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Патент USA US2404865

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July 30, 1946.
H. W. SEMAR
2,404,865
GEAR TIMING METHOD
Filed April 14, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
mm
mo.Q202
(1/, W? IM
ATTORNEY
July 30, 194-6.
H; w, SEMAR
2,404,865
GEAR TIMING METHOD
F-iled‘April 14, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘3.Fla.
INVENTOR
_
HHROLD W. EEMRR.
BY
wmalm
ATTORNEY
July 30, 1946.
H. w. SEMAR
‘
‘
2,404,355.
GEAR TIMING METHOD 7
Filed April 14, 1945
j
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
65
WITNESSES:
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HRROLD W. SEMRR
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Wpé-M
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"WENTOR
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‘
‘
‘
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BY
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W'G'M I
‘ATTORNEY
July 30, 1946.
H. w. SEMAR
‘
‘
‘
2,404,365 .
GEAR TIMING METHOD
Filed April 14, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
-
INVENTOR
,
HRRIOLD W. SEMRRJ
B’Y
~
(MW, Rum;
ATTORNEY ‘
Patented July 30, 1946
2,404,865‘
UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE
GEAR TIIVIING METHOD
Harold W. Semar, Drexel Hill, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application April 14, 1943, Serial No. 482,977
3 Claims. (Cl. 29-1592)
1.
invention relates to gearing, more par
2
ticularly to reduction gearing of the locked-train
XIII-XIII' of Fig. 12, looking in the direction
indicated by the arrows; and
type, and it has for an object to provide an im
proved method of dividing between the two high
speed gears, the torque delivered thereto by the
portion of the apparatus shown in Figs. 12 and 13.
In gears of the locked-train. type, where the
highespeed pinion.
Fig. 14 is an enlarged ‘fragmentary view of a
driving torque from the high-speed. pinion .is
Another object of the invention is to provide
transmitted to two high-speed gears, the division
improved method for obtaining equal division, be
of torque between. these two gears depends upon
tween the high-speed gears of a locked-train re
the angular relation. of the latter. In; order that
duction gear assembly, of the torque delivered. 10 equalv torques may betransmitted to each gear,
thereto by the high-speed pinion.
the angular‘ relationship thereof must be ac
These ‘and other objects “are effectedv by the
curately set at the‘ time of assembly of the gear
invention as will be apparent from the following
train. This setting 'must take into account the
description and claims taken in connection with
backlash in the teeth of allygears'and couplings,
the accompanying drawings, forming a part ‘of
all bearing clearances and all strains in the
thisapplication, in which:
stressed parts of the gear train.
Fig. 1 is an end view of a reduction gear as
These‘ factors can’ best be takenv into account
sembly such as might be used in ‘ship propulsion
by actually applying torque sufficient to liftall
for" driving from two sources of power to a, single
rotating parts into their‘ running positions and
powershaft, together with the apparatus involved 20 to take up all‘ baeklashes. With torque thusap
in‘ this invention for dividing between the two
plied, the angular relation. between any two ad.
high-speed gears, the torque delivered thereto by
joining. elements can. be determined and/or set
the high-speed pinion;
at any predetermined angle.
7
'Fig. 2v is a sectional view~ taken along the line
In order to. clearly disclose the novelieatures
II-II of Fig. 1,.100king in the direction indicated 25 of the subject invention-the same has beenil
by the arrows;
.
lustrated as applied to conventional‘reduction'
Figs. 3 and 4 are ‘similar diagrammatic‘ views
gearing of the locked-train type as‘is ‘frequently
illustrating the difference in. application of the '
used in. the propulsion‘equipment oi vessels,.where
apparatus for adjusting the torque in the left
twosources of. power,.for example, the high-pres
hand gear train (Fig. 3) and the right-hand gear 30 sure turbine and the low-pressure turbinedrive
train (Fig.4);
' throughtwo trains of reductiongearing to: asingle
propellershaft
Fig, 5 is a‘ front elevationai view‘of a torquing
jig and associated apparatus for performing one
InFigs. 1,. 3 and. 4, the two trains are indicated
step of‘ the invention covered by this application;
as A. andv B, it being assumed that the
A
Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken along ' transmits power from the highepressure turbine
the line VI-VI‘ of' Fig. ‘5, looking in-the direction
and. train 3 from the lower-pressure turbine, to
drive a. single propeller shaft 34‘ (Fig. 1)..
