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Патент USA US2404938

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JUIYSÜ, má@
W. H; ARMAcosT ET AL
2,404,938
GAS TURBINE PLANT
Filed Feb. l
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1945
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2,404,938
Patented July 30,- 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,938
GAS TURBINE PLANT
Wilbur H. Arniacost, Scarsdalc, and David M.
Schoenfeld, New York, N. Y., assignors to Com
bustion Engineering Company, Inc., New York,
N. Y.
Application February 10, 1945, Serial No. 577,245
3 Claims. (Cl. 60-59)
1
2
outlet manifold 22 through conduit 39 to gas tur
bine 32. From turbine 32 the air flows through
the heat exchanger 35 and through conduit 3B
to burner I'I. A branch 36 from conduit 38 de
Cm livers a portion of the air into the boiler setting
unit,
»
to join the products of combustion flowing there
When employed with a steam generating unit
through.
~
the compressed working fluid for the gas turbine is
In Fig. 2 an air compressor having a first stage
heated indirectly by the products of combustion
` 33 and a second stage 30A, a gas turbine having 'a
leaving the furnace of the steam generator. The
products of combustion thereafter flow over vari li) first stage 32 and a second stage 32A and an elec
tric generator 34 all have their respective shafts
ous heating surfaces of the generator to be fur
coupled. Air enters compressor stage 30 through
ther cooled. Thus, the working fluid remains un
conduit 3l, is compressed, passes through inter
contaminated by impurities, such as ash, which
cooler 43 to second stage 30|A and thence through
would be present if it were made up, at least in
part, of the products of combustion of a fuel. if) conduit 33 to a heat exchanger 35. From heat
exchanger 35 the air flows through conduit 31 into
After leaving the heat exchanger, the working
inlet manifold 2| of heat exchanger 20, and from
fluid is expanded through the turbine wherein it
outlet manifold 22 through conduit 39 to stage
produces useful work and thereafter may be con
32 of the gas turbine. From stage 32 the air flows
ducted back to the steam generating unit to there
join with the products of combustion flowing 20 through conduit 4I into inlet manifold 24 of heat
exchanger elements 23 and from its outlet mani
through the generator.
fold 25 through conduit 43 'to stage 32A of the
An object of this invention is to provide an
gas turbine. From stage 32A the air flows through
improved gas turbine including a steam generator.
the heat exchanger 35 through conduit 38 and
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic View of one form of 26 another heat exchanger 45 to vburner I'I. A
branch 36 from conduit 38 delivers a portion of
the invention.
the air into the boiler setting to join the products
Figure 2 is a similar diagrammatic View of an
of combustion flowing therethrough.
other form of the invention.
The feed water to the boiler enters through pipe
The drawing illustrates a steam generating unit
41 and divides, one portion flows through inter
comprising upper and lower drums I3, Ii con
cooler 43 to economizer inlet manifold I4, and
nected by a bank of steam generating tubes I2
thence into the steam and water drum Ii). The
and an economizer I3 having tubes connected be
other portion flows through pipe 43 into heat ex
tween inlet and outlet manifolds I4 and I5 all
changer 45. Upon leaving heat exchanger 45 the
heated by a furnace I6 which is provided with a
water divides, one portion flowing through pipe
gaseous fuel burner I'I. Feed water is supplied
@il as hot water, for use other than in the boiler
through pipe 9 to manifold I4 and manifold I5
unit, and the other portion flows through pipe 5I
connects to the steam and water drum I3.
to join the water leaving the economizer outlet
In Figure 1 a single heat exchanger 20 is shown
manifold I5 flowing through the pipe to the steam
having tubular elements suspended in the furnace
and connected between inlet manifold 2l and out» 40 and water drum I0.
In operation free air from compressors 30, 33A
let manifold 22. In Fig. 2 there are two similar
is delivered to heat exchanger 35 wherein it re
heat exchangers 20 and 23, the first correspond
ceives heat given up by the exhaust air from tur
ing to that of Fig. 1 and the second having tu
bine stage 32, 32A, then flows through heat ex
bular elements suspended also within the furnace
and connected between inlet and outlet mani» 45 changer 2i) and is delivered to turbine stage 32.
In expanding through the turbine 3'2, 32A it loses
folds 24 and 25.
heat which is converted into work used for driving
In Figure 1 an air compressor 33, a gas turbine
the compressor 30, 30A and electric generator 34.
32 and an electric generator 34 all have their re
After leaving turbine stage 32, 32A the air is cooled
spective shafts fastened together by couplings
within heat exchanger 35 to a temperature suit
34A so that the turbine serves as a common drive
able for use in the fuel burning apparatus to
for all. Air enters compressor 3U through con
which that portion necessary for combustion
duit 3I and leaves the compressor to ñow through
within the furnace is conducted. The remaining
conduit 33 to a heat exchanger 35. From heat
surplus portion of this air is delivered into the
exchanger 35, the air flows through conduit 3‘I to
inlet manifold 2I of heat exchanger 20 and from 55 setting of the boiler unit, to join the products
This invention relates to gas turbines and par
ticularly to those in which the working fluid
passes in heat exchange relationship with the
gases and heating surface of a steam generating
2,404,938
3
of combustion flowing through the unit, at a loca
--
-
duits for conveying compressed fluid from the
tion where the products have been cooled to a
compressor to the first heater, from the first to
the second heater, from the second heater to the
turbine, from the turbine exhaust to ñrst heater
in out of contact relation to the compressed fluid
flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex
hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the
temperature substantially that of the air.
