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Патент USA US2404908

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Ju?y 30, 1946.
' N. M. HOPKINS
2,404,908
TORPEDO
Original Filed Jan. 2Q, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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July 3, {196.
2,404,908
N. MpHOPKlNS
TORPEDO
' Original Filed Jan. '20,
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4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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N. M. HOPKINS
TORPEDO
Original Filed Jan. 20 , 1942
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4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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N. M. HOPKINS
2,44,9Q
TORPEDO
Original Filed Jan. 20, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Emma, 254212“
2,494,908
Patented July 30, 1946
UNITED STATES . PATENT OFFICE‘
2,404,908
TORPEDO
Nevil Monroe Hopkins, New York, N. Y.; Ray
monde B. Hopkins, executor of said Nevil
Monroe Hopkins, deceased, assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Raymonde Briggs Hopkins,
Samuel Lloyd and Murray T. Quigg, as trustees
Substituted for abandoned application Serial No.
427,406, January 20, 1942. This application
September 15, 1944, Serial No. 554,281
3 Claims.
1
This invention relates to torpedoes in general
(01. 114-21)
2
concerned for the liquid explosive is a more or
less continuation of my eariler work with liquid
nitrogen tetra-oxide and one or more liquid hy
and more speci?cally to those of the marine class
which are dirigible and/or radio controlled.
drocarbons, as exempli?ed by my several previ
It is a particular object of this invention to
combine cooperatively a more powerful war-head 5 ously ?led patent applications.
With the foregoing enumerated objects in view,
with the body and mechanism of a marine tor
as well as other objects which will become appar
pedo, said war-head comprising a construction
ent as the description proceeds and the drawings
which is especially fashioned for mixing normally
are studied, the invention resides in the novel de
separated liquid components of a superior liquid
high explosive (substantially 40 percent more 10 tails of construction, combinations and princi
ples of parts, Ways, means and methods, all as
powerful than trinitrotoluene, volume for volume) ,
hereinafter set forth and particularly covered by
said mixing being accomplished through the
the claims.
agency of a part of the propelling power and
This application constitutes a substitute for my
a part of the mechanism of the torpedo.
It is also an object of this invention to pro 15 abandoned, application for Letters Patent of the
United States ?led January 20, 1942, under the
vide indication, exterior of the war-head of the
torpedo, when the mixing of the liquid compo
Serial No. 427,406 and entitled Torpedoes.
complished.
Referring to the accompanying illustrations
forming a part of this application and in which
to secure and maintain a high order of non-in
terference from radio signals extraneous to the
views,
Fig. 1 is a front view of a four-motored aero
nents of the liquid high explosive has been ac
It is also a particular object of this invention 20 like numerals designate like partse in all the
plane with one of my torpedoes suspended there
from;
'
It is also a particular object of this invention
to provide automatically erectable tubular an 25 Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of the parts
illustrated in Fig. 1;
tenna for the dual purpose of receiving the de
Fig. 3 is a top plan view partly in section of
signed radio control of the torpedo after its re
the support for the tubular antenna mast;
lease or launching, and of ejecting visible chem
Fig. 4 is a View of a portion of the torpedo
ical substances by day or luminous ?ames by
80 hull with the antenna mast positioned thereon;
night.
' >
Fig. 5 illustrates a torpedo, constructed in
It is also an object of this invention to produce
accordance with this invention, submerged in
a much larger and more powerful torpedo than
the water of the sea with the antenna mast
heretofore in use, by utilizing a nested construc
erected for use;
tion comprising a plurality of the present de
signs and sizes of standardized compressed air 35 Fig. 6 illustrates the torpedo shown in Fig. 5
with its antenna mast lowered or folded, as when
?asks when the torpedo is driven by this type of
the torpedo is ready for suspension under an
power plant, said heating providing an axially
aeroplane;
disposed passageway through which a rotatable
Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view of one de
shaft may pass, for operating certain mechanism
40 sign of torpedo, taken at or near the antenna
in the war-head.
mounting, and showing one arrangement of air
It is also an important object of this inven
?asks;
tion to modify the construction of one of the
Fig. 8 is a view similar to that illustrated in
present standardized compressed air ?asks when
mg. 7 but illustrating a different arrangement
necessary, as in the case of a smaller model of
my new torpedo, in order to provide a centrally 45 and type of nested air ?asks;
Fig. 9 is an end view, with a portion broken
disposed passageway therethrough for a suitable
away to show the interior construction of a com
rotatable shaft for operating purposes in the war
pressed air ?ask made in accordance with this
head.
