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Патент USA US2404976

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July 39f1946-
Filed May l2, „1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
J. MclggLLouGl-a
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ToRN Y ~
Filed „may 12, 1943
J. Ms; @Um
Patented July 30, 1946
Paul J. McCullough and Charles H. Steuber, St.
Louis, Mo., assignors to .L'oseph Pavelka, St.
Louis, Mo.
Application May 12, 1943, Serial No. 486.641
3 Claims.
The invention relates to automatic electric
toasters of the general type illustrated and de
scribed in McCullough Patent No. 2,253,637, is
sued August 26, 1941, and consists in all the novel
features of construction referred to below.
One of the objects of the invention is to sim
plify the assembly of the timing mechanism with
the toasting chambers and toaster frame or cas
ing so that the timing mechanism may be con
structed as a relatively small unit which may be
(Cl. 99-328)
tion of View of Figures 3 and 4, and illustrating
the timing mechanism and showing the parts in
the normal inoperative position.
Figure 7 corresponds to Figure 6 which shows
the parts in a position assumed at the beginning
of a toasting operation.
Figure 8 is a detail horizontal section and
View taken on the line 8_8 of Figurel 5.
Figure 9 is a detail View taken approximately
on the line 9~9 of Figure 5.
Figure 10 is a detail front elevation of the
structure shown in Figures 1 and 2 and is drawn
readily installed, removed and replaced without
disassembling many parts of the machine.
A similar object of the invention is to facilitate
on a smaller scale.
the assembly and application of heater units in
The toaster body or casing is of sheet material
dependently of the timing mechanism and with 15 of substantial thickness and includes a front Wall
out disconnecting a plurality of wires or other
I, a rear wall 2, and end Walls 3, only one of
which is shown. These walls are substantially
Another object of the invention is to provide
continuous and comprise the frame upon which
for accurate adjustment of the timing period by
the remaining parts are mounted. A pan-like
directly limiting the movement of a clock wind
top cover 4 nts over the casing and is detachably
ing member, as distinguished from the limitation
secured thereto by readily removable screws 4a.
of an intermediate member actuating the clock
A bottom cover 5 is detachably secured to the
winding member which leaves the clock winding
casing by screws 'da and angle clips 6 and is
member free to move by its own momentum to a
provided with offset straps ‘I to which support
greater extent than indicated by the adjustable 25 ing feet 8 are attached. The bottom cover is
provided with louvers 9 to facilitate ventilation.
Another object of the invention is to provide
An upright partition I0 extends longitudinally
thermostatic control for the toasting period in
of the casing from end to end and is spaced in
which the thermostat will be free of a Weight or
wardly from the front wall I. It is secured to
load tending to hamper its movement or to give 30 the end walls by bolts 3a. Upright partitions II
it a permanent set.
extend transversely of and between wall 2 and
These and other detail objects of the inven
partition I3. A horizontal bottom partition I2
tion as will appear from the following descrip
extends from end to end of the toaster and from
tion are attained by the structure illustrated in
partition I0 to rear wall 2. Members I0 and II
the accompanying drawings, in which
35 form the sides and front walls of a plurality of
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal section
toasting compartments each of which is provided
through one end of the toaster.
with a pair of electric resistance heating ele
Figure 2 is a top View of the structure shown
ments H positioned adjacent to but spaced slight
in Figure 1, the casing top cover being removed
ly from the respective partition walls II. Hori
and some of the parts sectioned for clearer
Figure 3 is a vertical longitudinal section taken
approximately on the line 3-3 of Figure 2 and
indicating part of the timing unit and the asso
ciated thermostat control thereof when the de
vice is cold.
Figure 4 is a similar illustration showing the
thermostat control in a position assumed when
zontal angular strips I3 on each partition II
space the heating element from the surface of
the partition. Member I2 forms the bottom of
the compartments and is slotted at S between
each pair of heaters to provide circulation of air
between them.
Each element H is of familiar construction
comprising sheets of mica with resistance wires
mounted thereon. The elements are seated in
slotted clips Iiia, secured to partition I0, and
Figure 5 is a vertical transverse section taken 50 I2a, secured to partition I2. The upright rear
approximately on the line 5--5 of Figure 2 and
edge of each heater element is positioned by
illustrating the timing mechanism.
vertical ñanges Mr'. on a member I4 secured to
Figure 6 is a vertical longitudinal section taken
rear wall 2 and having a top flange Mb through
approximately on the line 6_6 of Figure 2, i. e.
