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Патент USA US2404906

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July 30, 1946.
I
R, E. HEALD
2,4043%
DOUBLE ACTING ENGINE
Filed Oct. 4, 1944
BY
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Patented July 30, 1946
2,404,906
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,906
DOUBLE-ACTIN G ENGINE
1
Raymond E. Hcald, Plain?eld, Ind.
Application October 4, 1944, Serial N 0. 557,171
7 Claims. (01. 74-50)
2
The present invention relates to double acting
engines, and more particularly to details of cyl
the cylinder I 0. Said crankshaft may be suit
ably supported, as in journal bearings in a frame
IT, for instance.
The shaft I6 is provided with a crank portion
inder and piston construction adapted for use in
such engines. The speci?c structure disclosed
herein is particularly advantageous when used in
a double acting internal combustion engine, but
I8, the cylinder I0 being so assembled with the
shaft I6 that the crank I8 is located within the
is adapted also to use in pumps or in fluid ex"
cylinder substantially upon a median line thereof.
pansion engines of the external ?uid-feed type.
A bushing I9 is rotatably mounted on the crank
The primary object of the invention is to pro
I8 and, in the form of the invention illustrated
vide a cylinder and piston assembly and an op 10 in Fig. 1, said bushing is formed with an annular
erative connection between the piston and a
groove or trackway 20 in its outer periphery for
crankshaft, which will provide for a very high
a purpose later to become apparent. The crank
ratio between bore and stroke, conducive to ex
shaft I6 is preferably counterweighted as at 2|.
treme compactness of the assembly. Further ob
Reciprocably mounted Within the cylinder It
jects of the invention will appear as the descrip 15 is a double-ended piston indicated generally by
tion proceeds.
the reference numeral 22, and comprising two
To the accomplishment of the above and re
mating elements each of which is formed to pro_
lated objects, my invention may be embodied in
vide a head, 23a or 232) having a depending, cy
the forms illustrated in the accompanying draw
lindrical skirt 24a or 2412. Each of said parts
ings, attention being called to the fact, however, 20 is further formed with a plurality of depending
that the drawings are illustrative only, and that
?ngers arranged in a cylindrical series, said ?n
change may be made in the specific constructions
gers being peripherally spaced from each other
illustrated and described, so long as the scope
to provide diametrically opposed elongated slots
of the appended claims is not violated.
29 and 30, and another pair of diametrically elon
Fig. 1 is a vertical section through an assem 25 gated slots 3| and 32 spaced substantially 90 cle
bly constructed in accordance with my inven
grees from the slots 29 and 30. The slots 29
tion;
and 30 accommodate the shaft I6, while the slots
Fig. 2 is a section taken substantially at right
3| and 32 are provided for a purpose later to be
angles to the section of Fig. 1 and showing a slight
explained.
modi?cation;
Referring to Figs. 3 to 5, it will be seen that
Fig. 3 is an enlarged elevation of the piston as—
the piston element 22a is, in the illustrated em
sembly, parts being broken away for clarity of
bodiment of the invention, formed with four such
illustration; and
depending ?ngers 25a, 26a, 21a, and 28a; while
Figs. 4 and 5 are detailed horizontal sections
taken substantially on the line 4—4 of Fig. 3,
looking in the direction of the arrows, and show
ing successive steps in the assembly of the pis
ton.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 1, it will
be seen that I have illustrated a cylinder, indi
cated generally by the reference numeral I ii, and
comprising two separable, mating elements Ina
_ and I 01), each of which is provided at one end
with a closure head Ila or II b suitably provided
with inlet and exhaust valve mechanism I2a or
I2b. If the assembly is to be used as an internal
combustion engine, ignition means, such as is
indicated at I3a in Fig. 2, will be associated With
the element 221) is provided with a similar series
L
I
of ?ngers 25b, 26b, 21b, and 28b. Each of the
?ngers of the “a" series is externally rabbeted
adjacent its end remote from the head 23a, as
at 39, and is further formed, Within the rabbet,
with a peripherally extending groove 40. Each of
the ?ngers of the "12” series is internally rabbeted,
, as at M, and is further formed, within the rab~
beted area, with an inwardly projecting, periph
erally extending rib 42. The rabbeted portions
of the two series of ?ngers are adapted to mate,
in the manner illustrated in detail in Fig. 3.