indicated ‘by the arrows;
Inasmuch as the two trains of gearing are sim
Fig. '7 is a sectional ‘View taken along the line
VII-VII of Fig. 6, looking in the direction indiilar, it is believed that a description of one train
cated 'by the arrows; -
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary view‘ of a portion of the
structure_ of ‘Figs. 5, 6 and 7;‘
will. be su?‘icient to fully‘di'sclose the presentiim
vention, and‘ hence‘ the ‘following description is
given of train A.
Fig.‘ 9 is a transverse sectional view taken
This train comprises a- high-speed pinion shaft '
through a piece of apparatus involved in the
III on which is secured the high-speed pinion 12,
45
performance of the‘ method herein disclosed;
which meshes with a pair of high-speed gears l3
Fig. 10 is a transverse sectionalview taken along
and M,.mounted on hollow‘ shafts i5 (Fig. 2).
the line X-X of Fig.‘ 9', looking in the direction
Each hollow shaft is journaled. in bearings l6.
indicated by the arrows;
carried by frame. structure I1, and transmits
Fig. 1.1 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a
torque, through a quill drive, to. the hollowshaft
portion of. the apparatus shown in Figs. 9 and 10;
l9, which. is. longitudinally aligned with, but in
Fig. 12 is a transverse sectional view of a por-'
dependent: of, the hollow shaft l5, exceptfcr the
tion. of the apparatus shown. in. Figs. 8 and. 9 with.
connection through the quill drive.
certain parts. removed andv replaced ‘by others;
The quill- drive comprises a couplingsleeve 21,.
Fig. 13 ista sectional. View taken. along the line‘ 661 having? ?ange 22 secured; to the ?ange‘ 2'3 of: the‘
224047865
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WWII? _
3
4
hollow shaft #5, by suitable means, such as the
bolts 24.
The coupling sleeve is provided with internal
teeth 25 adapted to mesh with external teeth 21
provided on the coupling hub 28, secured to the
end of the quill shaft 29 by a suitable means, such
as keys 30.
respect to the portion 56 on the torquing hub.
The enlarged portions 56 of the torquing hub are
provided with axially-extending abutment mem
bers 58 in the form of headed pins, and similar
abutments 59 are provided upon enlarged portions
51 of the torquing sleeve, for the purpose to be
51, normally positioned approximately 90° with
The other‘ 'enfd'fof‘the'qui1l shaft 729' is secured"
hereinafter'disclosed.
_
‘
-
¥
'; I Z
,_‘
to the hollow shaft IS‘by keys 3!, the shaft 19
'The torquing jig 6| (Figs'5 and 6) ‘comprises
being rotatably supported by the bearings 32, like-‘V’
10 a lower block 62 and an upper block 63 disposed
- inI spaced-apart relation upon a rod 64. Move
wise carried by the frame ll.
Mounted on each hollow shaft I9 is a lowjspeed ; ; ¢ment of the lower block 52 toward the adjacent
pinion 20, these pinions both meshing with a sin
gle low speed, or “bull” gear 33,~keyed to the main
shaft 34, which either carries the propeller- or'iis
coupled to the propeller shaft. The entire" gear
assembly is enclosed by suitable casing structure,
indicated at 35.
In performing the method of the present invené
end of the'rod E4 is limited by the nut 65 threaded
von that end of'therod. The other end of the rod
is "surrounded by?‘ a, compression spring 66, re
"strained between the washer 61 resting against
‘the nut 68 on the rod 64, and the upper block 63,
‘with the result that the blocks 62 and 63 are
-' i normally urged toward each other by the spring
tion, the gear trains are completely assembled 20 66. The upper block 63 carries a pair of link
members 10 and ‘H pivotally vconnected thereto at
with-the exception of the coupling hub 28 of the
one end bypins 12 extending through the links
upper quill shaft of-each train. ‘In place of the
omitted coupling hubs the torque-measuring ap
and the block, and retained by cotter pins .13. The
paratu'sgldisclosed in'F'igs. 5,.6 sand 7,.is inserted.
free ends of the link members 10 and ‘H are con
'Ilhis‘apparatus comprises a torquing hub 40 on <
caved, at ‘M, to engage with the shanksof the
abutment pins 58 and 59 (Fig. 5). The lower.
block 62 is providedwith similar link members
which‘ is rotatablymounted a torquing sleeve 4|.
