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Патент USA US2404956

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July 30, 1946.
A. GOUGE
2,404,958
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed'June 16, 1943
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 30, 19460
A. GOUGE
2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 16, 1943
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 30, 1946.
A. GOUGE
' 2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 16, 1945
7 Sheets-Sheet 3
July 30, 1946.
A. GOUGE
'
2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 15, 1945
7 Sheets-Sheet 4
'
July 30, 1946.
A. GOUGE
2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 16, 1943
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/I
7 Sheets-Sheet 5
July 30, 1946.
A, GOUGE
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2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 16, 1943
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7 Sheets-Sheet 6
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July 30, 1946.
A. @0116:
2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Filed June 16, 1943
'7 Sheets-Sheet 7
Patented July 30, 1946
2,404,956
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,404,956
WING LIFT MODIFICATION
Arthur Gouge, Rochester, England, assignor to
‘Short Brothers‘ (Rochester & Redford) Limited,
Rochester, England
Application June 16, 1943, Serial No. 491,083
In’ Great Britain November 3, 1942
5 Claims.
1
This invention relates to wings for aircraft in
which a trailing portion is separated from the
main portion sovthat it may be extended rear
wardly to enable the aerodynamic character
istics of the wing to be altered during ?ight. In
an earlier British Patent No. 443,516, January '7,
1935, the speci?cation described a controlling
section which is housed in the trailing portion of
(Cl. 244-42)
2
wing merges with the airstream ?owing over the
wing surface and prevents turbulence which
would otherwise arise.
It is desirable to open one slot only when the
aircraft is taking off, and to open both slots when
approaching to land. When both slots are opened
the primary and secondary ?aps are both ex
tended to the position where maximum drag and
maximum lift are obtained. When one slot only
the wing and which can be extended rearwardly
by running on circular tracks carried in the main
is opened the lift is increased without excessive
increase in drag and this opening of one slot only
wing structure and in which the extended section,
is the best adjustment for taking off. This sepa
which has since become known as the “Gouge
rate setting of the flaps for take-off and for land
flap,” has been caused to extend the wing surface
ing, requires the movements of the ?aps to be
with the upper portion of the ?ap in a continuous
15 divided into ?rst and second stages, with some
curve with the upper portion of the main wing.
means for holding one of the flaps in order to
The object of this invention is to improve the
prevent the opening of the slots simultaneously.
high lifting qualities of the aircraft, both i or take
The taking off position for the flaps may be
off when additional lift is required without un
secured either by extending the secondary flap
due increase in drag, and for landing when still
further increase in lift is desired at the expense 20 only while the primary flap is held securely to the
wing, or by extending the primary flap while the
of increase in drag, which latter however is then
bene?cial, by causing reduction in speed and
consequent reduction in the distance of travel
when bringing the aircraft to rest.
One form of construction in accordance with
this invention comprises a main or primary flap
which is mounted on runners in the trailing por
secondary flap is held securely to the primary
flap. The landing position for the flaps is se
cured by fully extending both flaps, either by ex
tending the primary flap when the secondary flap
has completed its adjustment, when the secondary
?ap is carried outwards with the primary ?ap
and may have additional angular adjustment im
parted to it during the extension of the primary
extends the wing at the same time opening a slot 30 ?ap, or in the case of the primary ?ap being ex
tended ?rst, the secondary flap remains closed
between its forward portion and the rearward
against the trailing surface of the primary ?ap,
portion of the main wing. Below this primary
?ap a secondary ?ap is mounted on runners con
until the latter has completed its outward ad~
justment when it separates and opens the slot
tained in the primary flap, and the said sec
ondary flap is also in such a, form that when it 35 between the two ?aps.
