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July 30, 1946. A. GOUGE 2,404,958 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed'June 16, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 30, 19460 A. GOUGE 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 16, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 July 30, 1946. A. GOUGE ' 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 16, 1945 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 July 30, 1946. A. GOUGE ' 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 15, 1945 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 ' July 30, 1946. A. GOUGE 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 16, 1943 if /I 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 July 30, 1946. A, GOUGE - 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 16, 1943 17%;: .13. 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 Fig14. July 30, 1946. A. @0116: 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Filed June 16, 1943 '7 Sheets-Sheet 7 Patented July 30, 1946 2,404,956 UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,404,956 WING LIFT MODIFICATION Arthur Gouge, Rochester, England, assignor to ‘Short Brothers‘ (Rochester & Redford) Limited, Rochester, England Application June 16, 1943, Serial No. 491,083 In’ Great Britain November 3, 1942 5 Claims. 1 This invention relates to wings for aircraft in which a trailing portion is separated from the main portion sovthat it may be extended rear wardly to enable the aerodynamic character istics of the wing to be altered during ?ight. In an earlier British Patent No. 443,516, January '7, 1935, the speci?cation described a controlling section which is housed in the trailing portion of (Cl. 244-42) 2 wing merges with the airstream ?owing over the wing surface and prevents turbulence which would otherwise arise. It is desirable to open one slot only when the aircraft is taking off, and to open both slots when approaching to land. When both slots are opened the primary and secondary ?aps are both ex tended to the position where maximum drag and maximum lift are obtained. When one slot only the wing and which can be extended rearwardly by running on circular tracks carried in the main is opened the lift is increased without excessive increase in drag and this opening of one slot only wing structure and in which the extended section, is the best adjustment for taking off. This sepa which has since become known as the “Gouge rate setting of the flaps for take-off and for land flap,” has been caused to extend the wing surface ing, requires the movements of the ?aps to be with the upper portion of the ?ap in a continuous 15 divided into ?rst and second stages, with some curve with the upper portion of the main wing. means for holding one of the flaps in order to The object of this invention is to improve the prevent the opening of the slots simultaneously. high lifting qualities of the aircraft, both i or take The taking off position for the flaps may be off when additional lift is required without un secured either by extending the secondary flap due increase in drag, and for landing when still further increase in lift is desired at the expense 20 only while the primary flap is held securely to the wing, or by extending the primary flap while the of increase in drag, which latter however is then bene?cial, by causing reduction in speed and consequent reduction in the distance of travel when bringing the aircraft to rest. One form of construction in accordance with this invention comprises a main or primary flap which is mounted on runners in the trailing por secondary flap is held securely to the primary flap. The landing position for the flaps is se cured by fully extending both flaps, either by ex tending the primary flap when the secondary flap has completed its adjustment, when the secondary ?ap is carried outwards with the primary ?ap and may have additional angular adjustment im parted to it during the extension of the primary extends the wing at the same time opening a slot 30 ?ap, or in the case of the primary ?ap being ex tended ?rst, the secondary flap remains closed between its forward portion and the rearward against the trailing surface of the primary ?ap, portion of the main wing. Below this primary ?ap a secondary ?ap is mounted on runners con until the latter has completed its outward ad~ justment when it separates and opens the slot tained in the primary flap, and the said sec ondary flap is also in such a, form that when it 35 between the two ?aps. In order that this invention may be clearly is moved rearwardly a slot is opened between its understood reference is made to the accompany upper forward surface and the lower rearward ing drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic surface of the primary flap. section of a wing to which primary and secondary The mechanism for operating the primary flap ?aps are ?tted, and in which the primary flap and the secondary ?ap may be such, that the com with the secondary flap held to it is ready to be mencement of the movement moves the secondary moved outwards simultaneously, the secondary ?ap rearwardly until it has extended its full ?ap not being extended until after the primary travel and has opened the slot between itself and the primary flap, and then the primary flap is flap has completed its rearward movement; Fig. 2 picked up by the mechanism and moved rear is the section showing the ?rst movement with wardly so as to still further extend the double the secondary ?ap still in contact with the pri ?ap until the forward portion of the primary mary flap; and Fig. 3 is a similar cross section with the secondary flap extended. Fig. 4 is a ?ap is separated from the trailing portion of the section of a modi?ed form of wing in which the main wing so as to leave a slot between the pri mary flap and the wing. Both slots are formed 50 primary ?ap and secondary ?ap are shown in the closed position, and Fig. 5 which corresponds to so as to form a rearwardly directed channel the Fig. 2, shows this modi?cation after the ?rst entrance of which is in advance on the under movement