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Патент USA US2404974

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Filed April 7, 1342
2 Sheets-»Sheet l
Filed .April 7p 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented July 30, 1946
James V. Martin, Rochelle Park, N. J.
Application April 7, 1942, Serial No. 438,031
3 Claims.
(Cl. 152-252)
This invention relates to ‘tires for road vehicles,
aeroplanes and military vehicles and aims to pro
ter channel 2 and by means of a U-bolt 5, I
duce a serviceable tire without the use of any
rubber whatever in its composition.
The primary object is to obtain a light weight,
resilient road contacting tire portion so spaced
apart from the vehicle wheel that none of the
wheel or vehicle’s loads can be impinged directly
'f nor severely upon the tread portion; this may
well -be called the first principle of tread- durabil
ity for Without applying this principle early tread
deterioration can be expected regardless of tread
clamp in transverse positions over each said block
a four leaf steel spring 8. The innermost of the
spring leaves is bent into a hook form 'l which
is adapted to hold a loop 8 of a flexible, but non
elastic cord 9 which extends diagonally and out
wardly to certain tread-hoop connections I0 also
in loop form: After passing through the loop I0
`the two portions 9 of the loop 8 merge at Il into
a tread carrying wrapper l2 and the loops I0
grow out of this same wrapper l2 at I2’ on the
opposite sides of the tread hoops I3. Afñxed to
the tread-hoop wrapper I2 are tread ropes I4 of
Another related object is to place the means I
chemically treated istle or other suitable ñbre.
employ to obtain resiliency as near the wheel as 15
The secret of obtaining a serviceable, resilient
possible, so that little flywheel action or gyro
non-rubber tire does not reside chieiiy in the
scopic force will result from high velocities of
selection of novel materials, but in the disposi
the tire, while never-the-less the actual resiliency
tion and arrangement of materials already often
itself will be available far outward where the
proposed for use in connection with tires.
tread portion of the tire exists.
Thousands of eiîorts to create a roadable sub
A still further object is to provide a tire which
stitute for the inflated rubber tire having thus
readily attaches to the central part of the drop
far failed, a full disclosure of my invention should
center rim of present auto wheels and one having
include a brief description of the essentials I sup
ample lateral strength although made of compar
which have been missing in proper combina
atively cheap materials in order to permit Ameri 25 ply
tion in prior efforts: For example of iirst impor
can vehicles to operate at normal speeds and
tance is the matter of comparative total weight
with great safety in spite of the war occasioned
and second the relative disposition of that weight.
rubber shortage.
I employ steel springs 6 to afford resiliency to
Other objects will appear as I proceed to de
tire, these are of metal and metal is relatively
scribe the tire in relation to the several views of
heavy, but it will be noted that I use only ten
the drawings:
of th'ese springs to yieldably attach 20 loops, see
Fig. 1 shows my invention as applied to a con
9 of Fig. 1, also see loops 'l in my earlier Patent
ventional automobile wheel and rim; side eleva
No. 1,954,214, April 10, 1934, and the amount of
metal-cut 01T of the iniiated tire drop center rim
Fig. 2 is a view in section along the line 2-2
at 3 off-sets the weight of these springs both as
of Fig. l and showing in addition certain tape
to amount of weight and also as to distance of
means of binding the cords together.
' Fig. 3 is a View partly in section taken along
weight location from the wheel center.
(For a comparison see typical drop center wheel
rim 23 of Fig. 11, in my prior Patent No. 2,235,378,
March 18, 1941.)
Having in this way supplied the third requi
site, resiliency, for a roadable tire and keeping
the weight down and placed not too far from
the wheel cente;` I must now, without excessive
represent similar parts throughout the several
weight transfer the resiliency to the periphery or
views: ll indicates a typical automobile wheel,
outermost tread portion of the tire: That is the
being the stamped spider thereof, while 2 in
essential place where the resiliency must be had,
dicates the drop center portion of a conventional
but if the weight needed to obtain such resiliency
inflated tire rim; the portions of such conven
tional rim which are not needed when employing 50 were placed far outwardly from the wheel center
gyroscopic and flywheel action would render the
my non-rubber tire have been out oli at the posi*
tire dangerous at high speeds and also such
tion indicated by 3, see Fig. 2.
weight, being immediate to the tread, would give
_ To afford a firm foundation for my resilient
the tread concentrated instead of diffused load
non-rubber tire I insert hard wood or fibre blocks
A'at ten intervals within the U shaped drop cen 55 ings of impact at speed and lessen the tread life
the line 3-3 of Fig. 2 and
Fig. 4 is an enlarged view partly in section
taken along the line 4--4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 shows an alternative arrangement.
