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Патент USA US2404902

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July 30, 1946.
W. H. CLAUSSEN ETAL
HYDROCARBON CONVERS ION
Filed July 2l, 1942
2,404,902
Patented July 3o, 194s
2,404,902
UNITED STATES PATENT ori-‘ICE
2,404,902
' HYDROCARBON CONVERSION
William H. Claussen and Thomas M. Powell,
Berkeley, Calif., assignors, by mesne assign
ments, to California Research Corporation, San
Francisco, Calif., a corporation of Delaware
Application July 21, 1942, Serial No. 451,748
1o claims. (Cl. 26o-»6735)
1
This invention pertains to the production of
aromatic rich hydrocarbon liquids from petroleum
distillates and is directed more particularly to the
production of substantially pure aromatics from ,
selected hydrocarbon distillates by means of a
novel combination sequence of catalytic and dis
tillation steps.
Various methods have hitherto been proposed
for extracting, by means of selective solvents, the
2
vide a relatively simple catalytic process by means
of which it is possible to prepare low boiling aro
matic compounds from highly parañinic petro
leum fractions with a higher degree of purity and
in substantially improved yields over hitherto
known processes.
It is a more specific object of the present inven
tion to provide a catalytic process wherein cata
lytic conversion steps are correlated with simple
aromatic compounds occurring in certain natural 10 distillation operations in a manner such that
petroleums.
Methods have also been disclosed
for converting a portion of the non-aromatic ma
selected parañlnic petroleum distillates may be
converted to substantially pure aromatic com
pounds with relatively high yield.
terials in petroleum distillates to aromatics, which
It is a still more specific object of the present
may then be separated by means of selective sol
vents, just as in the case of the originally occur 15 invention to provide a catalyticv process for con
ring aromatics.
verting selected parañinic petroleum fractions
While the aromatic compounds present or pro
duced in petroleum fractions may be substan
tially concentrated through the use of known
methods of solvent extraction, it is, however, un
fortunately a fact that no known solvent is sui‘ll
ciently selective to recover by a simple operation
all of an aromatic compound from admixture
substantially to aromatic compounds wherein two
coordinated stages of catalytic treatment are em
ployed in series with a fractionation step inter
posed between them.
It is another` speciñc object of the present in
with the associated paraillnic and naphthenic
materials in a petroleum distillate and at the
vention to provide a method for converting a se
lected` fraction of paraiiinic petroleum to sub
stantially pure aromatic compounds by catalyti- l
cally preparing an aromatic rich distillate, sepa~
same time to recover it in a state of sufllcientlv
rating it from non-aromatic compounds so far as
high purity that it may be subjected directlyl to
nitratìon as, for instance, in the preparation of
practical by fractional distillation and subjecting
explosives, or may be used directly as raw ma
the so separated fraction to a second catalytic
treatment for conversion of the residual non
aromatic compounds.
terial in other specific chemical processes.
In our earlier filed copending application Serial
No. 434,994 we disclosed a particular method of
operating catalytic steps, which are already more
or les`s well known in connection with the reform
ing of gasolines and naphthas for their antiknock
improvement, by means of which it is possible to
produce substantially pure aromatic compounds,
It is a more speciñc object of the present in
vention to provide a process for preparing sub
stantially pure toluene from a petroleum hydro
carbon fraction boiling between about 180° and
235° F. and containing a substantial proportion
such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and
tion will be apparent from the following descrip
of parafñnic compounds.
-
Other and more specific objects of the inven
xylene, from appropriately chosen fractions of pe
tion and the appended claims.
troleum. No complicated solvent extraction pro 40
While it is conventional practice in most chem
cedure is employed in our process, the appropriate
ical reactions, and particularly in the catalytic
steps of catalytic conversion properly related to
processing of hydrocarbons such as in catalytic'
simple distillation processes being adequate to
cracking and catalytic reforming operations, to
produce aromatics of better than 99% purity.
separate from the product unreacted components
For instance, it has been found possible by means 45 of the charge for return to the reaction in order
of the particular` combination of process steps
that the highest possible yield of the desired
which constitutes our invention to convert a
product may be realized from each unit of charge,
“toluene out,” boiling from about 180° to about
the present operation differs significantly from
240° F., from a California straight-run petroleum
such conventional recycle operation in that it is
distillate, simply and directly into nitration grade 50 the desired product that is subjected to a second
toluene with yields of the order of 40% by weight.
catalytic treatment rather than unreacted com
Our present invention comprises a specific modi
ponents of the initial charge. Our present proc
iication of such operation particularly adapting
ess further differs from the usual recycle opera
it to the treatment of highly paraillnic stocks,
tion in that the 'once-through material is sep
It is the object of the present invention to pro 55 arated as far as possible from components of the 1
3
2,404,902
original charge before being subjected to the sec
ond stage of catalytic treatment whereas in re
cycle operation -the recycled material is added to
fresh feed prior to being passed over the catalyst. .
