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Патент USA US2404931

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Jury 30, 1946-
v
s. B. SOMERVELL
RECOIL MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 3, 1943
2,404,931
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
IN VEN TOR.
[3
502778259 Ba S mew
H1; ?fforney.
July 30, 1946.
l s. B. SOME'RVELL
2,404,931
RECOIL MECHANISM
vFiled Aug. 5, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Somervef/ B. Somervell,
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_ _INVENTOR.
'
H/s Hfforhey.
2,404,931
Patented July 30, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,931
RECOIL MECHANISM
Somervell B. Somervell, New York, N. Y., assignor
to Kurtiss P. Schenke, New York, N. Y.
Application August 3, 1943, Serial No. 497,269
7 Claims.
1
The present invention relates to devices for
the absorbtion of impact and shock and more
(01. 293-55)
Reference to Fig. 2, indicates that the recoil
mechanism I0 comprises a cylinder body I5 hav
ing a central chamber I5 I, a lower or inner cham
ber I52 of slightly lesser diameter, and an upper
or outer chamber I53 of appreciably lesser diam
eter. The lower chamber I52 is de?ned by the
cap ?tting or gland I54 which is suitably bored
to permit guided sliding of the rod II there
through and its counterbored portion is threaded
vice which utilizes both springs and ?uid pistons 10 to engage the threaded exterior of the cylinder
end. The opposite or outer end of the cylinder
in a unique arrangement to gradually arrest the
body is closed, and the chamber I53 formed by the
shock of the imposed force to the point of its peak
plug I55 which threadedly engages the interior
load and to effectively dampen or prevent re
of the cylinder end and is provided with a
bound when it has diminished.
hexagonal nut portion to facilitate its removal
A further object of this invention is the pro
or installation. Within the wall of the cylinder
vision of a compact recoil unit which is completely
body I5 adjacent the chamber I52 there is pro
housed within a cylindrical casing. It is a
vided a packing ring I56 and the shouldered por
corollary object to provide a simple, relatively in
tion of the cylinder body I5 where the chambers
expensive device of this character which will re
main serviceable for long periods and is readily 20 I5I and I53 meet is suitably counterbored to pro
particularly to recoil mechanisms.
It is primarily an object of the present in
vention to provide a shock absorbing device in
cluding a recoil mechanism in which the dissipa~
tion of the disturbing force between its peak load
and its return to zero is adequately compensated
for. It is a further object to provide such a de
vide a valve seat I58. Apertured lugs or cars I51
adapted for servicing and repair.
extend from the cylinder body for its attachment
Other objects and advantages of the present
by the abovementioned bolts I4 to the chassis
invention will become apparent to those skilled
frame.
in the art after reading the present speci?cation
and the accompanying drawings forming a part 25 The inner chamber I52 is fully occupied by the
main piston assembly I6 having the head and
hereof, in which;
base elements I6I and I62, respectively, each of
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary plan view of the for
which are threadedly attached to the piston wall
element I63. The actuating rod II threadedly
30 engages the base element I62 and in the unde
adapted;
?ected condition of the mechanism the latter is
Fig. 2 is a detailed cross-sectional view of the
preferably in contact with the end wall of the
recoil mechanism and its working parts;
cap element I54 and the head element I6I defines
Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the mecha
the lower end of the central chamber I5I. The
nism to a reduced scale showing the parts partially _
piston wall I63 is provided with a port I64 adja
compacted; and
cent its upper end and the piston assembly I6
Fig. 4 is a similar cross-sectional view showing
houses an internal ?oating piston I65, continually
the parts fully compacted.
urged upwardly and outwardly by the compres
Referring now to Fig. 1, the numeral 5 repre
sion spring I66 and sealed therebetween by the
sents an automobile or other vehicle having a
chassis or undercarriage frame which consists of 40 packing ring I61. The ?oating piston I65 in co
operation with its moving cylinder wall I63 and
the side frames 6 and the cross frame 1. The
the piston head I6I forms the floating ?uid cham
two front wheels 8 are rotatably mounted in any
ber I68 and the packing ring I61 is maintained
suitable manner known to the art and the bumper
in pressure contact with the tubular walls of the
9 extends across the front of the chassis. The
bumper 9 is resiliently supported from the main 45 ?oating cylinder I63 by means of the communi
eating passages or ports I69 which are open to
chassis frame by the recoil mechanisms I6, which
the chamber I68.
