Патент USA US2404931код для вставки
Jury 30, 1946- v s. B. SOMERVELL RECOIL MECHANISM Filed Aug. 3, 1943 2,404,931 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR. [3 502778259 Ba S mew H1; ?fforney. July 30, 1946. l s. B. SOME'RVELL 2,404,931 RECOIL MECHANISM vFiled Aug. 5, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /55 mm m 11%! In! ' H 153 )li ‘ ‘ I "\\‘ /63 I Q / 7 \ I54 ' ix Somervef/ B. Somervell, // ‘ 4///// _ _INVENTOR. ' H/s Hfforhey. 2,404,931 Patented July 30, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,931 RECOIL MECHANISM Somervell B. Somervell, New York, N. Y., assignor to Kurtiss P. Schenke, New York, N. Y. Application August 3, 1943, Serial No. 497,269 7 Claims. 1 The present invention relates to devices for the absorbtion of impact and shock and more (01. 293-55) Reference to Fig. 2, indicates that the recoil mechanism I0 comprises a cylinder body I5 hav ing a central chamber I5 I, a lower or inner cham ber I52 of slightly lesser diameter, and an upper or outer chamber I53 of appreciably lesser diam eter. The lower chamber I52 is de?ned by the cap ?tting or gland I54 which is suitably bored to permit guided sliding of the rod II there through and its counterbored portion is threaded vice which utilizes both springs and ?uid pistons 10 to engage the threaded exterior of the cylinder end. The opposite or outer end of the cylinder in a unique arrangement to gradually arrest the body is closed, and the chamber I53 formed by the shock of the imposed force to the point of its peak plug I55 which threadedly engages the interior load and to effectively dampen or prevent re of the cylinder end and is provided with a bound when it has diminished. hexagonal nut portion to facilitate its removal A further object of this invention is the pro or installation. Within the wall of the cylinder vision of a compact recoil unit which is completely body I5 adjacent the chamber I52 there is pro housed within a cylindrical casing. It is a vided a packing ring I56 and the shouldered por corollary object to provide a simple, relatively in tion of the cylinder body I5 where the chambers expensive device of this character which will re main serviceable for long periods and is readily 20 I5I and I53 meet is suitably counterbored to pro particularly to recoil mechanisms. It is primarily an object of the present in vention to provide a shock absorbing device in cluding a recoil mechanism in which the dissipa~ tion of the disturbing force between its peak load and its return to zero is adequately compensated for. It is a further object to provide such a de vide a valve seat I58. Apertured lugs or cars I51 adapted for servicing and repair. extend from the cylinder body for its attachment Other objects and advantages of the present by the abovementioned bolts I4 to the chassis invention will become apparent to those skilled frame. in the art after reading the present speci?cation and the accompanying drawings forming a part 25 The inner chamber I52 is fully occupied by the main piston assembly I6 having the head and hereof, in which; base elements I6I and I62, respectively, each of Fig. 1 is a fragmentary plan view of the for which are threadedly attached to the piston wall element I63. The actuating rod II threadedly 30 engages the base element I62 and in the unde adapted; ?ected condition of the mechanism the latter is Fig. 2 is a detailed cross-sectional view of the preferably in contact with the end wall of the recoil mechanism and its working parts; cap element I54 and the head element I6I defines Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the mecha the lower end of the central chamber I5I. The nism to a reduced scale showing the parts partially _ piston wall I63 is provided with a port I64 adja compacted; and cent its upper end and the piston assembly I6 Fig. 4 is a similar cross-sectional view showing houses an internal ?oating piston I65, continually the parts fully compacted. urged upwardly and outwardly by the compres Referring now to Fig. 1, the numeral 5 repre sion spring I66 and sealed therebetween by the sents an automobile or other vehicle having a chassis or undercarriage frame which consists of 40 packing ring I61. The ?oating piston I65 in co operation with its moving cylinder wall I63 and the side frames 6 and the cross frame 1. The the piston head I6I forms the floating ?uid cham two front wheels 8 are rotatably mounted in any ber I68 and the packing ring I61 is maintained suitable manner known to the art and the bumper in pressure contact with the tubular walls of the 9 extends across the front of the chassis. The bumper 9 is resiliently supported from the main 45 ?oating cylinder I63 by means of the communi eating passages or ports I69 which are open to chassis frame by the recoil