In order that this invention may be clearly
is moved rearwardly a slot is opened between its
understood reference is made to the accompany
upper forward surface and the lower rearward
ing drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic
surface of the primary flap.
section of a wing to which primary and secondary
The mechanism for operating the primary flap
?aps are ?tted, and in which the primary flap
and the secondary ?ap may be such, that the com
with the secondary flap held to it is ready to be
mencement of the movement moves the secondary
moved outwards simultaneously, the secondary
?ap rearwardly until it has extended its full
?ap not being extended until after the primary
travel and has opened the slot between itself and
the primary flap, and then the primary flap is
flap has completed its rearward movement; Fig. 2
picked up by the mechanism and moved rear
is the section showing the ?rst movement with
wardly so as to still further extend the double
the secondary ?ap still in contact with the pri
?ap until the forward portion of the primary
mary flap; and Fig. 3 is a similar cross section
with the secondary flap extended. Fig. 4 is a
?ap is separated from the trailing portion of the
section of a modi?ed form of wing in which the
main wing so as to leave a slot between the pri
mary flap and the wing. Both slots are formed 50 primary ?ap and secondary ?ap are shown in the
closed position, and Fig. 5 which corresponds to
so as to form a rearwardly directed channel the
Fig. 2, shows this modi?cation after the ?rst
entrance of which is in advance on the under
movement when the secondary flap is extended
side of the wing, and the exit of which is on the
upper portion, so that the ?ow of air through the
rearwardly, so as to open a slot between itself and
slots from the under side to the upper side of the - the rear under portion of the primary ?ap. Fig.
tion of the main wing, in such a manner that
when this Primary ?ap is moved rearwardly it
2,404,956
4
3
latch B5, thus anchoring the bell crank lever B1
6 shows the same mechanism in the second posi
tion, in which the secondary flap remains ex
in the position shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The con
tinued rotation of the screw shaft D now ad
tended, while it is ‘carried further rearwardly and
downwardly by the extension rearwardly of the
vances the primary flap and secondary flap for
ward together being permitted to do so by the
pin B3 on the end of the link 132 travelling freely
primary flap. Fig. '7 is the section of another ar
rangement of mechanism for moving the primary
flap and secondary flap, both flaps being in the
in the slot A1 in the main wing A.
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 illustrate a slightly modi?ed
housed position. Fig. 8 is a similar view of the
construction where the screw shaft D is caused
mechanism shown in Fig. 7, but with the second
ary flap extended, and Fig. 9 is a similar view 10 ?rst to move the secondary ?ap C to an extended
position and then by picking up the primary flap
with both primary and secondary ?aps extended. .
B, and move it rearwardly to further extend the
Fig. 10 is a plan of details of mechanism for con
secondary flap 0 and to open a slot between the
trolling the flaps when moved in their required
sequence. Fig. 11 is a section taken on the line
forward upper portion of the primary flap B and
the rearward portion of the main wing A.
In this arrangement the nut D1 is pivoted in
XI-XI in Fig. 10, and Fig. 12 is a view similar
to Fig. 11 showing the parts in different positions.
Figs. 13, 14 and 15 are diagrammatic views simi
lar to Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of another operating mech
anism, and Fig. 16 is a view similar to Fig 2
of yet another operating mechanism.
Similar letters of reference apply to like parts
in all the ?gures. A is the main wing; B is the
primary flap; C is the secondary flap; D is a
screwed shaft, which is rotated by suitable means
guides l36 and is not connected to the cross bar
D2, but thrusts against it to extend the primary
flap B only after it has travelled some initial dis
tance along the screwed shaft D, which initial
movement serves to extend the secondary flap
C by way of the link C2 connecting the nut D1
to the secondary flap. During this initial move
ment, the primary flap B is locked to the main
moves the
primary flap B outwardly upon its guiding rails
not shown in the drawings. This movement car
wing A by a latch B5. An extension on the nut
D1 presses this latch aside and so frees the pri
mary flap to move rearwardly when the second
ary flap has been fully extended as shown in
Fig. 5. To prevent the primary flap B from un
controlled movement rearwardly as might other
wise take place when it is unlocked from the
main wing A, a nut 133 is provided on the shaft
D. This nut D3 is mounted to rotate freely in
a housing supported in guides B7 carried on the
ries with the primary ?ap B, the secondary ?ap
primary flap.