'which a screw I5 is threaded. An obtuse angle
looking at the opposite direction from the direc- 55 clip I6 has one end bearing against the under
side of flange I4b and may be drawn up by
tightening screw I5 so that its other leg engages
a terminal of the adjacent heating element and
thrusts it against flange I4a. An electrical con
nection I7 extends between flange |41) and the
corresponding flange of an associated member
with. The disc connection of the clock escape
ment to the winding bar is described in detail in
compartments and cooperates with the four heat
@-8 and member 28, Vwhereupon spring 21 imme
diately raises carriage 24 and the parts mounted
McCullough Patent 2,302,131, issued November
17, 1942. When handle Il!! is depressed and car
rier Z4, member 28 and slice bars 32 are moved
downwardly (Figure '7) , hook 48 projects through
slot 48 therefor in the web of member 28 to
I4 mounting the .adjacent heater element. Cer
hold the vlatter to the clockwork mechanism
tain flanges I4?) are connected by wiring to the
against the pull of spring 2l'. At the same time,
toasting bus bars and complete the electrical
54 on bar 4@ is engaged by the lower
circuit, but these details are not included in the
face of member 28 so that further downward
present application. The heads of screws l5 are
movement of member 28 forces bar 45 downward
readily accessible when the top cover .4 is >re
1y rotating ratchet disc 45 in an anticlockwise
moved and upon loosening these screws .and .clips
direction. .Spring 58 thrusts member 47 clock
IS, the heating element is readily withdrawn for
inspection, repair or replacement. Guard wires
As disc 45 rotates in a clockwise direction, unn
31 extend alongside but are spaced from heating
der control of the clock mechanism, and bar 45.
elements H and are suspended from a U-shaped
members 4'! and 28, slice bars 32 and carriage 24
frame I8, each leg of which overlies one -of the
rise, tail 5l of latch trip member 41 projecting
heating elements and the cross bar of which is
from member 47 approaches the lower end of an
secured by a screw I8a to a clip 2a projecting ~
larm 53 pivoted at 54 on an angle vstrip ’55 adjust
upwardly from the rear wall. A dat plate lsb
ably secured by screws 55 to wall I!) (see Figures
ñanged at its upper end is slidable in opposing
3 and Li). After tail 5I engages the lower end
grooves in the legs of member I8 and forms the
of arm 53, further upward movement of member
rear wall `of the toasting compartment.
Toasting unita-_A single slice Icarrying and . 4l causes rotation of the member about its pivot
on bar 45 resulting in the disengagement of latch
timing unit is provided for two adjacent toasting
ing elements H therein. ‘Each unit is mounted
in the casing so that it may be readily removed
thereon to their uppermost position, as indicated
in Figure 5. The end of the upward movement
cf carriage 24 is cushioned by springs 51 com
pressed between flanges 2I and 25. Spring 59
linked to arm 46 continues the unwinding of ’the
clockwork so that arm 45 eventually returns to
for inspection, repair and replacement. Each
unit includes an upright mounting member 20
detachably secured to front wall I by screws I9
and has an inturned upper flange 2I and a lower
flange 22. Rods. 23 are secured at their upper and
lower edges to flanges 2| and 22 and a carrier
its highest position.
Thermostatic control.---As is well known in the
plate 24 has inturned upper and lower flanges 25
and 26 apertured to receive rods 23 so as to
slide vertically on the latter. Carrier Y24 is biased
to an elevated position by a coil spring 21 hooked
at its opposite ends to flanges 2I and 26 `respec
toaster art, the toasting period may be shortened
after the cold toaster parts have been heated by
one or more successive >toasting operations and,
40 to automatically shorten later successive toasting
A Z-shaped bracket 28 (Figures 5, 6 and ’7)
has >an upper outerii‘ange 28 secured to carrier
24 and a lower inner ñange '38 adjacent to parti
tion wall I0 and provided with a pair of hori
Vzontal slots 3 I. Slice supporting bars 32, one in
each compartment, are mounted upon the legs
33 of a U-shaped yoke (Figure 8) extending
`through lslots, 35 in wall I0. The yoke cross bar
34 is provided with headed studs 35 extending 50
through slots 3| in bracket flange 30 and support
the yoke and slice bars so they may move freely
transversely of the unit and the toasting com
partments. This arrangement readily eccom
modaites variations in the assembly of the toaster
parts and particularly in the alignment -of the
heating units, the heating elements, their guard
periods, it is customary to modify the timing
mechanism by a thermostat. In the present
structure, a thermostat device is associated with
arm 53 for this purpose. The novel features of
this thermostat-and associated structure lform the
subject matter of a divisional application filed
November 23, 1945, Serial No. 630,487. The
transverse partition I2 nearest the end ofthe
'toaster has an elongated opening 6D. A spacer
and heat conducting member 6I extends abreast
of slot E!) and its ends are secured to partition
l! beyond the ends of opening @Il but its inter
mediate portion Vis offset from partition II. The
voiiset portion contacts the mica of the adjacent
heating element H and hence its temperature
corresponds more closely to that of the heater
than does the temperature of the partition. A
bimetal thermostat bar 62 is secured at its inner
end 62a to strip E'l. When bar d2 is cold, it
wires 37 and the slots 36 in wall I8 through which
the legs 33 of the yoke slide,
Each carrier 24 with the parts thereon is ma 60 -assumes the substantially straight full-line posi
tion at the inner side of partition l I and against
nipulated manually by a handle 48 mounted on
strip el, as indicated-in Figure 2. When the bar
an arm. 4I which extends through a slot la in
is heated, it deflects towards the broken line posi
front wall I and also through a slot 280; in
tion, moving through opening 68 to the outer
mounting plate 28 and through an opening 24a
in carrier 2 .
