
This invention relates to a method of making
packing rings, and more particularly to rings
which have an inherent resiliency tending to con
tract the same.
Generally speaking, it has been common prac
tice to construct and use packing rings which
have an inherent resiliency tending to expand
the rings. When such rings are used in internal
combustion engines, for instance, it is necessary
Still further objects will appear as the de
scription progresses, both by direct recitation
thereof and by implication from the’ context.
Referring to the accompanying drawing show
ing one embodiment of the method and one form
of butt-end split ring, and in which drawing like
numerals of reference indicate similar parts
throughout the‘several views;
Figure 1 is a perspectiverview of a completed
to mount them in grooves in the piston so they 10 contracting ring in accordance with the present
will expand into contact with the cylinder wall.
That in turn necessitates a wall‘thickriess for
the piston which permits cutting the groove
therein and still leave a suflicient amount of
metal at the base ofthe groove to afford requisite 15
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a cast pot or
other tube constituting‘the stock forring pat
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a pattern blank
strength to the piston. The greater part of the
as out from the stock;
Figure 4 is a perspective view of the pattern
piston therefore has considerable more thickness
than is required. from the standpoint of strength,
blank being severed to give it the form of a
split ring;
and the extra thickness means additional weight,
to which must be added the weight of the rings, 20 , Figure 5 is a perspective view of the split pat
in calculation of inertia developed in the re
‘tern blank with one end sprung to overlap the
ciprocal movement of the piston. This inertia
may be very materially reduced by the expedient
Figure 6 is an edge view looking toward the
of providing a thin and smooth-wall piston, and
overlapped ends and showing the pattern com
situate the rings in the wall of the cylinder in if 25 pleted by ?llet material; .
. ‘
Figure '7 is a plan of a pattern board with sev
appropriate grooves. That necessitates, however,
eral of ‘the pattern rings thereon and gated to
that the rings‘must have an inherent contract
ing resiliency and be perfect circles in the con
gether with a common sprue;
" ‘
tracted position. While some attempts have been
Figure 8 isa perspective view of one of the cast
made to construct contracting rings, di?iculties to rings‘
have been encountered in casting, tensioning
Figure 9 is an edge view of the casting in proc
ess of having longitudinal cut made at the over
and shaping the same, and these di?iculties, un
lap region;
, til now, have prevented adoption of contracting
rings for use in internal combustion engines.
Figure 10 is an edge View showing excess end
In the broadest aspects of the invention,_there
Li metal being out from the casting; and
fore, an object thereof is to overcome the dii?
culties of manufacture encountered in construc
tion of a contracting ring.
Another object of the invention is to obtain a
‘method of making a contracting ring which will
have perfect shape of a circle at piston diameter
but a further tendency to contract when at piston
Yet another object of the invention is to avoid
operations which would disturb or change the
given circular shape of the ring.
' A further object of the invention is to adapt
the manufacturing process to correspond as near
possible to present-day manufacture of ex
panding rings.
Figure 11 is a sectional view of a portion of a
piston and of a cylinder, and showing rings in
sectional cross section mounted in grooves in the
cylinder and in engagement with the piston which
slides within the “rings and cylinder.
In the speci?c‘ embodiment of the invention
illustrated in said drawing, and referring initially
to the method involved, reference numeral 15
designates a pot or other tube constituting one
means from which pattern blanks l6 are to be
formed. The‘ pattern blanks 'are severed as
rings from the pot I5, indication being given by
dotted line I‘! where one pattern blank is to be
out off therefrom. Pot I5 is a true cylinder, hav
ing outside and inside diameters equal, by a pat
tern-maker’s rule, to the dimensions which it
is desired that the packing, ring shall have. In
severing the blank from the pot. the blank is
‘Again, an object of the invention is to require
a minimum of ?nishing operations.
Yet again, an object‘ of the invention is to em
ploy ?nishing operations which are of simple
given a thickness between flat faces, also by a
character and readily performed.
pattern-maker’s rule, either directly when out
' 2,404,864
ting or by subsequent grinding, equal to the de
sired thickness of the packing ring casting to
faces ground and then appears in ?nal form as
ring 21 of Figs. 1 and 11 tensioned to contract
with its ends 26' abutting.
be made from the pattern. Of course over-size
allowance may be made for any surfaces corre
sponding to surfaces of the ?nal ring which are
to be ground to size.
One use of rings as thus manufactured is to
situate the same in grooves 28 cut circumferen
tialiy in a cylinder wall 29 of an internal combus
tion engine, and with the inner periphery of the
After the pattern blank I6 is severed from‘
ring 27 in sliding engagement with and consti
the pct 15, said blank is transversely cut, as by
tuting a sealing surface with a piston 30. Thus
a saw l8 as ‘shown in Figure 4. The pattern
blank is then of size and shape desired for the 10 the piston is the only moving part and may be
?nished ring to be cast, and has normally abut-v
thin-walled, smooth-faced or devoid of grooves
and not required to carry the additional weight
ting ends, butwdevoid of the tension desired in
of the piston rings, thereby reducing inertia to
the ?nished ring. One of the end portions of
the pattern ring or blank is now sprung or bent
, a minimum.
upward from the bottom plane of the ring. The
upwardly bent portion may be and is thereupon
fact that the'ring or rings will be located far
ther away from the combustion heat and gases.