The torquing hub is rabbeted at 42 to receive the
corresponding internal rib or flange 43 formed on
the’ torquing sleeverlll, and the two parts are re
tain’ed'in assembled relation by a segmental re
taim'ng ring 44, fitting into a mating groove 45
formed in the rabbeted surface 42 of the torquing
hub 540, the‘ retaining ring being vsecured to'the
torquing sleeveby suitable means, ‘such as ‘the
bolts“.
'
'
"
1
.
.
The torquing sleeve 4! is provided with external
teetnds corresponding to the teeth 21 of the cou
pling hub for which this apparatus is substituted,
the teeth 48 being adapted to mesh with the inter
nal' teeth 26 on the couplingsleeve 2!. The torqu
ingv hub 4.0 is provided with keyways 49 adapted
to'cooperate withthe keyways 50 of the quill shaft
to receive temporarykeys‘ 5!, locking the torque.
hub-t0 the quill shaft.‘ Thus, it will be seen that
the ftorquing hub 40 may.‘ receive or transmit
tor'queifrom or to the quill shaft 29 and the torqu
in'gisleeve .4 l lmay receive or transmit torque from
onto the couplingsleeve 2|. At.v the same time,
the .ztorquing sleeveand torquing hub are rotat-'
a'bleirelative to "eachother. .
'1 ‘In; order rthatthe relative angular position of
the torquing sleeve and torquing hub may be de
termined, the formeris providedwith aradially
extending pin 52 and the latter with a similar pin
53,“.there ‘being provided an opening 54 in the
torquing sleeve through which the pin 53 extends,
the opening54 being of suf?cientcircumfere'ntial
extent to vpermit of the necessary relative move
16 ‘and ‘H, pivotally connected‘thereto by pins
18 having concaved ends engaging the pin-abut
ments 58 and 59.
'
In order to prevent buckling of the rod 64 of
the torquing jig 6|, there is provided a restrain
ing frame 80 secured to the torquing hubby suit
able'means such as the screws 8|.
' 1:. .It will be apparent that the compressive stresses
in the spring 65, urging the upper block 03 toward
the block 52, will transmit forces through the links
1i! and TI tending to rotate the torquing sleeve
4| counterclockwise as viewed in Fig. 6, while
the forces exerted through the links ‘H and 16 will
7 tend to. rotate the torquing. hub 40 clockwise.
With the torquing'sleeve and torquing hub thus
torqued, torque may be applied to the high-speed ,
pinion, with ‘the low-speed gear restrainedfrom
rotating sufficient to lift allthe parts into their‘
running positions and to eliminate backlash, as.
will be hereinafter described.
,
'.
.
.1 In order to apply a measured torque'to the
entire gear train, there is. provided a further
torquing apparatus, indicated generally at 89, for.
applying torque to the high-speed pinion andfor
preventing rotation‘ of thelow-speed gear." . As
best shown in Fig. 1, this apparatus comprises a‘
pair of torquing arms 90 and 9|, the arm 90 being
secured to the shaft carrying the high-speed
pinion of train A, by suitablemeans, such as bolts‘
92. In like manner, the arm BI is secured to the
shaft carrying the high-speed pinion of the train
B, by similar bolts 92; The free ends of the arms‘
ment of the torquing sleeve and torquing hub,
Without contact of the pin 53 with the end walls 60 99 and 9! are connected by a rod-93, :one end of V
of thejo-pening 54. ‘The distance between or across
which extends slidably through a block 94, prefer
the heads of the pins 52 and 53 may be accurately
ably supported between a pair of ears 95, carried
by the arm 90. This end of the rod 93 is threaded,
measuredby agmicrometerin order to determine
the “exact angular relationship. of the torquing
sleeveandtorquing hub ‘at anytime.