include the forwardly extending piston rods II
The small bore chamber I53 is sealed at its
attached to the bumper brackets I2 by the nuts
lower portion, in the unde?ected condition of the
I3, the recoil cylinders I0 being suitably attached
to the frame by the bolts I4. It will be apparent 50 device by the ?oating piston I1 urged inwardly by
the compression spring IN, the terminals of
that a collision between the vehicle 5 and another
which are in contact with the cupped or counter
object, either ?xed or moving, which might strike
bored portions of the piston I1 and the outer plug
the bumper 9, would cause relative telescopic
I55. The piston I1 is made tight within its cylin
movement between the piston II and its respec
55 drical bore by the cup washer I12 held by the
tive cylinder I0.
ward portion of an automobile chassis to which
a preferred form of my invention is shown
2,4 04,931
4
retaining screw I13 in contact with the metallic
ring washer I14, the piston defining the outer end
cap I54. An air vent I54a of any suitable type
is preferably provided thru the end cap I54 to
of the ?uid portion of the chamber I53 which is
in communication with the ?uid in the central
relieve the pressure or vacuum created between
chamber through the intermediacy of the meter
ing ?ap valve I8.
The valve I8 comprises essentially a circular
plate or disc having a central metering ori?ce
therethrough at I8I and an integral cylindrical
portion I80 reciprocable within the end bore of 10
the cap and the base element I62 as the piston
assembly moves in either direction.
Let us now assume that the disturbing force
or shock was of sufficient magnitude to cause
complete de?ection or compacting of the recoil
unit. This greater force causes the piston as
sembly I6 to project beyond the position shown
the outer ?uid cylinder within which cylinder por
in Fig. 3 in which the piston I‘! has almost reached
tion I80 it is provided with bleeding ports I82.
The valve I8 is guided in its short reciprocable
movement by the tap bolts I83 threadedly engag
ing the cylinder body I5 and resiliently held from
its seat I58 thereon by the light compressing
springs I84 concentrically disposed about the
its farthest outward position. Slightly further
movement of the piston assembly I6, and the
piston I'I, results in exposure 0f the port I64 to
the ?uid pressure which has been built up in
the chamber ‘ISI. This opening of ?uid commu
nication between the chambers I5I and I68 re
sults in rapid equalization of the pressures within
these chambers, a. material reduction in the total
guide bolts I 83. In the normal or unde?ected
condition of the mechanism as shown in Fig. 2,
all of the interior spaces between the ?oating 20 fluid resistance opposing further movement of
pistons I65 and I‘! including the central chamber
the piston head I6 due to the added pressure on
I5I would be ?lled with oil or other suitable shock
its under or inner face and the increase in ?uid
absorber ?uid and a ?lling duct and plug, not
pressure upon the ?oating piston I65 which is
shown, would preferably be provided in commu
increasingly opposed by de?ection of the spring
nication with the central chamber I5I for pur 25 I66. The greater force is preferably ?nally dis
poses of ?lling, draining or replenishing.
sipated by maximum de?ection of the spring I66
The operation of the device is as follows: Let
at which time the elements attain a relative posi
us assume that the recoil mechanism units IQ
tion as shown in Fig. 4. The recoil unit is pref
to be installed in an automobile as shown in
erably designed such that a still greater force
Fig. l, and to be in its normal condition with
will cause the piston end I6 to physically contact
its elements disposed as in Fig. 2 and the bumper
the guide bolts I83 thereby providing a solid me
9 is subjected to a shock or impact of appre
tallic assembly from the bumper, through the rod
ciable magnitude. The shock results in relative
8 i, the piston assembly I6, the bolts I83, through
and opposite movement between the bumper 9
the body i 5 and the lugs I61 to the chassis frame.
and the units II! and corresponding telescopic 35
The functioning of the valve i8 is as follows:
movement of the intermediate piston I I thru the
As the piston it moves into the chamber I5I the
guide cap I56 and outward movement of the pis
?uid displaced thereby initially passes through
ton assembly i 6. The latter passes into the cen
the restricted ports IBI and I84 moving the pis
tral ?uid chamber I5I carrying with it the inner
ton i'I against the opposition of the spring Ill.