‘
invention;
It is also an object of this invention to pro
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
vide ways and means of securing a metacentric 50
compressed
air ?ask shown in Fig. 9;
height or of balancing the hull and body of the
Fig. 11 is a longitudinal sectional view of a
torpedo so as to maintain stability of the tor
torpedo made in accordance with this inven
pedo in the sea after erection of the combined
tion;
'
radio antenna and ducts for chemical substances.
designed control signals.
This invention so far as the new war-head is
5,5 '
Fig. 12 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional
2,404,908
3
4
7
view of the forward end of the torpedo shown in
wax or otherwise protect these Wires or stranded
cables, or to use such braided wires as those
fashioned from Monel metal. The support for
Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a transverse sectional view through
the war-head'of the torpedo shown in Fig. 12,
saidrmast may comprise'fthe‘laterally disposed
said view taken as on the line l3-I3 of said 5 members ill and 42 attached to theheavy plate
?gure and looking in the direction of the ar
base member 43 fashioned to be securely riveted
rows;
-
Fig. 14 is a transverse sectional view through
~
-- to the outer shell of the torpedo 20' through the
~ agency of the rivets 413, 45, etc. The guy wires
(Hand 38 are attached at one end to the welded
one portion of the body of one of my torpedoesi
Fig‘. 15 is a transverse sectional view through 10 eyes 46 and 47 respectively on the torpedo hull,
another portion of the bodyof one of my tor
' and at their other end to the streamlined mem
pedoes;
.
ber 30 which is rotatably mounted in the support
Fig. 16 is a transverse sectional view through
members Ill and 42 through the agency of the
still another portion of the body of one of my
hollow trunnions or ducts =38 and 49; the dotted
l5 circles 59 and 5| indicate the downward extent
Fig. 17 is a diagrammatic cross. sectional View
or run of these hollow ducts, respectively, to and
of one of my torpedoes immersed in the water
into the interior of the torpedo shell. The cir
of the sea;
,
>
‘
7
cular dotted lines 52 and 53 represent similar
Fig. 18 is a partial longitudinal sectional view
ducts for additional chemicals and/or additional
torpedoes;
.
.
.
through a portion of the body of one of mytor- 20 radio antennae, if necessary or desirable, all en
pedoes immersed in the‘ Water or" the sea;' and ,
closed within the streamlined member 30.
Fig. 19 is a greatly enlarged cross sectional
view through the body of one of my torpedoes im
In Figs. 5 and 6 there is shown a somewhat
different design of pivoted base for the stream
mersed in the water of the‘ sea.
' ‘ j'
A
lined casing 33‘ and radio antenna ‘500, which
In the drawings the numeral 262 designates‘ the 25 streamlined casing or mast is shown pulled into
forward or war-head end of one of my new tor
the vertical, or erect position by the braided
'pedoes 25' which may be of the standard 21 inch
wire cable 49 which passes around the little
diameter class, or of greater or lesser diameter,
grooved wheel 54 supported inv the bracket 55
depending upon the amount ‘of devastation de
through the agency of the shaft 56, said cable
sired, from the complete wrecking of a Vessel '30 40 descending through a hole in theItorpedo
of the destroyer type, to the complete Wrecking
shell which may or may not be packed through
of the mightiest battleship a?oat or projected
the agency of a stuffing‘ box, not sliown‘,‘.to pre
in any naval construction program. The‘ nu
vent the ingress of water into the shell. Since
meral 2! represents the/safety impeller member , the compressed air ?asks whichI elect to nest
of the torpedo, which member is common to most 35 Within the torpedo shell carry the compressed air
types of naval torpedoes, and 22 indicatesthe
pressure independent of said shell, it is not a
fuselage of an aeroplane. The torpedo may be
major matter of importance Whether I elect to
suspended in securement by metal straps. or ‘eyes
allow the necessarily limited quantity of sea
and bolts with wire pulls forrthe bolts, ‘not
water to enter said shell or not. on the inner
shown, but either system of securement isfash- 40 side of the. sh'el'lzcasing'iil’ is mounted alsmal]
ioned to be released by the pilot. of a plane‘ at
grooved pulley 57 around which the stranded
'wire cable A0 passes, the end of said cable being
The torpedo is ‘provided with a steering rudder
attached to the eye 58 of the piston 59 operable
23, for control of the torpedo as between"port
"in the pneumatic cylinder 66 through stuffing box
and starboard movement, and aquaplanes 2d and’ ‘i5 ‘construction not shown.
‘
25 for depth. control of the torpedo, said aqua
Since:
in
the
class
of
torpedoes
using
com
planes actuated by such devices as pendulums
pressed air in steel ?acks it is common to pro
will.