‘
‘ To'resist relative rotation of the. torquing sleeve
andjto'r'quing hub, in order that the entire gear
trainmay be subjected tosu?’icient torque to take
asat 96, and carries an adjustingnut 9'llfor in-}
creasing .ordecreasing the effective length of the
rod93.
..
The, jothjer end of . the rod is . ?xedly. s'ec'a’uredv
to""a"pl‘ate"'99, slidablyfmo’unted on a pair of‘
spaced rods I00, supported by a block. l0l,"con-"
upplay in the bearings‘ and backlash of the teeth,
vthere‘isprovided a torquing jig 5| ,' adapted to co 70 nected by a pair of ears I02 andpin I03 to'the,
operate with the torquing sleeve and torquing hub
free end of the torquing arm 9|. A plate I04 ls
slidably-mounted on‘ the pair of rods I00, at the
in the manner to ‘be immediately described.
The torquing-hub is' provided‘ at its outer or
opposite side of the plate "99 from the block‘ ml.‘
free end withlapairof opposed enlarged portions
The rods I00‘ have threaded terminal portions»
56. and the::torquing" sleeve has similar portionsi
1 extendingthrou‘gh'the vplate 104' and carrying‘- ad
2,404,865
>
6
5
justing nuts I05 for moving the plate Hi4 toward
or away from the block l‘?l' to vary the com
pression of spring I86,‘ disposed between said
plate i014 and the plate 99 in which the end of the
rod 93 is secured. Thus, it will be apparent that
the compression spring H36 tends to urge thefree
ends of the torquing arms 90 and 9| toward each
other.
,
'
1
10. The torquing sleeve and torquing hub ‘are
assembled on the dummy quill shaft and ‘sleeve.
The same numbered tooth on the torquing sleeve,
as previously recorded, must be between the two
marked teeth of the coupling sleeve, as when
previously assembled in the actual gear‘ assembly.
11. The torquing hub is ‘keyed to the dummy
quill shaft.
'
‘
’
12. The dummy quill shaft and the torquing
In Figs. 9 to 13 there is illustrated apparatus
hub are rotated relative to the torquing sleeve
for performing a further step in the process here
and coupling sleeve until the dimension between
in disclosed. This apparatus comprises a base
or over the measuring pins 52 and 53 correspond
plate 85', to which may be bolted the coupling
to the average measured dimension previously
sl'eeve‘Z‘l or a suitable sleeve having similar in
obtained (Step 7).
ternal teeth. A dummy quill shaft‘ 85 isrnounted
on the base plate 85, in concentric relation to 15
NOTE.—Care should be taken to rotate .the torquing hub
and dummy quill shaft in the same direction as‘ when the
the coupling sleeve 2 i, and' is retained in position
torque was applied to the assembled gear train, that is,
by the stud 8‘! andnut 88‘. Thus, there is provided
with the teeth in contact on their ahead driving faces,
which, in the case of marine propulsion gearing, would
between, the dummy quill shaft and the coupling
sleeve an annular space for reception of the
be with the apparatus driving ahead.
13.‘The dummy quill shaft ‘is clamped in‘thi's
torquing hub 48 and torquing sleeve 41 in their 20
position by tightening the nuts 88 on the stud 8T.
assembled relation. (Figs. 9 and 10.)
14-. The torquing hub and torquing sleeve are
The torquing apparatus hereinbefore described
removed from the dummy quill shaft and the
is used in‘the following manner to provide for
coupling hub 28 assembled in place thereof be;
equal division, between the two high-speed gears,
tween the coupling ‘sleeve 2| and the dummy quill
of the torque from the high-speed pinion.
shaft 86, the external teeth 21 of the coupling hub
l. The gear trains are completely assembled
engaging the‘ internal teeth 25‘ of the coupling
with the exception of the coupling hubs 28 of the
sleeve. The tooth 27- of the coupling hub, which
upper quill shafts 29.
lies between the two marked teeth 26 of the cou
2. The torquing hub is placed inside the torqu~
ing sleeve and the two substituted for the omitted 30 pling sleeve, is provided with a corresponding
mark so that it may always be assembled in the
coupling hub 28 of train A, with the teeth 48 of
same relation thereto. (Fig. 14.)
the torquing sleeve in engagement with the teeth
15. Keyways are scribed on the coupling hub
25 of the coupling sleeve, and with the torquing
in line with the keyways' on the‘dummy ‘quill
hub temporarily keyed to the quill shaft 29.
shaft.