While this use is illustrative of a bene?cial pur
pose involved in the invention, other uses may be
made of rings constructed in accordance with the
compressed or slid longitudinally of itself over
and longitudinally of the other end portion and:
held compressed with the said end portions over
lapping, (see Fig. 5). The next operation is to
?ll the region beneath the sprung end portion
of the ring, as by ?llet material l9, as shown
done in Figure 6.
present disclosure. Furthermore, variations may
be made in the performance of the several oper
This operation restores a ‘
level bottom to the pattern and also ?lls the gap
between the overlapping end portions.
tion may be directed to the fact that ample thick
ness of ?llet material is placed between the over
lapping end portions to allow for a casting
thickness thereat to accommodate a saw-cut
or slit when completing the ring from the casting.
Addition of this ?llet material completes the
Afurther advantage of this exam- ‘
.ple of use of our improved'ring resides in the
ations and steps explained above for accomplish
ment of the construction, purposes and results
desired, it being understood that the arbitrarily
selected showing of apparatus and procedure
shown in the drawing and discussed in thespecil
?cation ‘is for illustration of the inventive con
cent of which the drawing andv description must
of necessity give one speci?c example.
We claim:
1. A method of manufacturing cast packing
rings with inherent contracting tension com
A plurality ‘of patterns, with ?at face down,
arev appliedto a pattern board 2!] to which they
prising forming a pattern the size and shape of
‘may be pinned or otherwise secured inv accord
the desired ring, cutting said pattern and over
ance with usual practice. Gate patterns 2.! con
lapping the ends' thereof, making a casting ‘cor
nect from the several ring patterns, preferably at
responding to said pattern, slitting the casting in
the overlapped end portions of each, to a com
conformity with the overlapping‘ of the pattern,
mon sprue pattern 22. Usual foundry practice
and spreading and ?attening the ring with the
is followed in forming sand or other mold with 40 ends thereof abutting.
the patterns and casting the several rings, of
. ,2. A metnod'of manufacturing cast packing
which Figure 8 shows a cast ring as it comes
rings with inherent contracting tension compris
from the foundry.
ing forming a pattern the size and shape of the
The next operations on the casting are to cut .
45 desired ring, cutting said pattern and overlap
the overlap and remove excess metal. As indi
ping the ends thereof, making a casting'corre
cated .in Figure 9, a saw 23 may be used. to cut,
spending to said pattern, slitting and cutting the
at ring thickness from sloping face‘ of the cast
casting to provide overlapping ends in conforme
ing, one overlapped end portion from the other,
ity with the overlapping of the ends of. the. pat
making a slit 24 through the ring as shown in 50 tern, and spreading and?attening the ring with
Figure .10 longitudinal of the sloping end portion
said ends thereof abutting and pressed endwise
giving proper thickness thereto. Then, as illus
trated by Figure 10, a saw 25 is employed to cut
3. A method of manufacturing cast packing
7 the excess tapering material 26 from the under
rings with inherent contracting tension compris-v
end of the ring beneath slit 24 after which the 55 ing forming a pattern ring the size and shape
ring conforms with and has appearance of the
of the'desired ring but without the inherent con
pattern of Figure 5 with overlapping ends, ex
tracting tension from desired ring size, cutting
cept that said ring now tends to spring to over
said pattern ring and forcibly overlapping the
lapped position of end portions. The sloping or
ends and contracting the pattern ring and secur
upwardly bent end portion is next forcibly spread
ing the overlapped margins together whereby
lengthwise from the end portion which was cast 60 the pattern ring is constituted a contracted. pat
to slope upward and its end forced into abutting
tern of smaller circumference than the desired
relation to the other end. Thereafter the metal
packing ring, making a casting corresponding to
is treatedappropriatel'y ‘to give that end which
the said ‘contracted pattern, ‘slitting the casting
was cast on the slope a normal tendency to re
in conformity with the overlapping of the pat
‘flat with the rest of the ring. .The treat
ment is such .as not to disturb the circular con
tern,‘ and spreading the ring the amount of over
lapping of the ends until the ends register and
dition of the ring .nor the tension in vthe ring to
the ring expanded against the inherent tension
press the ends into abutting relation. Such
of the casting and its ends brought into abut
treatment may be a forcible bending applied to
ment with each other and pressed endwise to
the metal, by peening, by heat, by a combina
gether under the inherent tension of the ring.
tion of these treatments or otherwise as. found
desirable. The ring may ?nally have its ?at
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