?oating piston I65 which maintains its relative 40 The resistance o?ered by these ports causes a
position within the piston assembly as long as
building up of pressure within the chamber I5I
' the port I64 is covered by the walls of the cyl
which acts upon the face of the valve I8 having
inder I63.
the greatest exposed area to the increased pres
Initial movement of the piston I6 into the
sure with the result that the valve I3 seats itself
chamber I5! results in the development of pres
against the annular lip I66, overcoming the re
sure in the ?uid therein which passes through
sistance of the springs I66 and closing off the
the restricted ori?ce I8I and bleeds also through
ports I82. Continued movement of the piston I6
the ports I82, entering the outer ?uid chamber
causes the displaced ?uid to be metered entirely
I53 and building up ?uid pressure against the
through the port I8I and further movement of
face of the smaller ?oating piston H. In such 50 the piston ii at an appreciably higher rate than
a partially de?ected condition of the recoil unit
the piston I6 in proportion to the relative ex
the elements will pass through a relative posi
posed areas. By the time the port I64 becomes
tion in respect to the body I 5 as indicated in
exposed to the chamber I5I the piston I‘! will
Fig. 3. In this ?gure it will be seen that the
have reached the limit of its outward movement
piston l6 has entered the chamber IEiI su?iciently 55 fully compressing the spring I "H. The remainder
to displace ?uid and build up pressure therein
of the disturbing shock is absorbed by the sec
causing the valve I8 to close ports I82; and the
ond ?oating piston E65 as described above.
?uid which has passed therethrough, and con
Upon removal of the disturbing shock or force
tinues to pass thru the metering ori?ce IBI, has
the normal condition of the recoil unit is again
partially ?lled the outer chamber I53 imparting 60 restored by movement of the elements in the
outward movement to the piston I'I against the
reverse order and direction to those which have
resistance of its spring Ill. The shock has not
been enumerated above. The spring I 66, being
as yet, however, been of such magnitude to cause
more powerful than the spring I'll will impart
telescoping or compacting to the extent that the
outward movement of the piston E65, expelling
port I64 would be uncovered. Should this have
?uid from the chamber 566, through the port I64
been the full extent of the shock and it were
into chamber l5I. As this movement of the ?uid
fully dissipated by movement of the elements to
takes place the entrance of the ?uid into the
the position shown in Fig 3, the energy stored
chamber E5I causes return movement of the pis
in the spring Ill would urge the piston I ‘I to
ton assembly is until the port I 64 is again closed,
return inwardly, the resulting pressure differ 70 at which time the spring I66 is no longer effec
ential between the chambers H53 and EM again
tive to cause further return movement of the
opening the valve I8, with the assistance of the
piston assembly. At this point however, energy
springs I84. The return of the ?uid into the
stored within the smaller spring I'II exerts a
chamber I5I will cause the piston assembly to
greater force upon the piston I'I than
return to itsunde?ected position against the end in posing force of the ?uid in chambers I5I the op- ‘
and I53,’
2,404,931
5
which have now been relieved of the force
exerted by the spring I65. Since the pressure
within chamber I53 is greater than that in cham
ber I5! the springs i54 now assist in returning
the valve l8 to its initial position in which the
?uid is permitted. to pass through the ori?ces
NH and I82 until the recoil mechanism has slowly
been returned to its extended initial position
without the attendance of rebounding character
istics. The units are then in position to again 10
oppose further disturbing impacts or shocks.
6
4. The combination with a shock-absorbing
device of the type having a multi-chambered
cylinder and a hollow piston normally occupying
one of said chambers, of a ?oating piston slidable
within said hollow piston, resilient means inter
posed between said ?oating and hollow pistons
urging said ?oating piston toward a chamber
within said hollow piston, a main fluid chamber
and a port through the wall of said hollow piston
adapted upon predetermined movement thereof
into said main chamber to provide ?uid com
munication to said chamber carried therewithin
Other forms and modi?cations of the present
whereby said ?oating piston opposes further
invention, both with respect to its general ar
movement of said hollow piston.
