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Патент USA US2405002

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ju?y 3@, 1946»
c. c. WHITTAKER ETAL
2,4059%
CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDOES
Original Filed Nov. 24, 1943
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c. c. WHITTAKER ETAL
2,405,002
CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDOES
Original Filed Nov. 24, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTORS
C/mr/es éfl'i/?iffaker and
?ueééf Jbnes.
was
ATTORNEY
-
2,405,002
Patented July 30, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE
2,405,002
CONTRQL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDO-ES
Charles C. Whittaker and Ruel C. Jones, Pitts
burgh, Pa., assignors to Westinghouse Electric
Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corpora
tion of Pennsylvania
, Original application November .24, 1943, Serial
No. 511,581. Divided and this application 00
tober 17, 1944, Serial No. 559,077
7 Claims. (Cl. 114—20)
l.
Our invention relates to systems of control and,
more particularly, to systems of control for tor
pedoes ‘being utilized for exercise runs. The in
vention presented herein is a division of our
patent application Serial No. 511,581, ?led No
vember 24, 1943 and entitled “Torpedo controls.”
The present war has brought into use the elec
trically driven torpedo but in such torpedoes for
certain operations gas flasks are still necessary
for the operation of certain devices. While it is
ordinarily not important to provide for certain
speci?c operations, as the disconnection of an
electric motor from the ‘propulsion means, on the
final run, it does become rather important how
the system of control is utilized for a torpedo
during exercise runs.
’ Further, since space is at a premium in a tor
pedo so that a maximum explosive charge may
be carried during war shots, all of the devices
must be relatively small, compact and yet suf
ficiently inexpensive not to raise the cost of a
torpedo to excessive ?gures.
One object of our invention is the provision of
a system of control for an electrically driven
torpedo wherein the source of energy to the pro
pulsion motor is disconnected a substantially def
inite time interval after a predetermined run of
the torpedo has been completed.
A broad object of our invention is the provi
2
Fig. '7 is a longitudinal sectional view of a low
pressure relief valve.
Referring to Fig. 1, I designates the torpedo
having the exercise head 2 attached thereto, 3
designates the after-body of the torpedo in the
region of the starting valve 4. This starting, or
trigger, valve 4 is provided with a trigger arm 5
coacting with the dog 6 on the torpedo tube and
this valve is designed to be opened at the opera
tion of arm 5 when the torpedo is ?red. For the
operation of the pneumatic devices a gas ?ask ‘I,
which may contain an- under relatively high pres
sure, as 3000 to 4000 pounds per square inch,
is utilized. This ?ask is connected to the trig
ger valve 4 actuated by the starting trigger 5
and, when opened, supplies air under pressure to
the four-Way valve 9 and thence to the pneu
matic switch l0 during one stage of operation
and for another stage of operation to the four
way valve 9, and then through the tube I I to the
interior of the exercise head 2.
A battery 12 is utilized for supplying the en
ergy to the propulsion motor l3. This propulsion
motor I3 is of the series type having no com
mutating poles but is controlled for operation at
constant speed by the governor mechanism M
for shifting the brush ring 15 so that constant
motor speed is maintained.
The four-way valve is also designed to be oper
sion of means for facilitating the recovery of a 30 ated by the governor mechanism to shift the four
way valve from the connection shown to such a
torpedo at the end of an exercise run.
connection that the ?ask l is connected to the
A more speci?c object of our invention is the
chamber of the exercise head and the conduit
provision of pneumatic time limit means for rap
I6, for supplying the pneumatic switch with gas
idly effecting the opening of a pneumatically op
erated electric switch when the pressure for actu 35 pressure, is connected to the pressure relief valve
H.
ating the switch decreases to a given value.
A better understanding of some of the details
The objects hereinbefore recited are merely il
of our invention can probably be had from a
lustrative, because many other objects and ad
study of a typical sequence of operation during
vantages will become apparent from a study of
the following speci?cation and the accompany 40 an exercise run. This operation is as follows:
The instant the torpedo is ?red, the lever arm 5
ing drawings, in which:
is actuated by the dog 6 and the valve 4 is opened
Figure 1 is a schematic showing of our system
whereupon gas from the flask l is admitted to the
of control for facilitating the propulsion of a
conduits 8 and 8’. The conduit 8’ leads to var
torpedo for a given length of time and the recov
45 ious devices on the torpedo having no connection
ery of the torpedo at the end of a run;
with the invention herein described. The conduit
Figs. 2 and 3 are showings even more sche
8 leads to the four-way valve 9 and, as shown by
matic than those in Fig. 1, illustrating modi?ca
the broken lines, provides gas pressure to the
tions of our system of control;
pneumatically operated switch I 0 which is there
Fig. 4 is a side view of a four-way valve uti 50 upon operated with a short time delay to close
lized in our system of control;
the contacts l8 to thus establish a circuit from
Fig. '5 is an end view of the subject matter
the battery [2 through the motor ?eld winding
[9, the motor armature, conductor 20, and con
shown in Fig. 4;
tacts [8 back to the battery l2. The motor thus, a
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of a pneu
maticallyoperable switch; and
55 very short time after the torpedo leaves the ?ring
2,405,005‘;
3
4
tube, assumes the propulsion of the torpedo driv
at the instant the four-way valve 9 is operated
ing it through suitable gyroscopic controls
towards the target. If an exercise run only is
contemplated, no war head is used, but the exer
may be 3000 pounds .per square inch, it will slow
cise head 2 is used.