‘
'
'
.
‘
.
and/or gyroscopes, or certain hydrostatic gear
or the like. The propellers are indicated at 2’‘ 7i
vide pressures. of 4000 pounds to thefsquare inch
and
over, it will readily be appreciated that more
and 27, one propeller adapted to be driven with 50 than ample power is at-hand for raising or erect
clockwise revolution, and the other propeller
ing the mast, comprising the radio antenna and
adapted to be driven with counter-clockwise rev
ejection
ducts, by a suitable system of simple
olution, one propeller shaft 28 being disposed
valve
and
connections, not shown, easily made
within the other propeller shaft. This inner ..._ operative at the moment of the release or launch
propeller shaft, as will appear hereinafter, is
ing of the torpedo from a plane. A stop member
adapted to serve the auxiliary purpose of open
6! insures the ultimate vertical position of the
ing the inner chamber of the new war-head and
antenna mast, by coming into contact with the
in inducing the circulation and admixture of the
liquid component parts of the liquid high ex- -
head 62 of a vertical piston 63 which may, or may
not, pass through a sea-encluding stuf?ng box
60 (not shown) before it enters the cylinder or
An antenna mast, generally identi?ed by the
valve casing 64. Thus it will be seen that pro
numeral 180, is provided externally of the tor
vision is made for erecting the antenna mast to
pedo, and comprises a streamlined casing mem
a vertical position with its upper end above the
plosive of my new torpedo.
‘
'
’
ber 36 enclosing a tubular member 3! electrically ~
surface of the sea water, as well as supplying a
insulated by the hard rubber or other suitable 65 stream of visible clud or ?ame substance for
insulating tube 32, the whole tubular system be
emission from the upper end of said mast.
'
ing enclosed within and forti?ed by the tube 33
.Titanium' tetrachloride, ejected under a pres
having the eye members 34, 35 and 3S fashioned
sure of several hundred or several thousand
to receive respectively the guy wires-31 and 33,‘
pounds to the square inch, if need be, is Suggest
and the mast erecting wire or cable 4t (see par- 70 ed fordaytime visual purposes. Titanium tetra
ticularly Figs. 3 and e). These guy wires and
chloride, it may be pointed out, is one of the
erection cables may consist of twisted or braided
dense white cloud-forming compounds which are
phosphor-bronze elements, or may be formed of
used in sky-Writing ‘when discharged from air
other suitable metal or alloy not corroded un
planes. I may also point- out. that such a‘ com
duly by sea water. I may, of course, elect to 75 pound furnishes ways and means of providing a
2,404,908
6
may contain liquid or gaseous fuel in the event
that the torpedo is to be operated by mechanical
guiding mark which is incapable of being shot
away should the torpedo be seen by the gunners
means other than and instead of compressed air,
of a battleship at which the torpedo is directed.
details ‘of which means would be out of place
After dark a stream of acetylene gas could like
wise be ejected vertically with or without aux £1 here, but suffice it to say that they are well in
hand by the applicant with the object of design
iliary air supply to support its combustion, said
ing his new torpedo to cooperate therewith.
stream of acetylene gas passing between plati
In connection with these air ?asks, attention is
num electrodes, for example, which may be in
directed to Figs. 9 and 10, in which a modi?ed
sulated from each other and connected to the
terminals of a continuously operating heavy-duty 10 form is shown. In other words, in these two
views are respectively shown an end view and a
induction coil. I have naturally not attempted
longitudinal section of a standardized 21-inch
in this small and limited illustration to lay out
compressed air ?ask as used in 21-inch naval ?sh
all of the parts and connections of parts of such
torpedoes, when the air ?ask itself is intended to
a system but it is contended that those skilled
in such arts will well be able to carry- out my 15' .form the central body portion of the torpedo.
Here 9! represents a design of hollow stay-bolt
teachings here from the suggestive illustrations
passing from end to end of the shell 92 of the
in conjunction with this description.
?ask and terminating in welded end pieces 93
With a continuous electrical discharge at the
and 93'. This elaboration of a standardized ?sh
point of egress of acetylene gas the brilliant
white ?ame characteristic of burning acetylene 20 torpedo air ?ask is to provide a passageway axial
ly of the ?ask for at least one of the propeller
could not be extinguished for more than a few
shafts of a 21-inch naval torpedo for my new
seconds by any wave or heavy spray of water
war-head operating purposes.
since re-kindling would quickly follow quench
ing.