Proceeding with the more detailed description
of my invention I shall employ like numerals to
regardless of what materials might be employed
the space for the brake is on the right upper
for the tread.
This diffusing of load imparted to the tread,
direction of Fig. 2.
Thus the tire proper includes the springs, cords
which I classify as another essential of a road
and tread hoops which substitute as a whole for
an inflated tire and are connected to the wheel
able tire, I obtain by employing very flexible
tread hoops I3, preferably made up of lamina
tions of hickory or plastic layers I5 cemented to
layers of fabric I5 and having an outer layer of
exceedingly thin spring steel I‘I also bonded
firmly toithe outer; layer of hickoryandth'e'whole.
rim by means of the U-bolts 5.
c indicates the
extreme deiiected position of the spring 6, such
as might occur when traveling over bumps in the
road at high speed and if more range of resiliency
isdesired Ihave'shown in2- Fig, 5 a 4coil spring I9
as a substitute for part or all of the cord 9 and
iirmly wrapped andV bonded within~ and" to an"
9a and to avoid metal to metal contacts I have
envelope I3 of fabric especially treated for
Weather resistance after the fashion of treatingl
provided a fibre or fabric bushing 2U and at 2|
I indicateailexible steel cable which may be sub
marline. Also cemented to this wrapping of. the,
tread fillers I3 and over the outside of the wrap
per I8 I cement a partial cover I2 wlfii'ch‘has‘theA
stituted for‘the cords 9 in any of the various com
binations. , The spring I9 is shown under extreme
tension as its normal coil position would find the
ropes I4 sewn and cemented to. it and which is
coils- close together.
continuous along the entire bottom portions of
In operation it will be observed my tire is as
light and resilient vertically as an inflated tire
the tread hoops I3, and merges into the loop cords ~
Sat IIand I2'.
The loops thusiformed >also tend to bind tightly
while laterally much
the lateral
strength being easilyjregulated by designing What
thevcover I.2- aroundy the inner wrapper Itl and
thusfI havefa veryl light weight~ structurey con-l
nected by the cords 9 to thesprings 6.V
I. avoid the.l destructive. imposition of direct
loads Ato .the’tread in at least two ways; first,_ since
thehoopsthemselves are‘fiexibla‘halfy or more
of. their.` own., weight. may be considered as
“sprungf i. e. their upper half weight reaches
ever diagonal angles are` desired intol the tire.
The chief surprise result or' triclr'inv the tire-- is
the means by which a fineI range of increasing
curve resiliency is produced inv the‘vertical plane
and way out at thetire treadby means of a few
iniiated tire,v i. e., through tension. from the up
per portions of the said hoopsand only after the
steel springs placed‘so'near'the wheel center that
their weight doesk not’create` destructive ñywheel
action and nevertheless conventional space’is left
for brake drum and demountable‘wheel bolts.'
In practice if much resiliencyv is' desired' coil
springs as' shown in’ Fig; 5 may be’employed‘, but
should follow the rule about proximity’Ä to the
wheel axis and' be placed imn'rediately` near'to
hook l of’spring _6, also all conne'ctions'such as
2B shouldbe tightly'bound> by adhesive tape or
in some‘otherway to prevent'friction of partsl
steel. springs . have . yieldably- delivered their loads
There areV a'great number of materials'which
the actual tread contactwith therroadthrough L
aflexingjmember, secondly, since. the cords. 9- are
flexible: theyV refuse. to carry> anyl axlel loads di
rectly downward. tov the tire tread. and the.V only
way` they do impart such axle or- vehicle loads
is.. even-.more indirectly than byv meansof ‘an ‘
to the cords 9.»for transferof yieldableïmòtion to
40 can be used for the cords SandV for thetreadsIII,"
theflexible tread hoops.