Conditions maintained in the second stage of our
4
ic stage is then separated by distillation into a
light gas fraction consisting largely of hydrogen
and methane, which may be employed directly
as the carrier gas already mentioned or further
separated to give a butane fraction which may be
removed from the process for other well known
uses, a liquid fraction boiling above butane up
to about 180° F., which may be either recycled
for further processing or removed from the process
present process are' also significantly different
than prevail in the first stage. It is believed that
these elements of novelty are highly significant
and are in large part responsible for the peculiar
advantages of the process of the present inven 10 for use elsewhere, as may be desired, a higher
tion.
boiling liquid fraction from 180° F. to about 227°
Broadly considered, our process for producing
F, which is recycled to the first catalyst stage for
substantially pure aromatic compounds from se
further processing, a liquid fraction boiling be
lected parafiinic petroleum distillates may be di
tween about 227° F. and 232° F. which is charged
vided into four significant and critically related
to the second catalyst stage, and a bottoms frac
steps, namely. a first stage low-pressure catalytic
tion boiling above about 232° F. which may be
step, an interstage separation step, a second stage
used as a source of higher boiling aromatics or
higher pressure catalytic step and a final separa
otherwise disposed of as desired. The narrow
_tion step.
~
boiling cut from 227° F. to 232° F. is charged to
In the first catalytic stage we have found the 20 the second stage catalyst system together with a
oxides of metals of the left-hand columns of
carrier gas containing hydrogen and under sub
groups IV. V and VI of the periodic system. and
stantially the same conditions as already de
particularly the oxides of chromium, vanadium
scribed for the first stagevoperation except that
and molybdenum to be effective cyclizing agents.
a higher pressure is maintained and the rate of
These oxides may be impregnated in or supported 25 charge, and hence the time of reaction in the
on activated alumina or the. active metallcom
second stage, may be varied somewhat to accom
ponents may be coprecipitated with the alumina
modate the particular stock which is undergoing
as when a solution containing a compound of the
treatment so as to produce a final toluene rich
metal together with aluminum ion is treated with
product of the desired characteristics. This
aqueous ammonia.
30 crude toluene can then be separated by ordinary
In the second catalytic stage substantially the
good fractional distillation with the production
same group of catalysts may be used._‘the result
obtained being, oualitatively at least,l more de
pendent upon the conditions maintained than
upon the specific catalyst employed. Specific
combinations and sequences of catalysts may
nevertheless possess certain quantitative advan
tages. It has for instance been found that great
er yields of aromatics with less loss to coke and
of a toluene product that may directly, or after
a slight acid treatment, be satisfactorily sub
jected to nitration or such other chemical use as
desired.
While the process as described herein contem
plates two separate catalyst stages arranged in
series with an efficient fractional distillation
stage between them, it will be apparent to those
gas may be secured when a chromium compound 40 skilled in the art that by providing adequate stor
catalyst. as described above. is employed in the
age facilities the. same ultimate result can be
first stage with a molvbdenum containing catalyst
in the second stage than when any other catalyst
obtained by preparing and storing the toluene
catalysts has been found to give the smoothest
operation and the most desirable results of any
more or less similar gas derived from any other
rich 227° to 232° F. cut and substantially passing
sequence is used.
it through the same catalyst stage in which it
In a preferred embodiment of tbe process of the 45 was prepared but under the conditions for second
l present invention a catalyst in which a chromium
stage operation, as already described. This sec
compound such as a chromate or dichromate is
ond stage treatment is in no sense equivalent to
coprecipitated with or supported on alumina is
a recycle treatment through the first stage since
employed in the first stage while a catalyst in
it is critically and positively a treatment of the
which a molybdenum component coprecipitated 50 desired product separated as far as possible from
with alumina from a solution containing soluble
all other materials instead of being added to fresh
compounds of the two metals is used under appro
feed as in a typical recycle operation.