In Figs. 11 and 12 are shown in longitudinal
section, and in Fig. 13 is shown in transverse sec
tion, more of the detailed construction of my tor
pedo. The numeral 2| indicates the conventional
‘
In Fig. 6 are shown the erectable tubular an
tenna equipment, both fore and aft sets, in “fold
ed” or stowed horizontal position, the piston or
valve stem and the stop member associated with
the valve 64 being illustrated in the “up” posi
tion, in which position of the valve stem no com
pressed air from a compressed air ?ask may enter
safety impellor for unscrewing the shield member
of a standard detonation plunger during the
30 transit of the torpedo through the water of the
the pneumatic cylinder 60, the details of con
nectlons not being shown.
It will now be apparent to mechanical experts
that the form and position of the member 6|
over which the woven wire cable 48 passes, pro
vides a suitable lifting pull of the said cable to
pull the erectable tubular antenna into the ver
tical position against the combination stop and
valve stem 62, When the valve which it controls
allows compressed air to enter the cylinder 60.
Coming now to Figs. 7 and 8, the outer shell
or body of the torpedo 20' is shown in transverse
section, with a plurality of compressed air ?asks
indicated at 10, and a lead ballast at ‘H to pre- ‘
vent the torpedo from rolling over when the
tubular radio antenna is in erected position. It
may be pointed out here in justice to the general
design that this lead ballast need not be as vol
uminous or heavy as would be supposed upon a
cursory inspection of the design because the radio
antennae are tubular, and constructed of light
weight material such as aluminum wherefore
they possess considerable buoyancy particularly
when submerged in the water of the sea.
The pneumatic cylinder 60 is shown in these
sea, the conventional detonator casing being
shown inside of the war-head 20. A cylindrical
chamber I08 is supported axially of the torpedo,
in spaced relation to the hull or shell thereof,
by the plates lill and H12, which plates are pro
vided with a plurality of openings indicated re
spectively at I03 and N14 for the free passage of
a liquid from one side of the plate members to
the other. As seen in Fig. 12, the right hand end
of the cylinder I80 is provided with an inturned
?ange I05 fashioned to receive with a liquid-tight
fit the circular cover or closure member I86 pro
vided centrally with an internally threaded boss
it? (threads not shown), said cover fashioned
to be moved axially of the cylinder through the
agency of the long screw or threaded shaft H38
passing centrally through said cylinder. One
end of said threaded shaft enters the internally
threaded boss I09 formed on the circular cover
plate or closure H0 for the other end of said
cylinder, said cover plate equipped with the ?ange
Hi fashioned to make a liquid-tight ?t with the
cylindrical chamber at H2. This cover plate is
equipped with an opening H3 and screw closing
plug I 14, by means of which the cylindrical cham
ber may be ?lled when the two cover plates are
in chamber-closing positions. Adjacent to an
two ?gures in end elevation, economically posi
end of said cylindrical chamber, the threaded
tioned between two compressed air ?asks ‘Hi, and
shaft N18 has keyed thereto the impeller H5 and
the small cylinders indicated at B0 are containers
for the titanium tetrachloride, and acetylene, re 60 an unthreaded extension of the said shaft passes
through the stu?ing box i I6 and is keyed within
spectively, and they are in valved‘communication
the coupling collar H1, said collar also being
as heretofore stated with the ducts 50 and 5|
keyed‘ to the extension of the propeller shaft 28,
leading to the antenna mast. The numeral 8|
whereby both shafts are coupled in axial align
indicates the outer hollow shaft for one of the
ment.
propellers of the torpedo designed for counter
The cylindrical chamber 1 89 is ?lled with liquid
clockwise rotation, the inner shaft 28 being for
nitrogen tetraoxide indicated by the heavy dashed
the other one of the two propellers of the torpedo
lines 568, and the space around said chamber
designed for clockwise rotation, an extension
within the war-head end o-f the torpedo is ?lled
from which operates the inner chamber mech
with
a combustible liquid comprising one or more
anism of the new torpedo war-head as will be
liquid hydrocarbons, as indicated by the ‘thin
hereinafter described.
dashed lines 600. The war-head is provided with
Whereas in Fig. 7 three relatively large ?asks
a bulkhead closure I02’ supporting the stufling
10 are shown for the compressed air, in Fig. 8
a different number, a size and arrangement of
?asks 90 is indicated.
box H6 and spaced from an end of the chamber
Obviously these ?asks 75 I00 so as to freely accommodate the impeller I I 5.
