Патент USA US2404938код для вставки
JUIYSÜ, má@ W. H; ARMAcosT ET AL 2,404,938 GAS TURBINE PLANT Filed Feb. l x 1945 „W 3 d. o 4 m.ßy Mw u Ö \ èF A H2 œ32»IUL G „ain_Un 2 e Ä“GOK"L ,m2\ sa.4/2.îAU@ „ÃÉEV C w m „Ñ v .W @N7U «§40 > 1 . \ Wai-er, heater /4-8 47 2,404,938 Patented July 30,- 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,938 GAS TURBINE PLANT Wilbur H. Arniacost, Scarsdalc, and David M. Schoenfeld, New York, N. Y., assignors to Com bustion Engineering Company, Inc., New York, N. Y. Application February 10, 1945, Serial No. 577,245 3 Claims. (Cl. 60-59) 1 2 outlet manifold 22 through conduit 39 to gas tur bine 32. From turbine 32 the air flows through the heat exchanger 35 and through conduit 3B to burner I'I. A branch 36 from conduit 38 de Cm livers a portion of the air into the boiler setting unit, » to join the products of combustion flowing there When employed with a steam generating unit through. ~ the compressed working fluid for the gas turbine is In Fig. 2 an air compressor having a first stage heated indirectly by the products of combustion ` 33 and a second stage 30A, a gas turbine having 'a leaving the furnace of the steam generator. The products of combustion thereafter flow over vari li) first stage 32 and a second stage 32A and an elec tric generator 34 all have their respective shafts ous heating surfaces of the generator to be fur coupled. Air enters compressor stage 30 through ther cooled. Thus, the working fluid remains un conduit 3l, is compressed, passes through inter contaminated by impurities, such as ash, which cooler 43 to second stage 30|A and thence through would be present if it were made up, at least in part, of the products of combustion of a fuel. if) conduit 33 to a heat exchanger 35. From heat exchanger 35 the air flows through conduit 31 into After leaving the heat exchanger, the working inlet manifold 2| of heat exchanger 20, and from fluid is expanded through the turbine wherein it outlet manifold 22 through conduit 39 to stage produces useful work and thereafter may be con 32 of the gas turbine. From stage 32 the air flows ducted back to the steam generating unit to there join with the products of combustion flowing 20 through conduit 4I into inlet manifold 24 of heat exchanger elements 23 and from its outlet mani through the generator. fold 25 through conduit 43 'to stage 32A of the An object of this invention is to provide an gas turbine. From stage 32A the air flows through improved gas turbine including a steam generator. the heat exchanger 35 through conduit 38 and In the drawing: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic View of one form of 26 another heat exchanger 45 to vburner I'I. A branch 36 from conduit 38 delivers a portion of the invention. the air into the boiler setting to join the products Figure 2 is a similar diagrammatic View of an of combustion flowing therethrough. other form of the invention. The feed water to the boiler enters through pipe The drawing illustrates a steam generating unit 41 and divides, one portion flows through inter comprising upper and lower drums I3, Ii con cooler 43 to economizer inlet manifold I4, and nected by a bank of steam generating tubes I2 thence into the steam and water drum Ii). The and an economizer I3 having tubes connected be other portion flows through pipe 43 into heat ex tween inlet and outlet manifolds I4 and I5 all changer 45. Upon leaving heat exchanger 45 the heated by a furnace I6 which is provided with a water divides, one portion flowing through pipe gaseous fuel burner I'I. Feed water is supplied @il as hot water, for use other than in the boiler through pipe 9 to manifold I4 and manifold I5 unit, and the other portion flows through pipe 5I connects to the steam and water drum I3. to join the water leaving the economizer outlet In Figure 1 a single heat exchanger 20 is shown manifold I5 flowing through the pipe to the steam having tubular elements suspended in the furnace and connected between inlet manifold 2l and out» 40 and water drum I0. In operation free air from compressors 30, 33A let manifold 22. In Fig. 2 there are two similar is delivered to heat exchanger 35 wherein it re heat exchangers 20 and 23, the first correspond ceives heat given up by the exhaust air from tur ing to that of Fig. 1 and the second having tu bine stage 32, 32A, then flows through heat ex bular elements suspended also within the furnace and connected between inlet and outlet mani» 45 changer 2i) and is delivered to turbine stage 32. In expanding through the turbine 3'2, 32A it loses folds 24 and 25. heat which is converted into work used for driving In Figure 1 an air compressor 33, a gas turbine the compressor 30, 30A and electric generator 34. 32 and an electric generator 34 all have their re After leaving turbine stage 32, 32A the air is cooled spective shafts fastened together by couplings within heat exchanger 35 to a temperature suit 34A so that the turbine serves as a common drive able for use in the fuel burning apparatus to for all. Air enters compressor 3U through con which that portion necessary for combustion duit 3I and leaves the compressor to ñow through within the furnace is conducted. The remaining conduit 33 to a heat exchanger 35. From heat surplus portion of this air is delivered into the exchanger 35, the air flows through conduit 3‘I to inlet manifold 2I of heat exchanger 20 and from 55 setting of the boiler unit, to join the products This invention relates to gas turbines and par ticularly to those in which the working fluid passes in heat exchange relationship with the gases and heating surface of a steam generating 2,404,938 3 of combustion flowing through the unit, at a loca -- - duits for conveying compressed fluid from the tion where the products have been cooled to a compressor to the first heater, from the first to the second heater, from the second heater to the turbine, from the turbine exhaust to ñrst heater in out of contact relation to the compressed fluid flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the temperature substantially that of the air. According to the invention, heat exchanger 35 reclaims heat for use in the turbine from the