For assembling the two elements of the piston,
the ?ngers of the “a” series are entered into the
spaces between the ?ngers of the “1)” series, in
each head Na and Mb.
the manner illustrated in Fig. 5. In this con
The opposite open ends of elements Illa and 01 C) nection, it will be noted that the peripheral dis
Illb are suitably secured together by any con
tance between each ?nger of each series and one
ventional fastening means such as the illustrated
of its neighbors is at least equal to the peripheral
?anges and bolts, and said open ends are notched
extent of the said ?nger. so that such interdigita
as at Ida and I51; and Idb and IBZ) to provide
tion of the ?ngers of the two series is possible.
journal openings for a crankshaft I6 traversing 55 With the parts in the positions illustrated in Fig.
2,404,906
3
5, relative rotational movement between the two
parts of the piston, in the direction indicated
by the arrow in Fig. 5, will mesh the ribs 42 of
4
cylinder likewise being formed with a pair of slots
registering with said further piston slots, a bush
ing rotatably mounted on the crank of said shaft
located between said ?rst-mentioned slots, and
the ?ngers of the "1)” series in the grooves do of
means located wholly within said piston and en
the ?ngers of the “a” series to lock the two pis
gageable with said bushing to provide a driving
ton elements together against relative axial move
connection between said piston and said shaft,
ment; and it will be noted that the rabbeting is
and
conduit means registering with said cylinder
of such character that, when the ?ngers of the
slots.
two series are thus interconnected, the external
2. A mechanical movement comprising a cyl
and internal surfaces of the assembled piston are 10
inder closed at its opposite ends, a crankshaft
substantially smooth and uninterrupted.
diametrically traversing said cylinder substan
A diametrical ?n or web 33 projects from the
tially midway between said closed ends, and 'a
head 23a toward the median plane of the piston;
double-ended piston reciprocably mounted in said
and a similar web or ?n 34 projects from the head
cylinder, said piston being formed to provide a
15
23b toward said plane. The parts are so propor
closed head at each end and a cylindrical skirt
tioned that the parallel extremities of said ?ns
connecting said heads, said skirt being formed
are received in the groove 20 substantially in
with two diametrically-opposed, axially extended
engagement with the base of said groove. It will
slots for the accommodation of said shaft, and
be noted that the ?ns 33 and 34 are entirely en
closed within the peripheral boundaries of the 20 with two further diametrically-opposed axially
extended slots angularly spaced substantially 90
piston 22. If desired, the webs 33 and 33 may be
degrees from said ?rst-mentioned slots, said cyl
provided with strips 43 of hardened metal to
inder likewise being formed with a pair of slots
bear against the bushing Iii, thereby to reduce
registering with said further piston slots, the
wear.
imperforate
portions of said skirt being of suffi
25
It will be obvious that reciprocatory movement
cient longitudinal extent to seal said opposite
of the piston 22 will be transmitted through the
ends of said cylinder from said cylinder slots at
webs
and 34 to the bushing I9, and will ‘1":
all times, a bushing rotatably mounted on the
converted. by the crank I8, into rotation of the
crank of said shaft located between said ?rst
shaft it. The parts are so proportioned that the
path of the bushing i9 carries a portion of that 30 mentioned slots, and means located wholly within
said piston and engageable with said bushing to
bushing outside the peripheral boundaries of
provide a driving connection between said piston
the piston and of the cylinder, which is the reason
and said shaft, and conduit means registering
for the provision of the slots 3!, 32,
and 3B.
with said cylinder slots.
Lubrication for the piston, and for the bush
3. A double-ended piston comprising two com
ing [9 in its engagement with the crank it and
plementary elements, each consisting of a head
with the webs 33 and 34, will be provided in any
and a plurality of depending ?ngers arranged
suitable manner, as, for instance, by forced feed
about the axis of said head in a cylindrical series,
through suitable passages in the crankshaft it.
the peripheral distance between each ?nger and
Since such lubrication forms no part of the
one of its neighbors being at least equal to the
present invention and can be accomplished by
peripheral
extent of said ?nger, and each of said
well known means, no illustration of speci?c
?ngers being formed, adjacent its extremity re
is included herein. If the mechanism here
mote from its head, for interlocking engagement
in disclosed is used in the illustrated vertical.
with one of the ?ngers of the other head.