The liquid nitrogen tetraoxid'e does. not have
to be a specially prepared anhydrous product; but
may be a good grade of commercial product, and
the material of the inner chamber as well as: that
of the closure members IGB and H0, together
with‘ the screw “38, may be of aluminum, iron or
steel, since commercial nitrogen tetraoxide does
8 .
audiblelsign'al when, as, and if a mixture takesv
place between the liquid nitrogen textraoxide
and‘. the liquid combustible ?uid. Whereas liq
uid. nitrogen tetraoxide does not attack alumi
num, iron or steel, it does‘ attack zinc and copper
and therefore, with the use of said zinc and
copper! electrodes, it acts as an electrolyte or
not act on these metals.
l
battery ?uid ‘therewith, setting up or generating
The liquid 6H9‘ shown: in thin dotted lines. may
an E; M. R and, consequently, an electrical cur
be benzol, nitrationgrade, for example,- or ‘it may 10 rent- through the‘ indicator H8’ and/or operat
comprise a mixture of‘ benzol. and‘. a; measured
ing, said‘. signal,
quantity of normal butane or‘ isobutane, the nor;
It will be noted that the semi~spherical head
mal. butane or isobutane being added to the‘ benzol
piece Zl) of the war-head isv attached to the shell
in su?i‘clcnt quantity to create a mixture of ben—
of'the torpedo through. the agency of the internal
zol' and normal or isobutane, which mixture will
band. or‘ ring I50’ riveted thereto by means of
have a vapor pressure equal to or greater than
the vapor pressure of the nitrogen: tetraoxide.
‘With such a scienti?c system so adjusted, the
applicant is enabledto fashion a leakproof inner
chamber‘ for the torpedo war-head.
The numeral it‘ indicates the compressed. air
iiask's, and'the numerals. 5-29, I2], I22, I23 and lid
indicate diagrammatically’ housings for such
equipment and apparatus as water chambers,
pendulums and hydrovalves, fuel containers, gen
erators, reducing valves, engines, gyroscopes with
setting gears, steering and aquaplane motors,
radio reception and control equipment, including
electrical batteries, and all the other necessary
and well understood mechanisms too numerous I
and complex to illustrate in such a small and gen—
eral. type of drawings. It is to’ be" distinctly un
derstood,however, that all of. these diagrammati
cally indicated instrumentalities are suitably
fashioned so as to permit the extension and pas
sage of the propeller shaft 28- from the steering
end of the torpedo to the war-head.
Fig. 12. being of larger scale than Fig. 11, per
mits the illustration of constructional details such
as, for example, the conical seat I49 fashioned on
the closure. memberilbb to receive with a ground
and/or liquid-tight ?t the conical end. Ml of the
hub hi2 keyed to the shaft 28*’ and. carrying the
impeller H5 oppositefthe‘ now open. end M3 of
the cylindrical inner chamber lilii. The circu
lar cover member I56 15, provided with a groove
or rabbet illfi about its periphery fashioned to
sealingly‘ inter?t or lock with the end ?ange H35.
In‘. addition to my scienti?c system of creating
an equal vapor pressure and, consequently, an (
equal hydrostatic pressure. of my‘ liquid combus
tible body to my liquid oxidant, I may also use‘
certain sealing compounds unacted upon by the
liquids employed.
It is desired to emphasize that the inner. closed
chamber Hid is completely surrounded by'the liq
uid hydrocarbon mixture 598, thereby creating. a
scienti?c structure with leak-proof characteris
tics resulting. in the relationship of vapor pres
sures‘ heretofore pointed. out.
To meet the possible requirements of official
inspection, I have devised a method with. ways
and means for indicating exteriorly of the war
head not only the perfect isolation of the liquid
nitrogen textraoxide from the liquid combus
tible ?uid, but the fact that they have been mixed
the rivets I5I' and I52’.
'
'
From the foregoing description, it will be un
derstood that the‘ inner chamber 100' will be
filled with liquid nitrogen tetraoxide'with the
closure members I96 and twin. place, and then
the liquid hydrocarbon will be poured into the
space in the war-head around said inner cham
ber so that‘the chamber will be substantially
surrounded by said hydrocarbon, after whichthe
war-head is sealed. In. this condition the war
head is a safe instrumentality since each liquid,
though. itself a component part of a liquid ex
plosive, is nevertheless independently incapable
of explosion, it being necessary to admix the two
normally‘ separated liquids in order to establish
the liquid explosive. Such admixture is‘ brought
about. after launching of the torpedo, i'. e. when
it is in transit toward the target.v
‘
‘
‘
.