(Fig. 6.)
'
16. The coupling hub is removed and keyways
,3. The torquing jig‘ Si is applied to the torquing
formed therein at the locations indicated by the
sleeve with the link members ‘H and ‘H5 engaging
scribe marks.
the abutment pins 58 of the torquing hub and
17. The coupling hub and coupling sleeve are
with the links '10 and TI engaging the abutment
40 removed from the base plate 85' and reassembled
pins 59 of the torquing sleeve (Fig. 5). ‘ ,
V
in the gear train, the coupling ?ange being
4. Note is made of the number of the par
ticular tooth ‘48 on the torquing sleeve which
is positioned between the two marked teeth 26
of the coupling sleeve (Fig. 8).
5. The torquing arms 90 and 9! and asso
ciated rod and spring structure 93 and H36 are
mounted on the high-speed pinion shafts in the
manner illustrated in Figs‘. 1 and 3, assuming
bolted to the hollow shaft l5 and the coupling
hub being keyed to the gear shaft‘ 29. -
‘
This completes the operation of equally divid
ing between the two high-speed gears, the torque ‘
transmitted thereto by the high-speed pinion for
the gear train A. The same procedure is fol
lowed with respect to the train B, except‘ that the
torquing arms 90 and SI, the rod 93 and spring
that the torquing jig 6| has‘been applied to the
50 mechanism I06 are applied in inverted position ‘in
gear train A.
the manner illustrated in Fig. 4:.
6. The springs 66 and I536 are adjusted to the
While the invention has been shown in but
correct compression which can be determined in
one form, it will be obvious to those. skilled in
any conventional way, as will be obvious to
the art that it is not so limited, but is suscep
those skilled in the art. The torque exerted by
tible of various changes and modi?cations with
spring 66 is made‘ equal to one-half of the total
out departing from the spirit thereof, and it is
torque that spring I06 exerts on both upper and
lower gears.
desired, therefore, that only such limitations
.
'7. The gears are rolled in either direction
several times by applying force to both of the
torquing arms in succession, and the distance be 00
tween or over the measuring pins 52 and 53
shall be placed thereupon as are speci?cally set
forth in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
r
1. In assembling a locked train of double-re
duction gearing comprising a high-speed pinion,
a pair of high-speed gears carried by a pair of
instrument. Preferably, the rolling and measur
intermediate shafts and driven by said high
ing are repeated several times and the average
speed pinion, a pair of slow-speed pinions carried
65
of the readings taken.
by said pair of shafts and a slow-speed gear
8. The springs 56 and I05 are released, the
driven by said pair of said slow-speed pinions,
torquing sleeve and torquing hub removed, but
the method of dividing equally between the two
still retained in assembled relation, and the cou
high-speed
gears the torque transmitted thereto
pling sleeve is removed. If, at this stage, a tem
porary or dummy sleeve is used, it is unnecessary 70 by the high-speed pinion; which method com
prises assembling the gear train with the excep
measured with a micrometer or similar suitable
to remove it.
7
tion of a ?rst intermediate element thereof; sub
stituting for said element second and third ele
ments rotatable relative to each other about a
the dummy quill shaft 86, also bolted to the plate
76 common axis; connecting the second element to
85.