The portion of the arm. passing
through carrier 24 is notched at 43 to engage
opposite sides of carrier ‘24 and is pivotally sup
ported on carrier 24 >by a notched portion of
ñange 29 of bracket 28.
Vside of partition H.
A flat spring 64 is secured at one end tothe
lower end of arm 53 and is connected at its
‘upper end by a link 53 to an extension B2b on
the movable end of thermostat 82.
Spring E4 is
Timing mechanism-A Iclockwork escapernent 70 4stiiî enough to move arm 53 in accordance with
mechanism is indicated generally at C, the main
gear wheel 44 being driven by a ratchet disc 45
which may be connected by an L-shaped winding
bar 48 and a trip latch member 4'I pivotedthere
on to member 28 and the parts associated there 75
>the movement of the swinging end of thermostat
52 unless movement of arm 53 is resisted by ’its
engagement with tail 5I, in which case spring
'64 willyield to accommodate the deflection ofthe
As a. substantial portion of thermostat bar 62
moves through the restricted aperture 60 in the
right hand partition Il, it is subject to the tem
perature of the air in the space between partition
I l and the adjacent end Wall 3 of the casing and
such a result because the winding arm itself
directly contacts the stop. By placing control
knob 70 and its cam and stop flange 13 at one
side of handle arm 4| and the winding arm
shoulder 'I3 beneath the handle arm and the
clockwork at the other side of the handle arm,
these parts are balanced on the removable unit
and the knob "id does not interfere with move
ment of handle 4S.
the warmer the air in this space the more rapidly
the thermostat and bar 53 will be moved to the
right (Figures 2, 3 and 4) and the shorter will
be the toasting period. During the first few
closely successive toasting operations initiated 10
when the toaster is cold, the air in the space
between the partition and the end of the toaster
will check the movement of the thermostat to
the right and prolong the toasting operation ac
cordingly. Hence the thermostat tends to main
tain a substantially uniform degree of toasting
for a given setting irrespective of whether the
Manual termination of toasting operation.
irrespective of the manual adjustment for dark
or light toast just described or the control of
the toasting operation by the thermostat as
previously described, it may be desirable to inter
rupt or to terminate the toasting operation at
any time manually and this is accomplished by
extending handle arm 4| into the plane of latch
t8, as indicated at 4ta (Figures 5 and 7). When
toasting operation is an isolated one or one of
several closely successive operations.
members e8 and 28 are engaged, as shown in
Figure 7, and handle 4i? is raised manually so
as to tilt about its pivotal support on flange 29,
its extension 4in will move downwardly, thrust
The lower end of arm 53 1s slotted to receive
the upper portion of a clip 65 to guide the move
ment of the arm. The outer end of this clip is
flanged at 66 to form a stop limiting the move
ment of arm 53 to the right so that it will not
ing latch 4S to the left (Figure 7) to disengage
bracket 22 and permit spring 21 to raise carriage
interfere with other adjacent toaster parts. If, 25 24 and slice bars 32 and projecting the toast so
due to carelessness, switch control failure, an
it may be removed. This release of latch 48 may
intentional exhaustive test, or other unusual cir
be operated for the purpose of inspecting the
cumstances, the thermostat is subject to such a
toast, and the handle carrier 24 and the slice
high temperature that it tends to move beyond
bars may be lowered immediately afterwards to
the position shown in full lines in Figure 4, such 30 again engage latch 48 and bracket 28 but With
movement is accommodated by deflection of
out applying suilicient pressure to overcome
spring 64 after arm 53 engages stop 66. The
spring 59 between arm 46 and iiange 2l as would
yielding connection between the thermostat and
be necessary to rewind the clock. Hence the
the arm avoids the thermostat taking a perma
toasting operation may proceed from the point
nent set as would result if there were no yielding 35 interrupted by the manual tripping of latch
48 without substantially affecting the toasting
Adjustment of timing period.--It is customary
in toasters of this general type to provide selec
tive means for varying the length of the toasting
An arm 'I9 on carrier 24 is connected to a
toasting operation is controlled by the position 60
switch 8€! which controls the heater circuit, and
it will be understood that lowering of handle 40
and carrier 24 closes switch 80 and that the
switch is opened when the carrier is raised
whether by the timing mechanism or manually.