mechanisms I6, which the chamber I68. include the forwardly extending piston rods II The small bore chamber I53 is sealed at its attached to the bumper brackets I2 by the nuts lower portion, in the unde?ected condition of the I3, the recoil cylinders I0 being suitably attached to the frame by the bolts I4. It will be apparent 50 device by the ?oating piston I1 urged inwardly by the compression spring IN, the terminals of that a collision between the vehicle 5 and another which are in contact with the cupped or counter object, either ?xed or moving, which might strike bored portions of the piston I1 and the outer plug the bumper 9, would cause relative telescopic I55. The piston I1 is made tight within its cylin movement between the piston II and its respec 55 drical bore by the cup washer I12 held by the tive cylinder I0. ward portion of an automobile chassis to which a preferred form of my invention is shown 2,4 04,931 4 retaining screw I13 in contact with the metallic ring washer I14, the piston defining the outer end cap I54. An air vent I54a of any suitable type is preferably provided thru the end cap I54 to of the ?uid portion of the chamber I53 which is in communication with the ?uid in the central relieve the pressure or vacuum created between chamber through the intermediacy of the meter ing ?ap valve I8. The valve I8 comprises essentially a circular plate or disc having a central metering ori?ce therethrough at I8I and an integral cylindrical portion I80 reciprocable within the end bore of 10 the cap and the base element I62 as the piston assembly moves in either direction. Let us now assume that the disturbing force or shock was of sufficient magnitude to cause complete de?ection or compacting of the recoil unit. This greater force causes the piston as sembly I6 to project beyond the position shown the outer ?uid cylinder within which cylinder por in Fig. 3 in which the piston I‘! has almost reached tion I80 it is provided with bleeding ports I82. The valve I8 is guided in its short reciprocable movement by the tap bolts I83 threadedly engag ing the cylinder body I5 and resiliently held from its seat I58 thereon by the light compressing springs I84 concentrically disposed about the its farthest outward position. Slightly further movement of the piston assembly I6, and the piston I'I, results in exposure 0f the port I64 to the ?uid pressure which has been built up in the chamber ‘ISI. This opening of ?uid commu nication between the chambers I5I and I68 re sults in rapid equalization of the pressures within these chambers, a. material reduction in the total guide bolts I 83. In the normal or unde?ected condition of the mechanism as shown in Fig. 2, all of the interior spaces between the ?oating 20 fluid resistance opposing further movement of pistons I65 and I‘! including the central chamber the piston head I6 due to the added pressure on I5I would be ?lled with oil or other suitable shock its under or inner face and the increase in ?uid absorber ?uid and a ?lling duct and plug, not pressure upon the ?oating piston I65 which is shown, would preferably be provided in commu increasingly opposed by de?ection of the spring nication with the central chamber I5I for pur 25 I66. The greater force is preferably ?nally dis poses of ?lling, draining or replenishing. sipated by maximum de?ection of the spring I66 The operation of the device is as follows: Let at which time the elements attain a relative posi us assume that the recoil mechanism units IQ tion as shown in Fig. 4. The recoil unit is pref to be installed in an automobile as shown in erably designed such that a still greater force Fig. l, and to be in its normal condition with will cause the piston end I6 to physically contact its elements disposed as in Fig. 2 and the bumper the guide bolts I83 thereby providing a solid me 9 is subjected to a shock or impact of appre tallic assembly from the bumper, through the rod ciable magnitude. The shock results in relative 8 i, the piston assembly I6, the bolts I83, through and opposite movement between the bumper 9 the body i 5 and the lugs I61 to the chassis frame. and the units II! and corresponding telescopic 35 The functioning of the valve i8 is as follows: movement of the intermediate piston I I thru the As the piston it moves into the chamber I5I the guide cap I56 and outward movement of the pis ?uid displaced thereby initially passes through ton assembly i 6. The latter passes into the cen the restricted ports IBI and I84 moving the pis tral ?uid chamber I5I carrying with it the inner ton i'I against the opposition of the spring Ill. ?oating piston I65 which maintains its relative 40 The resistance o?ered by these ports causes a position within the piston assembly as long as building up of pressure within the