C. Pivoted in the primary ?ap B, is a bell crank
lever 131, one arm of which carries a link B2,
having a pin B3 on its end, running in a slot A1
in the main wing A. When the primary flap B
has arrived at the position shown in Fig. 2, the
In Figs. 7, 8 and 9 a slightly modified construc
tion is shown in which the secondary flap C is
?rst separated from the primary ?ap B by
not illustrated in the drawings and is for the pur- ~ ,
pose of driving a nut D1 for moving the primary
?ap B and secondary ?ap C as required.
Referring particularly to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, ‘the
screw shaft D engages with the nut D1
to the cross bar D2 in the primary flap
a manner that when the screw shaft
it presses against the crossbar D2 and
connected
B, in such
D rotates
means of a connecting link C2, which is jointed
at C4 to a forward extension C5 which is con
nected to the nut D1 travelling on the screw
shaft D. In this construction the rotation of the
screw shaft D carries the link C5, C4, 02 rear
pin B3 on the slot A1 has arrived at the rear
ward end of the slot where it is arrested, and
then the continued rotation of the shaft D,
wardly, thus extending the secondary ?ap G into
the position shown at Fig. 8. In this position
continuing to move the primary flap B in a
rearward direction, causes the bell crank lever
B1 to rock and thrust rearward a link B4 which
is connected to an arm C1, which, through a
C3 carried on the secondary flap C, thus causing
the secondary ?ap C to move rearwardly and to
the rear end of the forward part C5 of the link
bears against a thrust block B9 on the primary
flap and the rollers C6 carried on the pin of the
joint C4 engage in recesses of the half-pinions
E8 which are mounted for rotation in the pri
open a slot between its upper surface and the
mary ?ap B and are urged by springs, not shown,
connecting link C2, pushes rearwardly a bracket
undersurface of the primary ?ap B. The bell
crank lever B1 is locked to prevent its rocking
during the initial movement of the primary ?ap
B, by a spring-pressed latch B5, the spring of 5 i'
which is not shown. When however the initial
movement of the primary ?ap is completed, the
screwed shaft D has been moved about its end
mounting into a position in which it pushes aside
the latch B5 and so allows the bell crank to rock.
The continued travel of the nut not only extends
the secondary flap C to the position shown in
Fig. 3, but it also carries the primary flap further
backwards so as to increase the amount of open
ing of the slot between the primary ?ap B and
the main wing A.
On reversing the direction of rotation of the
screw shaft D, the primary flap B commences its
forward closing movement and carries with it an
arm C1 which, through its connecting link C2
and the bracket C3, returns the secondary flap C
(H)
in a clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 11. The
teeth of these half-pinions engage with toothed
racks A2 ?xed to the main wing A. Thus, as the
link 05, C4, C2 is moved rearwardly by continued
rotation of the screw shaft D, the primary flap
is extended under the control of the half-pinions,
which roll along the racks A2 until the primary
flap has reached its limiting position, when the
half-pinions have turned over into the position
shown in Fig. 12.
When the direction of rotation of the shaft D
is reversed to retract the ?aps, the rollers C6
move to the left, as seen in Fig. 12, taking with
them the half-pinions B8 and consequently the
primary flap, until the position shown in Figs.
8 and 11 is attained. The rollers C6 are now
free to disengage from the recesses in the half
pinions, so that continued movement of the link
C5, C4, Cz retracts the secondary ?ap C leaving
the half -pinions in the primary ?ap B.