priately different conditions. described herein
The diluting or carrier gas may, as mentioned
- after. in the second stage. This combination of
above, be the gas produced in the process or a
55
convenient source. We have found, however,
that it should contain at least 40% by volume of
hydrogen and preferably above 50% in order that
the most eflicient use of the catalyst may be real
pure toluene for nitration or use as a raw ma 60
ized. It has also been found desirable to employ
terial in other chemical processes, we prepare a
this carrier gas in quantities up to about 3,000
distillate from naturally occurring, essentially
cubic feet, measured under standard conditions
parafiinic petroleum by close fractionation to give
of temperature and pressure, per barrel of the
a cut boiling from about 180° to 235° F. This
liquid hydrocarbon charged. The ratio of gas to
stock is charged to an appropriate first catalyst
hydrocarbon charge on a molecular basis is then
stage employing one of the above-mentioned
from zero to about three _to one, which, when
catalysts and is subjected therein to a tempera
the carrier gas contains 50% or more oi’ hydro
_ture between about 800° and 1050° F. in the pres
gen, would thus give a molecular ratio of hydro
ence of a carrier gas containing a substantial
gen to hydrocarbon of up to about one and one
proportion of hydrogen and at a total pressure
half
to one. Higher ratios may, of course, be
in the neighborhood of atmospheric and prefer
employed but without substantial improvement
ably not over about 50 pounds per square inch for
in'results.
a time sufiicient to give the desired conversion to
In addition to the significant ratio of diluent
aromatics, as will be explained in detail in a
later section. The product from said first catalyt 75 gas to naphtha just explained, we have also found
combination yet tried.
In carrying out the process of the present in
vention, when it is applied to the production of
that in the second stage the proportion of hydro
8,604,902
5
gen in the diluting gas at any given total pres
proportionally by such higher conversion in the
sure or, more broadly, its partial pressure in the
first stage.
satisfactory completion of the conversion of non
aromatic components into aromatics or into com
pounds that are readily separable from the aro
matic compound by fractional distillation. The
, over-al1 effect of a substantial partial pressure
of hydrogen is to lower the loss of charge to coke
and simultaneously to increase the period of oper
ation between catalyst regeneration treatments
for the removal of coke deposited thereon. We
have found that the major part of this benefit
to catalyst life is realized between about two
and twenty atmospheres (30 and 300 pounds per
square inch) partial pressure of hydrogen and
usually between about three and ten atmospheres
(45 and 150 pounds per square inch). While the
total pressure on the second stage system does
not appear to be particularly critical, it will be
seen, from what has already been said, to be
substantially fixed by the limits of dilution pre
scribed and by the desirable partial pressures of
hydrogemto a-range between about 50 and 500
polmds per souare inch and usually to between
~
While it is possible that this optimum conver
sion in the first stage for highest plant eil‘lciency
and highest ultimate yield of toluene might be
slightly different for charging stocks varying
Widely in the nature and relative proportions of
the components in the 180° to 250° ~F. boiling
range, such variations will be found to be readily
reaction mixture, is extremely significant to the
10 determinable and hence are believed to be corn
prehended by our invention.
The conditions to be maintained in the second
catalyst stage are, as already indicated, substan
tially different in several respects from those em
15 ployed in the first stage. These differences may
vary slightly with the sequence of catalysts used
but should in general fall within the ranges speci
fied. In addition `to the possible slight variation
in hydrogen concentration in the carrier gas and
20 in the other conditions mentioned above, it may
also be desirable to alter the feed rate to the sec
ond stage slightly to produce the absolute maxi
mum yields of toluene with minimum loss of
charge to gas and coke.
25
Instead of making adjustments in the feed rate,
while maintaining a constant average tempera
ture of reaction, in order to secure the desired de
With the hydrogen rich stocks consisting sub
gree of conversion in either first or second cata
stantially of paramnaand only minor cuantities
lyst stages, it has been found more desirable under
of naphthenes and low boiling aromatics which
are preferred for the process -oi' the present in 80 certain circumstances to maintain a fixed feed
rate and to adjust the inlet temperature to the
vention. it has been found that the process gas
_about 100 and 400 pounds per square inch.