According to the invention, heat exchanger 35
reclaims heat for use in the turbine from the
exhaust of the air leaving the turbine in order
to cool this air to a temperature suitable for
use in the fuel ‘burning apparatus. Heretofore
burner, said last conduit having a branch deliv
this air was cooled by a heat exchanger through
ering a portion of the fluid into the setting at a
which cooling water was passed, and the dis
charged hot water was in part or Wholly Wasted,
location Where theproducts of combustion have
been cooled to substantially the same tempera
ture of the delivered fluid.
resulting in loss of heat from the combined turbo
boiler unit.
-
4
`
2. In a power plant having a gas turbine, a
fluid compressor and a steam generator unit in~
According to the invention there is a further
thermal saving incurred by delivering the surplus 15 cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and
portion oi the air leaving heat exchanger 35 into
a setting for confining the flow of the products
the boiler setting through conduit 36 at a loca
of combustion therethrough; ñrst and second
tion where the products of combustion have been
fluid heaters for heating the compressed fluid;
cooled to substantially the air temperature.
and a third heat exchanger for cooling the fluid;
Heretofore the surplus air was delivered into the 20 conduits for conveying compressed liuid from the
lurnace and therein mixed with the products of
compressor to the first heater, from the first to
combustion. This procedure resulted in lowering
the second heater, from the second heater to the
the temperature of the products leaving the fur
turbine, from the turbine exhaust to first heater
nace, and a lower temperature difference between
in out of contact relation to the compressed liuid
the products and heat absorbing tubes of boiler 25 flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex
and economizer. Although the How of products
hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the
through the tubes was increased, the net result
third heat exchanger and thence to the burner,
was a loss in the heat transferred to boiler and
said last conduit having a branch in advance of
economizer. However', by introducing the sur
the third heater, with respect to the fluid flow,
plus air according to the invention the products 30 delivering a portion of the fluid into the setting
of combustion `are undiluted up to the point
within the lboiler setting where the surplus air
at a location where the products of combustion
have been cooled to substantially the same tem
perature of the delivered fluid; a feed Water pipe
and a branch pipe from the feed Water pipe to
is introduced and a net gain in overall heat
absorption by the unit from the products and the
surplus air results.
35 the steam generator to the third heat exchanger
, Another advantage in using heat exchanger 35
for cooling the ñuid flowing therethrough in out
in the manner described is that it may be made
of contact relation; a pipe from the third heat
ol' relatively inexpensive materials, since it is
exchanger to the steam generator, and a surplus
exposed to low temperatures, when compared to
Water pipe connected into the pipe from the third
the costly materials used in heat exchanger 2li, 40 heat exchanger.
which is subjected to high temperatures.
3. In a power plant having a gas turbine, a
Since heater 35 assumes some of the air heating
otherwise done by heater 20, the latter may be
smaller thereby incurring a further saving in
cost and proportionately also overcomes the ob
jection of the removal of the dint and slag de
posits on the larger heater within the furnace
which cause a variation in the heated air tem
peratures.
Further, in the form shown in Fig. 2, that
fluid compressor and a steam generator unit in
cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and
a setting for confining the ñow of the products
45
of combustion therethrough; ñrst and second
fluid heaters for'heating the compressed fluid;
and a third heat exchanger for cooling the fluid,
conduits for conveying compressed fluid from the
compressor to the first heater, from the first to
, the second heater, from the second heater to the
turbine, from the turbine exhaust to first heater
in out of contact relation to the compressed iiuid
flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex
hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the
55 third heat exchanger and thence to the burner,
portion of the air leaving heat exchanger 35
which is conducted to the burner ll is further
cooled by water flowing in indirect relation to
the air in heater 45. The cooling water is taken
from the boiler feed water supply pipe 4l', con
ducted through heater ?5 and thence conducted
said last conduit having a branch in advance of
by pipe il to join the water leaving economizer
the third heater, with respect to the fluid flow,
outlet manifold l5 t0 flow into steam and Watel‘
delivering a portion of the fluid into the setting
drum líl. Should the water required by the econ
at a location Where the products of combustion
omizer I3, intercooler 40 and heater 45 exceed 60 have been cooled to substantially the same tem
the demand of the boiler It, the surplus may
perature of the delivered fluid; a feed water pipe
flow through pipe 56 for outside use. However,
and a branch pipe from the feed water pipe to
by this arrangement of using the relatively cold
the steam generator to the third heat exchanger
water for supplying heater 45, the temperature
for cooling the ñuid flowing therethrough in out
of the surplus water is kept to a. minimum incur 65
of contact relation; an economizer; the feed water
ring a minimum heat loss from the unit.
pipe being connected to the economizer and hot
, What we claim is:
water pipe from the economizer to the steam
2 l; In a power plant having a gas turbine, a
generator; a pipe from the third heat exchanger
ñuid compressor and a steam generator unit in
cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and a 70 to the hot water pipe leaving the economizer,
and a surplus water pipe connected into the pipe
setting for confining the flow of the products of
from the third heat exchanger.
combustion therethrough; first and second iluid
WILBUR H. vARMACOSTl
heaters for heating the compressed ñuid; con
DAVID M. SCHOENFELD.
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