when the secondary flap is extended side of the wing, and the exit of which is on the upper portion, so that the ?ow of air through the rearwardly, so as to open a slot between itself and slots from the under side to the upper side of the - the rear under portion of the primary ?ap. Fig. tion of the main wing, in such a manner that when this Primary ?ap is moved rearwardly it 2,404,956 4 3 latch B5, thus anchoring the bell crank lever B1 6 shows the same mechanism in the second posi tion, in which the secondary flap remains ex in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The con tinued rotation of the screw shaft D now ad tended, while it is ‘carried further rearwardly and downwardly by the extension rearwardly of the vances the primary flap and secondary flap for ward together being permitted to do so by the pin B3 on the end of the link 132 travelling freely primary flap. Fig. '7 is the section of another ar rangement of mechanism for moving the primary flap and secondary flap, both flaps being in the in the slot A1 in the main wing A. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 illustrate a slightly modi?ed housed position. Fig. 8 is a similar view of the construction where the screw shaft D is caused mechanism shown in Fig. 7, but with the second ary flap extended, and Fig. 9 is a similar view 10 ?rst to move the secondary ?ap C to an extended position and then by picking up the primary flap with both primary and secondary ?aps extended. . B, and move it rearwardly to further extend the Fig. 10 is a plan of details of mechanism for con secondary flap 0 and to open a slot between the trolling the flaps when moved in their required sequence. Fig. 11 is a section taken on the line forward upper portion of the primary flap B and the rearward portion of the main wing A. In this arrangement the nut D1 is pivoted in XI-XI in Fig. 10, and Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11 showing the parts in different positions. Figs. 13, 14 and 15 are diagrammatic views simi lar to Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of another operating mech anism, and Fig. 16 is a view similar to Fig 2 of yet another operating mechanism. Similar letters of reference apply to like parts in all the ?gures. A is the main wing; B is the primary flap; C is the secondary flap; D is a screwed shaft, which is rotated by suitable means guides l36 and is not connected to the cross bar D2, but thrusts against it to extend the primary flap B only after it has travelled some initial dis tance along the screwed shaft D, which initial movement serves to extend the secondary flap C by way of the link C2 connecting the nut D1 to the secondary flap. During this initial move ment, the primary flap B is locked to the main moves the primary flap B outwardly upon its guiding rails not shown in the drawings. This movement car wing A by a latch B5. An extension on the nut D1 presses this latch aside and so frees the pri mary flap to move rearwardly when the second ary flap has been fully extended as shown in Fig. 5. To prevent the primary flap B from un controlled movement rearwardly as might other wise take place when it is unlocked from the main wing A, a nut 133 is provided on the shaft D. This nut D3 is mounted to rotate freely in a housing supported in guides B7 carried on the ries with the primary ?ap B, the secondary ?ap primary flap. C. Pivoted in the primary ?ap B, is a bell crank lever 131, one arm of which carries a link B2, having a pin B3 on its end, running in a slot A1 in the main wing A. When the primary flap B has arrived at the position shown in Fig. 2, the In Figs. 7, 8 and 9 a slightly modified construc tion is shown in which the secondary flap C is ?rst separated from the primary ?ap B by not illustrated in the drawings and is for the pur- ~ , pose of driving a nut D1 for moving the primary ?ap B and secondary ?ap C as required. Referring particularly to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, ‘the screw shaft D engages with the nut D1 to the cross bar D2 in the primary flap a manner that when the screw shaft it presses against the crossbar D2 and connected B, in such D rotates means of a connecting link C2, which is jointed at C4 to a forward extension C5 which is con nected to the nut D1 travelling on the screw shaft D. In this construction the rotation of the screw shaft D carries the link C5, C4, 02 rear pin B3 on the slot A1 has arrived at the rear ward end of the slot where it is arrested, and then the continued rotation of the shaft D, wardly, thus extending the secondary ?ap G into the position shown at Fig. 8. In this position continuing to move the primary flap B in a rearward direction, causes the bell crank lever B1 to rock and thrust rearward a link B4 which is connected to an arm C1, which, through a C3 carried on the secondary flap C, thus causing the secondary ?ap C to move rearwardly and to the rear end of the forward part C5 of the link bears against a thrust block B9 on the primary flap and the rollers C6 carried on the pin of the joint C4 engage in recesses of the half-pinions E8 which are mounted for rotation in the pri open a slot between its upper surface and the mary ?ap B and are urged by springs, not shown, connecting link C2, pushes rearwardly a bracket undersurface of the primary ?ap B. The bell crank lever B1 is locked to prevent its rocking during the initial movement of the primary ?ap B, by a spring-pressed latch B5, the spring of 5 i' which is not shown. When however the initial movement of the primary ?ap is completed, the screwed shaft D has been moved about its end mounting into a position in which it pushes aside the latch B5 and so allows the bell crank to rock. The continued travel of the nut not only extends the secondary flap C to the position shown in Fig. 3, but it also carries the primary flap further backwards so as to increase the amount of open ing of the slot between the primary ?ap B and the main wing A. On reversing the direction of rotation of the screw shaft D, the primary flap B commences its forward closing movement and carries with it an arm C1 which, through its connecting link C2 and the