Figs. 13, 14 and 15 illustrate a similar construc
to its forward closed position. When this posi
tion of main wing A, primary flap B and second~
tion has been arrived at, the bell crank lever B1,
ary ?ap C in the three positions as previously
which has been moved by the link B4, connected
to the arm C1 rocks into engagement with the 75 illustrated in respect to the constructions shown
2,404,956
5
6
in Figs. 4, 5 and 6 with the difference that in
lower surface of the wing but is extensible rear
these new ?gures the means for operating the
wardly and downwardly from said recess, said
flaps does not contain any positive locking ar
?ap being formed of separable front and rear
rangement. The secondary ?ap C in this ar
sections whereof the rear section is normally par
rangement is illustrated as extending ?rst from 5 tially housed in a recess in the undersurface of
the primary ?ap 13 while the latter is held by
the front section, and a common actuating mech
means of a spring E which continually tends to
draw the primary flap B up against the recess
in the wing A. The effect of this is therefore
to cause the nut D1 on the screw shaft D to begin
its rearward movement by ?rst pressing out the
secondary ?ap C to the open position and then
by continued movement to press out the primary
flap B to the extended position. A gate mech~
anism may be applied to limit the number of 15
anism for operating in sequence on the two sec
tions of the flap to extend the flap into extended
positions in all of which the upper surfaces of
said sections form with the upper surface of the
wing a substantially continuous curved surface
which, apart from the slots, is unbroken and
devoid of sudden discontinuities, initial move
ment of said actuating mechanism being effec
turns of the screw shaft so as to stop the outward
tive to extend the rear section only to open a
?rst slot between the same and the front section,
movement of the nut D1 when the slot in front
of the secondary flap C has been opened. A
and continued movement of said actuating mech
anism being effective to extend both said sections,
second position on the gate enables the screw
to open a second slot between the front section
shaft to be driven to carry the nut D1 beyond 20 and the trailing edge of the wing.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising
to the position where both the flaps B and C are
a lock for latching the front section of the flap
extended with slots open in front of them in the
position best suited for effecting a landing.
to the wing during the initial extension of the
Figure 16 illustrates a somewhat similar mech
rear section to open the ?rst slot, and a release
anism in which the primary ?ap B is moved 25 device for automatically releasing said look on
backwards while the secondary ?ap C is held
completion of said initial extension.
against it by a spring E1.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising
In this construction the primary flap B would
a spring for preventing extension of the front
complete its rearward movement and then the
section of the flap during the initial extension of
secondary flap C would be moved out against the
the rear sections to open the ?rst slot, and means
pressure of its spring E1.
associated with the actuating mechanism for
Although this invention describes a main flap
overpowering said spring on completion of said
and a secondary ?ap only, further flaps may be
initial extension.
provided each running on guides on the flaps
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising
immediately in front, all of which would move
a rotatable screwed rod mounted in the wing, a
step by step in their turn.
nut mounted on the rod and constrained to travel
Multiple ?aps as described enable the cross-sec
axially thereon as the rod is rotated, a link‘con
tion pro?le of the ?apped wing to be retained
meeting the nut and the rear section of the ?ap,
in a reasonably continuous form giving less abrupt
and an abutment on the front section of the ?ap
change in contour in the extended positions. The
arranged to be engaged and moved by the nut
circular tracks on which the Various ?aps run
on completion of the initial extension of the rear
may be eccentric to the under surfaces against
section of the flap by said link.
which the flaps are housed, or they may be con
5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, comprising
centric, in which case the upper surfaces of the
a rotatable screwed rod mounted in the wing, a
flaps would be shaped to provide the necessary
nut mounted on the rod and constrained to travel
form of slot when the sections are extended rear
Wardly.
What I claim as my invention and desire to
secure by Letters Patent is:
v
1. The combination with an aircraft wing, of a
trailing edge ?ap, which is normally partially
axially thereon as the rod is rotated, a link con
necting the nut and the rear section of the flap,
and a latch securing the front section of the ?ap
to the wing, the nut cooperating with the latch
to release it on completion of said initial exten
sion of the rear section of the flap.
housed in a recess in the undersurface of the
wing with its lower surface in alignment with the
ARTHUR GOUGE.
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