That is tov say, after the torpedo is launched
mechanism will be put into operation whereby
the shaft. 28 will be. rotated to drive the torpedo
forward to its‘ target, and this rotation will be
transmitted through the coupling H1 simultane
ously' to the shaft "38 extending through said
chamber I00. Rotation of the shaft [E28,
through its lengthwise threading, will cause the
closure plate M0 to be unthreaded therefrom
thus opening the forward end' of said chamber,
with concurrent unseating of the other closure
plate £66 from the opposite end of said. chamber
and the‘ screw-like movement of said plate length- ,
,wise of the chamber and. shaft to ?nal‘ disen
gagement with ‘the latter and its fall’ from said
chamber into the semi-spherical nose 20 of the
war-head, thereby causing‘, both ends of said
chamber to be completely open.
'
'
The rotating shaft I68 causes actuation or the
impeller H5 and, after the chamber H16v is com—
pletely opened, the actuation of said impeller
sets up any admixing circuit of the two liquids
from the chamber through the war-head nose
cavity, through the perforated spacing‘ ring Iill
to and throughv the region between the chamber
and the torpedo shell, thence through the other
perforated. spacing ring I02 to and into the said
chamber for' recirculation as just described.
This recirculation accomplishes the admixture
of the two liquid components and creates the
desired highly sensitive and powerful liquid ex
plosi've which is. detonated b-y impact of the‘ war
head with the target» as well understood.
upon proper revolution of the shaft member 23'.
Fig. 1.4 is provided‘ to illustrate how a pen
To this end the bulkhead I02’ is provided with
dulum I00’ may be suspended centrally within
a plug‘ member H4’ constituting an insulated
the torpedo casing by means of a wrist-pin de
bushing carrying a zinc electrode H6’ (for ex 70
vice, without interference with the control pro
ample), and a copper or hard carbon electrode
peller shaft 28, by virtue of they opening H5’
H?’ (for example)‘, connected to the electrical
for said shaft through the suspension bar of
indicator H8’, said indicator being ?tted with
the pendulum; In this ?gure of drawings: there
is additionally shown at I03’ a section through
hell if? desired.’ for giving‘ a visual and/or an 75 the ?ywheel of. agyroscope, and at'ln?f a part of
platinum controls, auxiliary circuit, battery and
2,404,903
the torpedo power plant, the nested air ?asks
being indicated at 10.
Figs. 15 and 16 are provided to indicate respec-—
tively the employment of possible auxiliary com
10
the vibrating strip I I6’ is adjusted through its
length, thickness, width and weights of its tongue
and contact-making tungsten stud, to be res
onant mechanically with the electrical resonance
of the solenoid H4’, it will begin to vibrate upon
pressed air ?acks 10' in order to utilize unoc
the reception by the antenna ‘I00 of a suitable
cupied space between the larger nested air ?asks
radio signal but will only come to full amplitude
‘I0, and the possible location of an electric motor
in its vibration after a de?nite period of time,
I05’ provided with a bevelled pinion I06’ fash—
and the electrical contact therefor between the
ioned to slowly and powerfully revolve the
bevelled gear I01’ operating the rudder shaft 10 contact studs H9’ and I20’ (controlling the bat
tery relay I23’) will not be made until said strip
I08’.
H6’ does come to its full amplitude of vibra
In Figs. 17, 18 and 19 are illustrated more or
tion.
less‘ diagrammatically certain electrical equip
In Fig. 19 is illustrated a plurality of compound
ment and circuits incident to my torpedo and its
operation, but much of such equipment and some 15 vibrating strips of steel, or Invar, each strip be
ing mechanically adjusted for resonance to the
of the circuits are or may be of standard con
electrical resonance of its respective solenoid. To
Struction and usage, readily comprehendable'by
be more speci?c, there is illustrated diagrammat
those skilled in the art, wherefore simple refer
ically a pair of applicant’s compounded, substan
ences will be made to ‘the illustrated construc
tions. In Fig. 1'7, 90' represents a radio ground, 20 tially interference-proof, radio signal receivers
for steering the torpedo, through the energy of
and BI’ a complete and suitable radio'reception
the radio signals and the agency of the reversible
equipment with power ampli?ers to operating
direct current electric motor I05’ upon whose
motors.
‘
shaft is mounted the bevelled pinion I06’ en
According to‘ the showing in Fig. 18 there is
provided, between the radio antenna 100 and the 25 gaging the large bevelled gear I0'I' which turns
a rudder post I08’.
electrical" ground 90', the antenna tuner H0’ (if
It will now be evident that, by operating the
said antenna tuner is used), the radio frequency
electric motor clockwise or counter-clockwise
ampli?er I I I’, the detector H2’, the audio fre
respectively, the torpedo may be steered to port
quency ampli?er H3’, and the solenoid H4’ com
prising convolutions or windings of insulated 30 or starboard respectively.