as produced'irr the first catalyst stage usually
catalyst chamber to give the desired conversion,
the temperature being readjusted as may be nec
essary to compensate for fluctuations or changes
in catalyst activity in order to maintain the ex
gas. when, however, it is desirable to recover 85 tent
of conversion constant throughout the oper
from the first stage gas butanes, and possibly also
ation. Ordinarily it will be found most conven
propane for use in other processes. the concen
ient to fix the point of operating temperature
contains sumcient hydrogen'that it may be em
ployed without further adjustment as the diluent
tration-of hydrogen in the remaining gas is, of
control at the inlet to the catalyst chamber, the
course. increased and the gas istherefore ren 40 temperature there being adjusted to that which
dered even more suitable for use as the diluent
is found, with a given apparatus and stock, to
or carrier agent in our process. With the tem
give the desired degree of conversion. This point
perature, total pressure, partial pressure 'of hy
of temperature control is chosen since the tem
drogen and degree of dilution of hydrocarbon
perature at any point within the catalyst
charge by inert gas regulated substantially within 45 chamber is a much less definite quantity due to
the ranges lust specified, the extent of conver
the rather large temperature drop through the
sion in the catalyst stages may be varied as de
catalyst due to endothermic heat of reaction.
sired by adjusting the time of the reaction or.
One preferred embodiment of theprocess of the
more directly, the rate at which the hydrocarbon ‘ present invention will now be explained with ref
charge is fed to the process.
50 erence to the figure of the attached drawing. It
We have found that in producing toluene from
will be appreciated that this figure is a schematic
a paraillnic straight-run gasoline, the toluene
representation or flow diagram of the process and
cut should be charged to the first catalyst stage
has no reference whatever to the specific appara
at such a rate as will give a debutanized product
tus in which the process may be effected. All
containing approximately 40% of aromatic com 55 valves, condensers, heaters and like conventional
pounds in order that the highest over-'all yield
items of equipment have been accordingly omit
of toluene from a given amount of charge may
ted.
be produced with best eillciency and the least
For the production of toluene the liquid hydro
operating diiliculty. With the more active phys
carbon charge to the first stage of the process is
ical modiñcations of the above-mentioned cata 60 preferably a closely fractionated cut from 9, par
lysts and the conditions of operation as already
afilnlc petroleum having a boiling range from
given, this degree of conversion is realized by
about 180° to 235° F. This charge may be passed
charging from about 0.7 to 3.0 volumes of hydro
through line i to the iirst stage heating zone 5
> carbon (measured as liquid) per volume of cata'
to which are also passed recycle gas from line 3,
lyst (including voids) per hour. While it is true 65 light recycle liquid from line I3, heavy recycle liq
that with a lower conversion in the first stage
uid from line 3| and extraneous hydrogen from
. a slight increase'in the over-al1 yield of toluene
line 2 when necessary. The preferred ratio of re
may be realized, this is possible only with a sub
cycle gas to total liquid feed to the catalyst cham
stantial reduction in’the capacity of any given
ber is of the order of 1500 cubic feet per barrel.
plant. With a conversion in the first catalyst 70 At this ratio it is desirable that the recycle gas
stage to give more than about 40% of aromatics
should contain at least 40%, and preferably above
A in the debutanized product, the ratio of toluene
50%, of hydrogen and that the molecular ratio of
to gas and light liquid, boiling below about 180°
hydrogen to liquid hydrocarbon charge be 0f the
F., is found to decrease rapidly and hence the
order of 0.75z1. The extraneous hydrogen added
yield of toluene per unit of charge is reduced
through line 2, as already mentioned, is thus em
2,404,902
10
` passes through the process of the present inven
tion may be better visualized, the approximate
percentage of toluene contained in the liquid
passing through lines I0, I4, 23 and 21 has been
product falling substantially in the same range as
the original charge and containing a significantly
higher concentration of aromatic compounds
- indicated on the drawing.
product to produce a cut boiling substantially
Within the range of the original charge, subject
than the charge, fractionally distilling this liquid
While these values
may vary somewhat with different charging
stocks, they may be substantially regulated by
ing said cut to a second .treatment with a metal
controlling. the conversion effected in the first
oxide dehydrogenation catalyst containing as the
stage so that the liquid passing through line ID
active component an oxide of a metal selected
will containabout 40% aromatics. With the 10 from the group consisting of the metal of the left
average parañinic stock used as a basis for the
hand columns of groups IV, V, and VI of the
foregoing description, the crude toluene charge
periodic system at a pressure higher than em
(line I4) to the second stage will then contain
ployed in the ñrst stage, collecting the liquid
approximately 90%- total aromatics, the second
product and sharply fractionating it to separate
stage product (line 23) passing to the toluene 15 the desired aromatic in a substantially pure state.