rangement and the details of the respective ele
5. A recoil mechanism comprising a cylinder
ments which may occur to those skilled in the 15
having at least three ?uid chambers including a
art after reading the foregoing description, are
main chamber, a secondary chamber adjacent to
all intended to fall within the scope and spirit
and of lesser diameter than said main chamber
of the present invention as more particularly de
and a tertiary chamber of lesser diameter than
?ned in the appended claims.
said secondary chamber, a hollow piston nor
20
I claim:
mally fully occupying said secondary chamber, a
1. A recoil mechanism for a motor vehicle hav
ing a bumper and a chassis frame comprising a
multi-chambered cylinder attached to said frame,
a hollow piston reciprocable within a chamber of
said cylinder, an impact transmitting element
connecting said bumper with said hollow piston,
a resiliently opposed ?oating piston reciprocable
Within a further chamber of said cylinder, a main
?uid chamber in said cylinder, at second ?oating
piston resiliently carried within said hollow pis
ton, restricting means disposed between said ?rst
?oating piston and said main chamber adapted to
initiate absorption of initial movement of said
hollow piston upon transmission of an impact
thereto and porting means cooperating with said ‘
main chamber initiated by further movement of
said hollow piston adapted to cause said second
spring-pressed piston within said tertiary cham
ber, valve means interposed between said main
and tertiary chambers, a spring-pressed piston
carried within said hollow piston, actuating
means attached to said hollow piston and slid
able through a wall of said cylinder and a port
through the wall of said hollow piston whereby
forces imposed upon said actuating means causes
restricted ?uid displacement from said main
chamber against the piston in said tertiary
chamber through said valve means and predeter
mined sliding travel of said hollow piston ex
poses the spring-pressed piston carried there
within to the pressure of the ?uid in said main
chamber through said port.
6. A shock-absorbing device comprising a
multi-chambered cylinder attached to a relatively
?xed member, a hollow piston reciprocable with
?oating piston to resiliently oppose said further
movement.
a chamber of said cylinder, a relatively mov
2. A recoil mechanism adapted to dampen 40 in
able impact transmitting element connected to
shocks between a ?rst and a second body, com
said hollow piston, a resiliently opposed ?oating
prising a multi-chambered cylinder attached to
piston reciprocable within a further chamber of
said ?rst body, a hollow piston slidable from a
said cylinder, a main ?uid chamber in said cyl
?rst into a second cylinder of said chamber, a
inder, a second ?oating piston resiliently carried
rod attached to said hollow piston, said rod at
within said hollow piston and restricting means
tached to the second said body, a resiliently
disposed between said ?rst ?oating piston and
opposed piston within a third chamber of said
said main chamber adapted to initiate absorp
cylinder, a resiliently opposed piston within said
tion of initial movement of said hollow piston
hollow piston and means adapted to provide ?uid
upon transmission of an impact thereto and port
communication between said chambers whereby
ing means cooperating with said main chamber
relative movements tending to produce shocks be
initiated by further movement of said hollow
tween said second body attached rod and said
piston adapted to cause said second ?oating pis
?rst body attached cylinder are resiliently op
ton to resiliently oppose said further movement.
posed in each direction.
7. A shock absorbing device having a multi
3. The combination with a shock-absorbing de
chambered cylinder member attached to a rela
vice of the type having a multi-chambered cyl
tively ?xed support, a hollow piston normally
inder and a hollow piston disposed within one of
occupying one of the chambers of said cylinder
said chambers, of a ?oating piston carried by
member, a floating piston slidable within said
said hollow piston, resilient means interposed be
hollow piston, resilient means interposed between
tween said ?oating and hollow pistons, a second
said ?oating and hollow pistons urging said ?oat
?oating piston disposed within a second chamber,
ing piston toward a chamber within said cylinder
resilient means interposed between said second
member, a port through the wall of said hollow
?oating ‘piston and said cylinder, a main ?uid
piston
adapted upon predetermined movement
chamber and means initiated by movement of
said ?oating piston into said main chamber 65 thereof into said main chamber to provide ?uid
communication to said chamber carried there
adapted to cause said second ?oating piston to
within
whereby said ?oating piston opposes fur
initially oppose the same and upon predeter
ther movement of said hollow piston within said
mined movement of said hollow piston to cause
relatively ?xed cylinder member.
the said ?rst ?oating piston to additionally resil
SOMERVELL B. SOMERVELL.
70
iently oppose further movement thereof.
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