With a similar motor and like pair of my com
magnet wire, the said solenoid being associated
pounded and substantially interference-proof
with the permanent steel horseshoe magnet whose
radio signal receivers, for elevating and depress
north and south poles are marked N and S, re
ing aquaplanes at will, the torpedo may be given
spectively. The ?exible vibrating strip H0’ may
depth control, but it is not deemed necessary to
be of steel or Invar (the latter being a magnetic
illustrate or describe this additional equipment
alloy with a practically zero coe?icient of ex
here nor is it deemed necessary to illustrate and
pansion with changes of temperature) and com
describe certain other necessary or desirable radio
prises a tongue projection member I I1’ extending
signal controlled mechanism.
into saidL solenoid. In one construction, an end
In the present illustrations 800 and 800', re
of the vibrating steel strip, or Invar strip is sup
spectively, represent substantial storage batteries
ported by a magnetized mass H8’ of permanent
capable of operating the electric motor with a
magnet steel, and provided with a tungsten con
clockwise or counter-clockwise direction of turn,
tact H9’ adapted to engage a companion tung_
respectively, as is suggested by the positive and
sten contact contact I20", the latter supported
on a ?exible steel vibrating member IZI' held 45 negative signs marked upon the drawings.
The applicant of course, is aware of the fact
?rmly at its lower end by a metal block I22’,
that to reverse a direct current electric motor,
said block electrically connected through the
the current to do so must be reversed in ?ow
symbolically represented and suitable electric bat
in either the armature of the motor or the ?eld
tery to the relay I23’ for throwing into action
the powerful storage battery I24’ also illustrated 50 of the motor but not in both and, therefore, the
terminal connections 80I and 802 within the
symbolically, which storage battery operates an
switch box 803 are stated to be properly con
electric motor I25’ which may be for steering, for
nected for motor reversing purposes with reversal
elevating and depressing aquaplanes, and/or for
of the current in the leads thereto. It is under
other desired operating controls.
'
It-is understood, of course, that all the fore 55 stood, therefore, that in the interest of simplicity
of diagram I do not further depict this detail for
going is necessarily purely suggestive, the precise
connections to ?eld or armature since they are
design of apparatus including the best form and
well known to engineers.
'
construction of the radio receiver, polarized
vibrating strip of steel, or Invar, etc., etc., being
the subject matter for intensive design.
It is believed, however, that this constitutes a
In the present ?gures 804, B05, 805, 801 and 803
represent the necessary units including battery
power and the like for a complete radio siganl
receiving equipment, one lead connected to the
insulated antenna 100, and one lead branching
technicians (those skilled in this art) to enable
out at the common connecting wire 809 to the in
them to put the various principles and parts into
practice, using a plurality of such radio respon 65 sulated windings of the six solenoids shown in
section as at 8I0, all of said solenoids being con
sive systems (as above outlined) for securing se
nected in multiple, as indicated, to the second
lective or non-interference results.
common connecting wire 8| I which, in turn, con
As to the non-interference characteristics of
nects with the ground lead wire BIZ and the
this radio control, it is here pointed out that
one element thereof lies in the adjusted resonant 70 metal shell of the torpedo in contact with the
water of the sea, which is here diagrammatically
circuit of the solenoid H4’, and therefore the
represented by the ground symbol 90’.
wave lengths of the radio signal picked up by
On the port side BIB, BIG and 8I‘I are steel or
the antenna ‘I00 is but one factor, and that an
Invar vibrators, all of different lengths and all
other factor thereof lies in the period of time
during which said radio signal is sustained. If (A supported rigidly at their lower ends by the heavy
su?icient disclosure to‘radio engineers and allied
2,404,908
11
metal mechanically and electrically connecting
‘member Bit, and each vibrator is equipped with
a tongue member such as 8l'9'fashioned to be
attracted by the‘magnetie ?elds of their respec
tive solenoids, and 'these vibrators with their
consequent individual mechanical frequencies or
resonances respectively, are capable as indicated,
when they ‘vibrate for a sufficiently long period of
time, to reach full amplitude in their ‘vibrations
and to make .electrical contacts with their corn- ‘
panion yieldable contact makers 622, 323 and 824.
It will now be observed upon inspection that all
three of the vibrating strips of steel or Invar 815,
M6 and 851, respectively, must come to full am
plitude of vibration before they can complete the
series connections and, therefore, before the stor
age battery 860 is connected to the terminals 185!
and 832 of the electric motor I05’, causing it ‘to
rotate only‘as long as the three vibrators operate
at full amplitude and thereby hold the electrical
circuit closed.