still will contain about 96% toluene and the ñnal '
2. Process for the production of toluene which
product discharged through line 21 willbe sub
comprises subjecting a fraction from a para?clnic
stantially pure (99%-H toluene. For conven
petroleum boiling in the range from about 180° to
ience in visualizing the process, these iigui‘es have
about 240° F. to the action of a catalyst compris
been indicated enclosed in circles at the appro 20 ing chromic oxideand alumina at a temperature
prlate points on the drawing. The over-al1 yields
between about 900° and 1025° F. under a pressure
of toluene that have thus been obtained vary
of about atmospheric and in the presence of a
from about 32 to 42% by volume of the liquid _ carrier gas containing at least 40% hydrogen,
charge.
said carrier gas being in the ratio of about 1500
The process of our present invention may be 25 cubic feet per barrel of liquid charge for a. time
further illustrated by reference to the following
suirlcient to produce a debutanized liquid product
speciñc example:
containing aboutl 40% of total aromatics, frac
tionally distilling said liquid product to produce
Example
a sharp cut boiling between about 227° and 232° F.,
30 subjecting said cut to a second catalytic treat
A fraction from a parafllnic straight-run gaso
line boiling between 180° and 240° F. (true boiling
ment over a coprecipitated molybdena-alumina
points) was subjected to the two-stage process
catalyst in the presence of a carrier gas contain
just described wherein a chromic oxide-alumina
ing free hydrogen at a temperature between about
composition was used as the catalyst in the ñrst
900 and 1025° F. and under a pressure of about
stage and a molybdenum-alumina coprecipitate 35 200 p. s. i. for a time suflicient to produce a de
was employed in the second. The operating con
butanized product containing at least 90%
ditions and results obtained were as follows:
aromatics and subjecting said product to an eiîi
cient fractional distillation to produce a fraction
1st stage
2d stage
containing at least 99% toluene.
40
3. Process as in claim 2 wherein the catalyst in
Temperature av., °F _____ ._
950
960
the second stage is a coprecipitated vanadium
Pressure p. s. i. abs-._.
.
15
215
oxide-aluiminum oxide composition.
Feed rate (liq.) v./v./hr
_
0. 25
1.0
_
60
60
Gas recycle, cu. it /bbl leed
_
l, 500
6, 000
Yield, vol. pei-cen
Coke loss, wt. percent-
On stream periods, min
„
_
80
1.0
96
l. l
15.0
20.0
3. 0
99.0
Gas loss, wt. percent„_-__
Toluene vol. percent oi pr
Toluene yield vol. percent chg ______________________ ._
_ 4. Process for the production of an aromatic
rich stock which comprises subjecting a `selective
45 narrow boiling parañlnic distillate to the action
of >a cyclization catalyst containing as the active
35
component an oxide of a metal selected from the
group consisting of the metals of the left-hand
While the foregoing discussion and examples
columns of groups IV, V and VI of the periodic
have been directed particularly to the production 50 system at substantially atmospheric pressure and>
of toluene from a typical paraiilnic stock, it is
a temperature between about 900 and l025° F. in
equally possible to produce the other low boiling
the presence of a. carrier gas containing a sub
aromatics, such as benzene, ethyl benzene and
stantial proportion of free hydrogen, collecting
xylene, from the appropriate fractions of a similar
the liquid product, fractionally distilling said co1
stock.
55 lected liquid product for the removal of com
Having now described and illustrated our “two
ponents boiling both above and below the original
stage catalyst” process comprising a particular
charge and subjecting the so segregated liquid
combination of catalytic and distillation steps
boiling within the range of the original charge
for the production of substantially pure aromatic
to a second catalytic treatment with a catalyst
liquids from selected parafflnic petroleum- frac 60 containing as the active component an oxide of a
tions, we claim:
' ,
metal selected from the group consisting of the
1. Process for the production of a substantially
metals of the left hand columns of groups IV, V,
pure liquid aromatic which comprises subjecting
and VI of the periodic system in the presence of
a selected narrow boiling fraction from a paraf
a carrier gas containing free hydrogen and at a
-ñnic base petroleum to reforming, dehydrogena 65 pressure substantially higher than that employed
tion and cyclization over a metal oxide catalyst
in the first stage for the conversion of non
containing as the active component an oxide of a
aromatic compounds to render the aromatic com
metal selected from the group consisting of the
pound separable by fractional distillation.