The details of the switch and its control do not
constitute the present invention and may be
varied without aiîecting the other arrangements
The toaster front wall l has a horizontal slot
8| for receiving a crumb tray 82 and partition
EU is similarly slotted at 83 for the crumb tray.
The crumb tray has a slot S’ in line with the
slot S in bottom partition I2 to permit `ventila
tion of the toasting chamber.
The structure illustrated and described pro
vides a simple, eiîective and durable construc
tion which is readily manufactured and in which
the toasting periods are readily controlled and
the timing units and heating units are readily
removed and replaced independently of each
other and without disassembly of any of the body
of slide 14. The direct engagement of the clock
winding arm 45 by a manually adjustable stop
walls or framing.
The details of the construction may be varied
operation so as to produce light, medium or dark 40
toast as desired. Such adjustment is provided
in the present device by a manually operated
knob 10 mounted on a shaft 'H journalled in
the casing front wall and carrying a cam 12 on
its inner end positioned in the path of move
ment of a horizontal flange T3 on a slide 14
slidably mounted on plate 2Q, slide 14 having
vertical slots 15 receiving headed studs 15 on
plate 2Q to slidably mount member 'I4 on plate
29. A flange 'Il on the lower end of slide 'I4 50
projects beneath a shoulder 18 on arm 46 and
forms a stop for the latter when handle 40 and
the parts associated therewith are lowered. Ob
viously, the position of cam l2 controls the height
of slide 14 and thereby limits the downward 55
movement of arm 46 and carrier 24 when a toast
ing operation is initiated. Hence the period
elapsing before the return movement causes the
release of latch 48` and the termination of the
possesses an advantage over the previous adjust
substantially Without departing from the spirit
ment stop arrangement of McCullough Patent
of the invention and the exclusive use of such
No. 2,253,637, issued August 26, 1941, in which
modifications as come within the scope of the
a part corresponding to carrier 24 is engaged by
claims is contemplated.
an adjustable stop. It has been found that a
What is claimed is:
quick, forceful, downward thrust on the carrier
may cause some momentum in the clock winding
arm resulting in the arm moving downwardly
l. In a toaster, a casing including a toasting
compartment, a heater therein, a slice support,
means for moving said support from an elevated
after the carrier contacts with the stop, Accord
ingly, the timing period would be lengthened and
non-toasting position to a lower toasting position
and return, a clockwork escapement mechanism
there would be no assurance of the desired degree
for controlling the return movement of said sup
of toast being produced, particularly if light toast
port and the toasting period, an arm pivoted at
were desired. The present arrangement avoids 75 one end on the casing and movable at its other
yend to lform kan adjustable stop-to limit ‘the clock
controlled .movement of the support, a thermo-
stat .subject to the temperature in the toasting
compartment, and a connection between said
thermostat and arm vfor movingthe latter about
>its pivot, said connection normally causing the
:arm to follow the movement of thethermostat but
being constructed to yield to accommodate rela
tive movement of the thermostat and arm if the
latter is held against movement.
2. In Va toaster, a casing including a toasting
compartment, a heater therein, a slice support,
.means for'moving said support from an elevated
non-'toasting position to a lower toasting position
and return, a clockwork escapement mechanism ,
for ‘controlling the return movement of said sup
port and the toasting period, there being inter
-engaging latch elements on the mechanism and
the support 4movable with the support, one of said
~’elements having an elongated tail inclined vto the
.path of movement of the elements and by which
«it ymay be tilted to disengage-the latch elements,
ran `arm pivoted Aat one end on the casing and
movable at `its lother end lengthwise o'f said. tail
Ito engage the latter at 'different points in the
upward movement of the yelements and forming
an adjustable -stop for limiting ythe return move
mentcf the support and to vary the toasting Vop
eration, a thermostat subject to the `temperature
in the >toasting compartment, and a connection
between said .thermostat and arm -for moving the
latter about -its pivot, said connection being re
silient‘to accommodatemovement of the thermo»
stat without stressing the latter when the arm is
held' against pivotalmovement.
3. In a toaster, a framework, a ktoasting com
partment provided with a heater, a timing vmech
anism including a Y»part movable relative to the
framework, an adjustable stop associated with the
framework and arranged -to ‘coact with said part
to `'terminate the toasting operati-on, a thermostat
subject to the temperature in the toasting com
partment, and a connection-between said thermo
stat and stop for adjusting the latter, said con
nection being constructed to yield to accom
modate movement >of the thermostat relative to
-the stop if the latter «is held against adjusting
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