It will, therefore, be evident that, in order ‘to
operate the‘ electric motor and consequently the
rudder ‘of the torpedo, there must be sent out
simultaneously three radio signals at three'rdi?er— A
ent wave lengths suited to the purpose in hand,
in order thereby to set up three resonant electri
ca'l currents in the three port side solenoids such
as Bit, ampli?ed operating current therefor com
ing from the complete equipment indicated by 30
the symbols 3%,1805, 836, 1343?,j?08f ‘In the pres
ent system no polarized steel vibrators for perma
nent steel magnets are illustrated or used, as was
indicated in the previous Figure 18. The appli
cant has operated ‘both types of system with pro- ‘
nounced success, namely with and Without polar
ized apparatus.
‘
The writer has, furthermore, utilized loud
speaker systems of both the power and permanent
magnet design for the non-interference control
plan (if remotely operating mechanical devices
through the agency of the ampli?ed energy of one
or more radio signals.
There are certain addi—
tional featurespwhich may occur to radio engi
neers in this connection which applicant has ‘not 1
deemed necessary to describe at the present time
since he believes he has made su?icient disclosure
to enable radio and remote control technicians to
12
‘It is to be understood, of course, that this new
torpedo may be launched and be operated with
out radio controls being used, as a simple “?sh”
torpedo, or it may be controlled from a plane, ship ,
or shore by certain ‘means other than radio and it
is believed that a ?rm foundation has been in
dicated for a new and superior weapon.
It is also believed that those skilled in radio
engineering and in electro-mechanics as well as in
certain phases of chemistry and physics may
further develop and vary the details of the meth
ods as well as the ways and means involved with
out departing from the spirit of this invention
and, therefore, it is :not desired to be limited .to
the exact foregoing illustrations and description
except as may be demanded by ‘the claims.
\What is claimed is:'
v
1. A self-‘propelled, radio controlled torpedo
comprising a war-head, a casing attached thereto, a source of power, an actuating mechanism
within said casing fashioned to utilize said source
of power, a radio signal receiving, detecting and
amplifying equipment Within said casing,‘ an
erectable antenna therefor, said erectable an
tenna ‘normally positioned horizontally, means ‘f or
erecting the .said antenna to a vertical position,
and means whereby the energy of an ampli?ed ra~
dio signal received bysaid antenna 'may'alter the
course of'the-said torpedo.
"
.
'.
.
:2. A self-propelled, radio-controlled torpedo
comprising a war-‘head, a casing attached thereto,
a source of power, an actuating mechanism fash~
ioned to draw upon said source of power within
said casing, a radio signal receiving, detecting
and amplifying equipment, , a combination erect
able antenna and tubular duct,‘ a valve ‘for said
tubular duct, a container for a chemical sub
stance in communication with said valve and tu
bular duct, a chemical substance under pressure
within said chamber, means for erecting said
combination antenna and tubular duct to a verti
cal position, and automatic means for opening
the said valve in said tubular duct upon the erec
tion of the said combination antenna and tubular
duct.
.
3. A self-propelled, radio-controlled torpedo
comprising a war-‘head, a casing attached there
to, a source of power and actuating mechanism
put this phase of the invention into practice.
fashioned to draw upon said source of power with
Furthermore, having described the port side radio i ; in said casing, av radio signal receiving, detecting,
signal control in some detail it is not deemed nec
essary' to repeat such description with respect to
the ‘starboard side control since the latter is a sub
stantial duplicate of the port side mechanisms
and equipment, and it being evident upon inspec
tion of the drawings that all of the vibrators have
different lengths, no two on either the port or the
and amplifying equipment, a combination erect
able antenna and tubular duct, a valve for said
tubular duct, a container for a chemical sub
stance in communication with such valve and tu
bular duct, a chemical substance under pressure
within said chamber, means for erecting said
combination antenna and tubular duct, means to
hold the said erectable antenna and tubular duct
in an erect position against the pressure of the
trate, this non-interference system in its sim~ =3: water of the sea when the self-propelled torpedo
starboard side being alike.
Whereas applicant has endeavored to illus
plest form, it should be understood that in_prac
tice the development would require more complex
features, relays with auxiliary batteries between
the vibrator contacts and power contacts respec
tively which may be called, under such circum
stances, minor contacts for major contacts for
the power storage batteries and the electric
motor.
,
>
is under way, means to preserve a stable meta
centric height of the torpedo upon the erection of
said combination'antenna and duct, and auto
matic means for opening the said .valve in said
duct.
'
NEVIL ‘MONROE HOPKINS.
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