bracket C3, returns the secondary flap C (H) in a clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 11. The teeth of these half-pinions engage with toothed racks A2 ?xed to the main wing A. Thus, as the link 05, C4, C2 is moved rearwardly by continued rotation of the screw shaft D, the primary flap is extended under the control of the half-pinions, which roll along the racks A2 until the primary flap has reached its limiting position, when the half-pinions have turned over into the position shown in Fig. 12. When the direction of rotation of the shaft D is reversed to retract the ?aps, the rollers C6 move to the left, as seen in Fig. 12, taking with them the half-pinions B8 and consequently the primary flap, until the position shown in Figs. 8 and 11 is attained. The rollers C6 are now free to disengage from the recesses in the half pinions, so that continued movement of the link C5, C4, Cz retracts the secondary ?ap C leaving the half -pinions in the primary ?ap B. Figs. 13, 14 and 15 illustrate a similar construc to its forward closed position. When this posi tion of main wing A, primary flap B and second~ tion has been arrived at, the bell crank lever B1, ary ?ap C in the three positions as previously which has been moved by the link B4, connected to the arm C1 rocks into engagement with the 75 illustrated in respect to the constructions shown 2,404,956 5 6 in Figs. 4, 5 and 6 with the difference that in lower surface of the wing but is extensible rear these new ?gures the means for operating the wardly and downwardly from said recess, said flaps does not contain any positive locking ar ?ap being formed of separable front and rear rangement. The secondary ?ap C in this ar sections whereof the rear section is normally par rangement is illustrated as extending ?rst from 5 tially housed in a recess in the undersurface of the primary ?ap 13 while the latter is held by the front section, and a common actuating mech means of a spring E which continually tends to draw the primary flap B up against the recess in the wing A. The effect of this is therefore to cause the nut D1 on the screw shaft D to begin its rearward movement by ?rst pressing out the secondary ?ap C to the open position and then by continued movement to press out the primary flap B to the extended position. A gate mech~ anism may be applied to limit the number of 15 anism for operating in sequence on the two sec tions of the flap to extend the flap into extended positions in all of which the upper surfaces of said sections form with the upper surface of the wing a substantially continuous curved surface which, apart from the slots, is unbroken and devoid of sudden discontinuities, initial move ment of said actuating mechanism being effec turns of the screw shaft so as to stop the outward tive to extend the rear section only to open a ?rst slot between the same and the front section, movement of the nut D1 when the slot in front of the secondary flap C has been opened. A and continued movement of said actuating mech anism being effective to extend both said sections, second position on the gate enables the screw to open a second slot between the front section shaft to be driven to carry the nut D1 beyond 20 and the trailing edge of the wing. 2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising to the position where both the flaps B and C are a lock for latching the front section of the flap extended with slots open in front of them in the position best suited for effecting a landing. to the wing during the initial extension of the Figure 16 illustrates a somewhat similar mech rear section to open the ?rst slot, and a release anism in which the primary ?ap B is moved 25 device for automatically releasing said look on backwards while the secondary ?ap C is held completion of said initial extension. against it by a spring E1. 3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising In this construction the primary flap B would a spring for preventing extension of the front complete its rearward movement and then the section of the flap during the initial extension of secondary flap C would be moved out against the the rear sections to open the ?rst slot, and means pressure of its spring E1. associated with the actuating mechanism for Although this invention describes a main flap overpowering said spring on completion of said and a secondary ?ap only, further flaps may be initial extension. provided each running on guides on the flaps 4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising immediately in front, all of which would move a rotatable screwed rod mounted in the wing, a step by step in their turn. nut mounted on the rod and constrained to travel Multiple ?aps as described enable the cross-sec axially thereon as the rod is rotated, a link‘con tion pro?le of the ?apped wing to be retained meeting the nut and the rear section of the ?ap, in a reasonably continuous form giving less abrupt and an abutment on the front section of the ?ap change in contour in the extended positions. The arranged to be engaged and moved by the nut circular tracks on which the Various ?aps run on completion of the initial extension of the rear may be eccentric to the under surfaces against section of the flap by said link. which the flaps are housed, or they may be con 5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising centric, in which case the upper surfaces of the a rotatable screwed rod mounted in the wing, a flaps would be shaped to provide the necessary nut mounted on the rod and constrained to travel form of slot when the sections are extended rear Wardly. What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: v 1. The combination with an aircraft wing, of a trailing edge ?ap, which is normally partially axially thereon as the rod is rotated, a link con necting the nut and the rear section of the flap, and a latch securing the front section of the ?ap to the wing, the nut cooperating with the latch to release it on completion of said initial exten sion of the rear section of the flap. housed in a recess in the undersurface of the wing with its lower surface in alignment with the ARTHUR GOUGE.