exhaust of the air leaving the turbine in order to cool this air to a temperature suitable for use in the fuel ‘burning apparatus. Heretofore burner, said last conduit having a branch deliv this air was cooled by a heat exchanger through ering a portion of the fluid into the setting at a which cooling water was passed, and the dis charged hot water was in part or Wholly Wasted, location Where theproducts of combustion have been cooled to substantially the same tempera ture of the delivered fluid. resulting in loss of heat from the combined turbo boiler unit. - 4 ` 2. In a power plant having a gas turbine, a fluid compressor and a steam generator unit in~ According to the invention there is a further thermal saving incurred by delivering the surplus 15 cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and portion oi the air leaving heat exchanger 35 into a setting for confining the flow of the products the boiler setting through conduit 36 at a loca of combustion therethrough; ñrst and second tion where the products of combustion have been fluid heaters for heating the compressed fluid; cooled to substantially the air temperature. and a third heat exchanger for cooling the fluid; Heretofore the surplus air was delivered into the 20 conduits for conveying compressed liuid from the lurnace and therein mixed with the products of compressor to the first heater, from the first to combustion. This procedure resulted in lowering the second heater, from the second heater to the the temperature of the products leaving the fur turbine, from the turbine exhaust to first heater nace, and a lower temperature difference between in out of contact relation to the compressed liuid the products and heat absorbing tubes of boiler 25 flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex and economizer. Although the How of products hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the through the tubes was increased, the net result third heat exchanger and thence to the burner, was a loss in the heat transferred to boiler and said last conduit having a branch in advance of economizer. However', by introducing the sur the third heater, with respect to the fluid flow, plus air according to the invention the products 30 delivering a portion of the fluid into the setting of combustion `are undiluted up to the point within the lboiler setting where the surplus air at a location where the products of combustion have been cooled to substantially the same tem perature of the delivered fluid; a feed Water pipe and a branch pipe from the feed Water pipe to is introduced and a net gain in overall heat absorption by the unit from the products and the surplus air results. 35 the steam generator to the third heat exchanger , Another advantage in using heat exchanger 35 for cooling the ñuid flowing therethrough in out in the manner described is that it may be made of contact relation; a pipe from the third heat ol' relatively inexpensive materials, since it is exchanger to the steam generator, and a surplus exposed to low temperatures, when compared to Water pipe connected into the pipe from the third the costly materials used in heat exchanger 2li, 40 heat exchanger. which is subjected to high temperatures. 3. In a power plant having a gas turbine, a Since heater 35 assumes some of the air heating otherwise done by heater 20, the latter may be smaller thereby incurring a further saving in cost and proportionately also overcomes the ob jection of the removal of the dint and slag de posits on the larger heater within the furnace which cause a variation in the heated air tem peratures. Further, in the form shown in Fig. 2, that fluid compressor and a steam generator unit in cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and a setting for confining the ñow of the products 45 of combustion therethrough; ñrst and second fluid heaters for'heating the compressed fluid; and a third heat exchanger for cooling the fluid, conduits for conveying compressed fluid from the compressor to the first heater, from the first to , the second heater, from the second heater to the turbine, from the turbine exhaust to first heater in out of contact relation to the compressed iiuid flowing therethrough thereby cooling said ex hausted fluid, and from the second heater to the 55 third heat exchanger and thence to the burner, portion of the air leaving heat exchanger 35 which is conducted to the burner ll is further cooled by water flowing in indirect relation to the air in heater 45. The cooling water is taken from the boiler feed water supply pipe 4l', con ducted through heater ?5 and thence conducted said last conduit having a branch in advance of by pipe il to join the water leaving economizer the third heater, with respect to the fluid flow, outlet manifold l5 t0 flow into steam and Watel‘ delivering a portion of the fluid into the setting drum líl. Should the water required by the econ at a location Where the products of combustion omizer I3, intercooler 40 and heater 45 exceed 60 have been cooled to substantially the same tem the demand of the boiler It, the surplus may perature of the delivered fluid; a feed water pipe flow through pipe 56 for outside use. However, and a branch pipe from the feed water pipe to by this arrangement of using the relatively cold the steam generator to the third heat exchanger water for supplying heater 45, the temperature for cooling the ñuid flowing therethrough in out of the surplus water is kept to a. minimum incur 65 of contact relation; an economizer; the feed water ring a minimum heat loss from the unit. pipe being connected to the economizer and hot , What we claim is: water pipe from the economizer to the steam 2 l; In a power plant having a gas turbine, a generator; a pipe from the third heat exchanger ñuid compressor and a steam generator unit in cluding an associated furnace, fuel burner and a 70 to the hot water pipe leaving the economizer, and a surplus water pipe connected into the pipe setting for confining the flow of the products of from the third heat exchanger. combustion therethrough; first and second iluid WILBUR H. vARMACOSTl heaters for heating the compressed ñuid; con DAVID M. SCHOENFELD.