chamber I5I ' the port I64 is covered by the walls of the cyl which acts upon the face of the valve I8 having inder I63. the greatest exposed area to the increased pres Initial movement of the piston I6 into the sure with the result that the valve I3 seats itself chamber I5! results in the development of pres against the annular lip I66, overcoming the re sure in the ?uid therein which passes through sistance of the springs I66 and closing off the the restricted ori?ce I8I and bleeds also through ports I82. Continued movement of the piston I6 the ports I82, entering the outer ?uid chamber causes the displaced ?uid to be metered entirely I53 and building up ?uid pressure against the through the port I8I and further movement of face of the smaller ?oating piston H. In such 50 the piston ii at an appreciably higher rate than a partially de?ected condition of the recoil unit the piston I6 in proportion to the relative ex the elements will pass through a relative posi posed areas. By the time the port I64 becomes tion in respect to the body I 5 as indicated in exposed to the chamber I5I the piston I‘! will Fig. 3. In this ?gure it will be seen that the have reached the limit of its outward movement piston l6 has entered the chamber IEiI su?iciently 55 fully compressing the spring I "H. The remainder to displace ?uid and build up pressure therein of the disturbing shock is absorbed by the sec causing the valve I8 to close ports I82; and the ond ?oating piston E65 as described above. ?uid which has passed therethrough, and con Upon removal of the disturbing shock or force tinues to pass thru the metering ori?ce IBI, has the normal condition of the recoil unit is again partially ?lled the outer chamber I53 imparting 60 restored by movement of the elements in the outward movement to the piston I'I against the reverse order and direction to those which have resistance of its spring Ill. The shock has not been enumerated above. The spring I 66, being as yet, however, been of such magnitude to cause more powerful than the spring I'll will impart telescoping or compacting to the extent that the outward movement of the piston E65, expelling port I64 would be uncovered. Should this have ?uid from the chamber 566, through the port I64 been the full extent of the shock and it were into chamber l5I. As this movement of the ?uid fully dissipated by movement of the elements to takes place the entrance of the ?uid into the the position shown in Fig 3, the energy stored chamber E5I causes return movement of the pis in the spring Ill would urge the piston I ‘I to ton assembly is until the port I 64 is again closed, return inwardly, the resulting pressure differ 70 at which time the spring I66 is no longer effec ential between the chambers H53 and EM again tive to cause further return movement of the opening the valve I8, with the assistance of the piston assembly. At this point however, energy springs I84. The return of the ?uid into the stored within the smaller spring I'II exerts a chamber I5I will cause the piston assembly to greater force upon the piston I'I than return to itsunde?ected position against the end in posing force of the ?uid in chambers I5I the op- ‘ and I53,’ 2,404,931 5 which have now been relieved of the force exerted by the spring I65. Since the pressure within chamber I53 is greater than that in cham ber I5! the springs i54 now assist in returning the valve l8 to its initial position in which the ?uid is permitted. to pass through the ori?ces NH and I82 until the recoil mechanism has slowly been returned to its extended initial position without the attendance of rebounding character istics. The units are then in position to again 10 oppose further disturbing impacts or shocks. 6 4. The combination with a shock-absorbing device of the type having a multi-chambered cylinder and a hollow piston normally occupying one of said chambers, of a ?oating piston slidable within said hollow piston, resilient means inter posed between said ?oating and hollow pistons urging said ?oating piston toward a chamber within said hollow piston, a main fluid chamber and a port through the wall of said hollow piston adapted upon predetermined movement thereof into said main chamber to provide ?uid com munication to said chamber carried therewithin Other forms and modi?cations of the present whereby said ?oating piston opposes further invention, both with respect to its general ar movement of said hollow piston. rangement and the details of the respective ele 5. A recoil mechanism comprising a cylinder ments which may occur to those skilled in the 15 having at least three ?uid chambers including a art after reading the foregoing description, are main chamber, a secondary chamber adjacent to all intended to fall within the scope and spirit and