9. The coupling or temporary sleeve is bolted
to the temporary base plate 85 concentric with
7
2,404,865
a fourth element in the gear train and the third
element to a fifth element‘ in the gear train;
applying equal and opposite torques to said sec-‘
0nd and third elements to rotate them relative
to each other about said common axis; applying
a torque to the high-speed pinion while the slow
speed ‘gear is restrained from rotating, said torque
being sufficient to constrain all rotating parts
to assume their running positions with all back;
a pair of high-speed gears carried by a pair of
intermediate shafts‘ and‘ driven by said high-‘
speed pinion, a pair of slow-speed pinions"car-'
ried by said pair of shafts and a slow-speed gear
driven by said pair of said slow-speed pinions,
and quill drives,,including coupling hubs ‘and
coupling sleeves, between the high-speed gears
and the low-speed pinions, the method of divid
ing equally between the two high-speed gears the
lash removed; determining the angular relation 1O torque transmitted thereto by the high-speed
ship of the fourth and ?fth elements; removing
pinion, which method comprises;assembling-the
the second and third elements; replacing them
gear train with the exception of the coupling hub
with the ?rst element for which they were sub
stituted; and so connecting said ?rst element to
of one of the quill drives; assembling a torquing
hub within a torquing sleeve with said hub and
the fourth and ?fth elements that the latter have
sleeve relatively rotatable; substituting the as
sembled torquing hub and torquing sleeve for
the determined angular relationship. ‘
“ ‘2. In assembling a locked train'of double-re
the omitted coupling; interlocking the torquing }
duction gearing comprising a high-speed pinion,
sleeve and the coupling sleeve to provide a driv
a pair of high-speed gears carriediby a pair of
ing connection therebetween ; keying the torquing
intermediate shafts and driven by said high 20 hub to the quill shaft to provide a driving con
speed pinion, a pair of slow-speed pinions car
nection therebetween; applying equal and op
ried by said pair of shafts and a slow-speed gear
posite torque to the torquing hub and the torqu
driven by said pair of said slow-speed pinions,
ing sleeve to rotate them relative to each other;
and quill drives, including coupling hubs and’
applying a torque to the high-speed pinion while
coupling sleeves, between the high-speed gears 25 the slow-speed gear is restrained from rotating,
and the low-speed pinions, the method of divid
said last-mentioned torque being su?‘lcient to
ing equally between the two high-speed gears
constrain all rotating parts to assume their run
the torque transmitted thereto by the high-speed
ning positions'with all backlash removed; deter
pinion, which method comprises; assembling the
mining the angular relationship of the torquing
gear train with the exception of the coupling hub 30 hub and the torquing sleeve; ‘removing thecou
of one of the quill drives; nesting a torquing hub
pling sleeve, the torquing sleeve and the torquing
within a torquing sleeve with said torquing hub
hub from the gear train and mounting them in
and torquing sleeve relatively rotatable; substi
assembled relation about a dummy quill shaft
tuting the nested torquing hub and torquing
on a temporary support with the coupling sleeve
‘sleeve for the omitted coupling hub with the
and the torquing sleeve interlocked; securing the
torquing hub mounted on and connected to the
coupling sleeve to said temporary support; key
adjacent quill shaft and the’ torquing sleeve
ing the torquing hub to the dummy quill shaft;
mounted in and connected to the adjacent cou
rotating the torquing hub and the dummy quill
pling sleeve; applying equal and opposite torques
to said torquing hub and said torquing sleeve to
40
shaft with respect to the torquing sleeve to the
relative angular relationship of said torquing hub
rotate them relative to each other; applying a
and torquing sleeve which was" previously de
measured torque to the'hi‘gh-specd pinion while
termined; securing the dummy quill shaftlto the
temporary support; removing the torquing hub
the slow-speed gear is restrained from rotating,
said torque being suf?cient to constrain all ro
and torquing sleeve from ‘the assembly on the
tating parts to assume their running positions
temporary support‘ and substituting the coupling
with all backlash removed; ascertaining the angu
hub therefor in interlocking engagement with
lar relationship’ of the coupling sleeve and the
quill shaft; removing the torquing hub and torque
ing sleeve;,replacing them with the coupling hub
the coupling sleeve; indicating on the coupling
hub the location for a keyway complementary to‘
the keyway in the dummy quill shaft, forming
for which they were substituted; and connecting 50 a keyway in the coupling hub at the indicated
said coupling hub to the couplinglsleeve and quill
location; and placing the coupling sleeve and
shaft with said coupling sleeve and quill shaft in
coupling hub in thegear train to complete as
the ascertained relative angular relationship.
sembly of the latter.
'
' '
3. In assembling a locked train ‘of double-re
duction gearing comprising a high-speed pinion, 55
HAROLD W. SEMAR. _
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