includingminerals with semi-hard chemical bind--l
Thereis> a fifth essential for safety in any tire
andthat- is lateral strength,> whichY I` attain by
means ofthe.diagonalcrossing. of. the .cords Q,
ers„andjplastics could afford an excellentsub
stitutefor the hickory strips of‘ the laminated
ñllersgvbut foran'emergencygwartime' tire I have
afterl the. manner shown; formerv patents ._
indicated.` inexpensive material such‘ as the. well
known. marline, having a tar compoundlover a
andmy copending application, Serial No. 372,628,
ñledLDecember 3i, `l9¢i0,_which maturedinto Pat
grass. base', this will. pick up particlesfrom the
ent .2,331,212, October 5,_ 1943.. In. the present
road’to form an outside coating for the ropesïlll;l
or it might be desirable before the“ tire is run to
roll it over small’ particles' ofîmicav I4’ to acquire
a protective coating.
Also in assemblingY the tire it is best to have
the outeror curb contacting edges of the tread`
case the; springs-'62 act almost,perfectlyV for ver
tical‘ easy motion, while preventing lateral dis
placementVi. e.„the. range of Avertical movement
iscOmparatiVely-vastisee brtoc of Fig, 2), while
the lateral movement :permitted isinñnitesimal;
note thatthe- movement of thespringhoolt 'I
from bto a swings> in an outwardarc.
The` preferred arrangement for. assembling, my
non-rubber tire-iis toadjust the: cords 9 in length
hoops extend laterally farther outward than the
Ul Cl ends 'E ofthe cross springs of thetires.
The hub
cap can be designed to cover the normal positions
ofthe hooks 'IQ
and the spring tv in strengthV so that. when the
full static load is imposed on the wheel and tire
Practice has shown that twoadvantages .stem
from the separate attachment ofeach leaf spring
the ÈODHIOSÈ Spl‘irlgS‘Stakeîtheposition indicated 60 to the wheel. rim; breakingofone or even 4two
in Fig. 2 at a.
attachments allowsthetire tofunction andfthus
The fullline. position 'I of the springend or
avoids collapseandïalso individual replacements
hookçisl the unloaded tire position with enough
can be more easily made.
Having explainedmy invention by meansof a
initial tension to. pull .all of the springs-from their
specific embodiment it will‘readilybe adaptable
relaxedposition b.. Thisinitial tension isv put
into the tii‘eon assemblyand it should be clearly
to wide changesiwithout departing from thespirit
noted'. that neither. the cords .9 nor. the springs .Ei
and teachingsof the invention and what I claim
are .part . cf the .vehicle wheel-,
The wheel is. complete-.having .al hub, notv shown,
to which the disc or. spider. isdemountablymcunt- e
ed vin conventional fashion/and a. wheel rim 2
which isthe outermost> partofanyproper wheel.
The. wheel including its rim isof the rigidv or
nonsresilientv type.
said rim andtwo coil springsattached, one at
eaclilend of the7 said leaf spring and iiexible cables
A. hub. cap . is _usually fitted
on«.tlíe.outside.(left hand portion .ofßFig 2) while
1. .In combination witha vehiclewheel and rim.
having arigid relationto each other, atire in.
cludingl leaf springs and aflexible tread. portion,
cach said leaf spring attached at its. center to the
secured’to said coil springs..and'saidtreadpor
tion and carrying the wheel loads from the said
rim through the said leaf and coil springs to the
radially outer portions of the said tread portion.
the said wheel having a flexible tread portion,
multiple leaf springs each attached separately at
its center to the said rim so that its ends extend
2. A vehicle wheel rim and flexible tire tread
laterally on both sides thereof and one of the said
combination wherein leaf springs are attached at 5 leaves of each of said springs provided With a
spaced intervals to the said rim and arranged
rounded non-metallic bearing at both of its ends,
a coil spring attached to each said bearing and
transversely to the rotary plane thereof, coil
cords leading transversely across the radial plane
springs attached to flexible cords forming a ten
of the said wheel from said coil springs to the
sion connection between the ends of said leaf
lo said tire tread portion.
springs and the said ñexible tread.
3. A wheel including a wheel rim, a tire for
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