of lesser diameter than said main chamber of the present invention as more particularly de and a tertiary chamber of lesser diameter than ?ned in the appended claims. said secondary chamber, a hollow piston nor 20 I claim: mally fully occupying said secondary chamber, a 1. A recoil mechanism for a motor vehicle hav ing a bumper and a chassis frame comprising a multi-chambered cylinder attached to said frame, a hollow piston reciprocable within a chamber of said cylinder, an impact transmitting element connecting said bumper with said hollow piston, a resiliently opposed ?oating piston reciprocable Within a further chamber of said cylinder, a main ?uid chamber in said cylinder, at second ?oating piston resiliently carried within said hollow pis ton, restricting means disposed between said ?rst ?oating piston and said main chamber adapted to initiate absorption of initial movement of said hollow piston upon transmission of an impact thereto and porting means cooperating with said ‘ main chamber initiated by further movement of said hollow piston adapted to cause said second spring-pressed piston within said tertiary cham ber, valve means interposed between said main and tertiary chambers, a spring-pressed piston carried within said hollow piston, actuating means attached to said hollow piston and slid able through a wall of said cylinder and a port through the wall of said hollow piston whereby forces imposed upon said actuating means causes restricted ?uid displacement from said main chamber against the piston in said tertiary chamber through said valve means and predeter mined sliding travel of said hollow piston ex poses the spring-pressed piston carried there within to the pressure of the ?uid in said main chamber through said port. 6. A shock-absorbing device comprising a multi-chambered cylinder attached to a relatively ?xed member, a hollow piston reciprocable with ?oating piston to resiliently oppose said further movement. a chamber of said cylinder, a relatively mov 2. A recoil mechanism adapted to dampen 40 in able impact transmitting element connected to shocks between a ?rst and a second body, com said hollow piston, a resiliently opposed ?oating prising a multi-chambered cylinder attached to piston reciprocable within a further chamber of said ?rst body, a hollow piston slidable from a said cylinder, a main ?uid chamber in said cyl ?rst into a second cylinder of said chamber, a inder, a second ?oating piston resiliently carried rod attached to said hollow piston, said rod at within said hollow piston and restricting means tached to the second said body, a resiliently disposed between said ?rst ?oating piston and opposed piston within a third chamber of said said main chamber adapted to initiate absorp cylinder, a resiliently opposed piston within said tion of initial movement of said hollow piston hollow piston and means adapted to provide ?uid upon transmission of an impact thereto and port communication between said chambers whereby ing means cooperating with said main chamber relative movements tending to produce shocks be initiated by further movement of said hollow tween said second body attached rod and said piston adapted to cause said second ?oating pis ?rst body attached cylinder are resiliently op ton to resiliently oppose said further movement. posed in each direction. 7. A shock absorbing device having a multi 3. The combination with a shock-absorbing de chambered cylinder member attached to a rela vice of the type having a multi-chambered cyl tively ?xed support, a hollow piston normally inder and a hollow piston disposed within one of occupying one of the chambers of said cylinder said chambers, of a ?oating piston carried by member, a floating piston slidable within said said hollow piston, resilient means interposed be hollow piston, resilient means interposed between tween said ?oating and hollow pistons, a second said ?oating and hollow pistons urging said ?oat ?oating piston disposed within a second chamber, ing piston toward a chamber within said cylinder resilient means interposed between said second member, a port through the wall of said hollow ?oating ‘piston and said cylinder, a main ?uid piston adapted upon predetermined movement chamber and means initiated by movement of said ?oating piston into said main chamber 65 thereof into said main chamber to provide ?uid communication to said chamber carried there adapted to cause said second ?oating piston to within whereby said ?oating piston opposes fur initially oppose the same and upon predeter ther movement of said hollow piston within said mined movement of said hollow piston to cause relatively ?xed cylinder member. the said ?rst ?oating piston to additionally resil SOMERVELL B. SOMERVELL. 70 iently oppose further movement thereof.