metals in the left-hand columns of groups IV, V
5. Process for the production of substantially
and VI of the periodic system at a temperature 70 pure toluene from a parañlnic petroleum distillate
between 800° and 1050° F., a pressure of about
which comprises subjecting a fraction from said
15 p. s. i. absolute and in the presence of a hydro
distillate boiling within the range from about 180°
gen containing carrier gas in the ratio of about
to about 240° F. to the action of a catalyst com
two molecules of gas per molecule of hydrocarbon
charge for a time suñlcient to produce a liquid 7
prising chromium oxide and alumina in a first
stage at a temperature between about 900° and
11
223„ 404,902
1050° F. and a pressure of substantially atmos
pheric in the presence o1' a recycle gas containing
between about 45 and 90% free hydrogen, said
gas being present in quantity less than about 3000
cubic feet per barrel of liquid charge, collecting
the liquid product formed, separating from said
liquid product by extreme fractionation a toluene
rich fraction containing substantially only hydro
carbon impurities that are inseparable from
toluene by said fractionation, subjecting said
crude toluene fraction to the action of a copre
cipitated catalyst comprising molybdenum oxide
and alumina at a temperature between about 900°
and 1050° F. and a pressure between about 50 and
300 p. s. i. in the presence of a carrier gas con- ,
'taining free hydrogen in the ratio of between
2000 and 12,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel oi’
liquid charge whereby the hydrocarbon materials
associated with the toluene are converted to sub
stances that are separable from the toluene
L',
hand columns oi' groups IV, V and VI of the
periodic system in the presence of a carrier gas
containing at least 20% by volume of hydrogen,
at a total pressure higher than that maintained
in said aromatizing zone and being of the order
of from 50 to 500 pounds per square inch' and at
a partial pressure of hydrogen :from about 30 to
300 pounds per square inch to transform said cut
and render said aromatic compound separable
therefrom by fractional distillationD fractionally
distilling the resulting product to separate there
from substantially pure aromatic compound.
i?. Process as deíined in claim d, in which said
ñrst mentioned metal oxide is a chromium oxide
and said second mentioned metal oxide is a molyb
denum oxide.
0. ‘Process as defined in claim o”, in which said
first mentioned metal oxide is a 'vanadium oxide.
0. 'Process as defined in claim in which said
?lrst mentioned metal oxide is a molybdenum
fractional distillation and eiîecting said separa
oxide.
tion to produce toluene of nitration grade.
10. Process for the production of hydrocarbon
o. Process for producing a substantially pure
distillate fractions rich in aromatic compounds
relatively low boiling aromatic compound from a
which comprises subjecting a selected parailinic
para?linic hydrocarbon fraction containing con 25 petroleum
fraction to the action of a metal oxide
stituents boiling Within the gasoline boiling range,
aromatizing catalyst containing as the active
which comprises aromatizing said parafl‘lnic frac
component an oxide of a metal selected from the tion by subjection to the action of a dehydrogena
group consisting of the metals in the left-hand
tion catalyst comprising coprecipitated alumina
columns oi groups IV, V and Vl oi’ the periodic
and an oxide of a metal selected from the group 30 system ata temperature of 800° to 1050° F. in the
consisting of the metals in the left-hand columns
presence of added hydrogen and at a pressure oi’
of groups IV, V and VI of the periodic system at
about atmospheric to about 50 pounds per square
a temperature from about 800° to 1050° F. in the
inch, fractionally distilling the product to sepa
presence of a carrier gas containing at least 40%
rate a cut boiling in approximately the same
by volume of hydrogen, at a total pressure from 35 range as the orginal charge and containing the
about atmospheric to about 50 pounds per square
desired aromatic, subjecting the so separated cut
inch, with a molecular ratio of hydrogen to hy
drocarbon up to one and one-half to one, and at a
.to a second catalytic treatment with a catalyst
containing as the active component an oxide oí’ a
space velocity of about 0.2 to about 3.0 volums of
liquid hydrocarbons charged per volume of 40 metal selected from the groups consisting of the
metals of the left hand columns of groups IV, V,
catalyst space per hour, separating from the re
and VI of the periodic system at a higher pressure
sulting product by fractional distillation a. rela
' than employed in the first stage to render the
tively narrow cut containing essentially only the
aromatic compound in said cut separable there
desired aromatic compound and other con
from
by fractional distillation and iractionating
stituents inseparable therefrom by fractional
the resulting product to separate in substantially
distillation, subjecting said narrow cut to the
pure form the aromatic rich liquid produced.
action of a catalyst comprising coprecipitated
alumina and an oxide of a metal selected from
the group consisting of the metals in the left
H. CLAUSSEN.
THÜMAEJ M., PÜVJEMJ.
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