position, of course, lubricant will tend to accumu~
4. A double-ended piston comprising two com
late in the lower portion of the piston; but the
plementary elements, each consisting of a head
splashing action of the counterweights 2i will
and a plurality of depending ?ngers arranged
tend to cause such accumulating liquid to be
about
the axis of said head in a cylindrical series,
thrown out through the slots 29 and 3d and the
the peripheral distance between each ?nger and
slots 3i and 32; and thence through the slots
one of its neighbors being at least equal to the
which are guarded by conduit means peripheral
extent of said ?nger, and each of said
3‘? and
through which such lubricant can be
?ngers of one of said heads being formed, ad-_
returned to the circulating system.
jacent its extremity remote from said head, with
In Fig. 2, I have illustrated a modi?ed form
means engageable, by relative rotational move
of bushing l9’. In place of the annular groove
ment about the axis of said heads, with corre
20, I provide the bushing IS’ with two diametri
cally opposed pairs of spaced lips 443a and Mb.
sponding means formed on a ?nger of the other
double-ended piston reciprocaloly mounted. in said
cylinder, said piston being formed to provide a
closed head at each end and a cylindrical skirt
connecting said heads, said skirt being formed
with two diametrically-opposed, axially extended
slots for the accommodation of said shaft, and
with two further diametrically-opposed axially
of said heads for interlocking said elements.
5. A double-ended piston comprising two com
plementary elements, each consisting of a head
and a plurality of depending ?ngers arranged
about the axis of said head in a cylindrical series,
the peripheral distance between each ?nger and
one of its neighbors being at least equal to the
peripheral extent of said ?nger, and each of
said ?ngers of one of said heads being exteriorly
rabbetted and formed, adjacent its extremity re
mote from said head, with means engageable, by
relative rotational movement about the axis of
said heads, with corresponding means formed on
an interiorly rabbetted ?nger of the other of said
heads for interlocking said elements.
6. A mechanical movement comprising a cyl
inder closed at its opposite ends, a crankshaft
extended slots angularly spaced substantially
90 degrees from said ?rst-mentioned slots, said
ly midway between said closed ends, and a double
each pair of lips de?ning a groove in which is
received the extremity of one or the other of the
webs 33 and 36. In this form of the invention,
the bushing will slide upon the surfaces of the
webs 33 and 34, instead of rolling thereon.
I claim as my invention:
1. A mechanical movement comprising a cyl
inder closed at its opposite ends, a crankshaft
diametrically traversing said cylinder substan
tially midway between said closed ends, and a
diametrically traversing said cylinder substantial
5
2,404,908
ended piston reciprocably mounted in said cyl
inder, said piston being formed to provide a closed
cylinder, said piston being formed to provide a
head at each end and a cylindrical skirt con
closed head at each end and a cylindrical skirt
double-ended piston reciprocably mounted in said
necting said heads, said skirt being formed with
two diametrically-opposed, axially extended slots
for the accommodation of said shaft, and with
two further diametrically-opposed axially extend
ed slots angularly spaced substantially 90 degrees
from said ?rst-mentioned slots, said cylinder
connecting said heads, said skirt being formed
5
with two diametrically-opposed, axially extended
slots for the accommodation of said shaft, and
with two further diametrically-opposed axially
extended slots angularly spaced substantially 90
degrees from said ?rst-mentioned slots, said cyl
likewise being formed with a pair of slots regis 10 inder likewise being formed with a pair of slots
tering with said further piston slots, a bushing
registering with said further piston slots, the
rotatably mounted on the crank of said shaft lo
imperforate portions of said skirt being of suffi
cated between said ?rst-mentioned slots, and
cient longitudinal extent to seal said opposite
means located wholly within said piston and en
ends of said cylinder from said cylinder slots at
gageable with said bushing to provide a driving 15 all times, a bushing rotatably mounted on the
connection between said piston and said shaft,
crank of said shaft located between said first
and conduit means registering with said cylinder
mentioned slots, counterweight means for said
slots, said piston skirts cooperating to guard said
bushing mounted on said shaft and adapted to
cylinder slots at all times against communica
splash lubricant from the interior of said piston
tion with the ends of said cylinder beyond said 20 through said cylinder slots, and means located
closed piston heads.
wholly within said piston and engageable with
7. A mechanical movement comprising 8, cyl
said bushing to provide a driving connection be
inder closed at its opposite ends, a crankshaft
tween said piston and said shaft, and conduit
diametrically traversing said cylinder substan
means registering with said cylinder slots.
tially midway between said closed ends, and a 25
RAYMOND E. HEALD.
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