'
'
The governor mechanism Ill through suitable
gearing operates the stem 2! toward the right,
ly be dissipated by the pressure relief valve I‘!
and once the pressure has dropped to a given
low value which may be 350 to 400 pounds per
square inch, the pressure for maintaining the
. pneumatically operable switch closed is sudden
shifting the brushes to maintain the motor at a
ly removed and the switch contacts iii are
constant speed. After the run is substantially
rapidly opened.
completed, the dog 22 on stem 2| actuates the 10
With the high pressures encountered, the pres
latch lever 53 to release the lever arm '61 coupled
sure relief valve can usually be depended upon
to the relatively strong spring 25 which is under
without special design to effect the operation of
considerable stress. This spring causes the four
way valve to rapidly rotate in a clockwise direc
the switch It to its open position within a rela
tively short time, as 15 to 20 seconds. If, how
tion connecting the conduit ‘8 to the conduit ll,
15 ever, it is feared that this valve may actually be
thus driving the ballast water from the exercise
head and making the torpedo buoyant so that
perfectly gastight and that the pneumatically
operable switch be also perfectly gastight, then a
recovery may be facilitated.
'
restricted exhaust port may be provided in the
It is important that the switch contacts [8 and
system supplying pressure to the switch. In Fig.
other devices may not be injured by a slow op 20 2, we have shown this restricted opening ll’ at
eration of the pneumatic switch 10. The con
the four-way valve so thatwhen the four-way
duit It, therefore, by the operation of the four
valve is operated to the position to supply the
way valve G is connected to the low pressure re
gas to the exercise head, conduit 15 is connected
lief valve ll. This low pressure relief valve I‘!
to the port ll. At such time the conduit supply
after a substantially predetermined interval of 25 ing pressure to the switch is connected to the re
time, namely, at a predetermined pressure in
stricted exhaust port in the four-way valve, and
conduit is suddenly dumps the pressure at the
since, as shown, the low pressure relief-valve is
time remaining in this conduit I6, thus permit
interconnected with this conduit, it will also
ting a rapid opening of the contact members l8 of
function to cause rapid operation of this switch.
the pneumatic switch H3.
In Fig. 3 we have shown a scheme of control
The low pressure relieve valve (referring to
not requiring a four-way valve. In this case, the
Fig. 7) is provided with a base 3% for connection
valve 155 is a simple valve for merely opening the
to the pneumatic system and for connection to
connection of the flask to the exercise head. It
the cylindrical portion 3| of the valve, This cy
will be noted that in this case the switch re
lindrical portion is divided in two chambers by a 35 mains connected to the flask, but since substan
partition 32 provided with the valve seat 33 for
tially all of the gas under pressure from the flask
receiving a ball valve 34. This ball is held within
is utilized to expel the ballast water from the
a cup-shaped piston 35 disposed in the lower
exercise head, the pressure will naturally drop
chamber of the cylindrical valve construction.
in the pneumatic system and after a given time
The upper chamber is provided with discharge 40 the low pressure relief valve will function to
openings 36 and has internal threads 31 for re
rapidly effect the operation of the pneumatically
ceiving the valve adjusting nut 38. This nut once
operable switch.
adjusted may be held in adjusted position by the
The pneumatically operable switch comprises
lock nut 39. This nut further has an axial open
a connection 41 to be connected to the conduit
ing for receiving the stem 40 provided with the
£6, a cylinder 48 for housing the piston 49. This
rim til at the base and. the projection 42 there
piston is designed as a valve at the region 50 and
below, contacting with the upper surface of the
coacts with the valve seat 5| in the region of the
ball valve til. A spring supporting collar 43 rests
mid-portion of the cylinder 48. The reduced
on the rim lil and against the lower or d0wn~
upper end of the piston is rigidly connected to
wardly facing region of the adjusting nut. 38.
The downwardly facing region is provided with
an annular chamber so that a spring 44 may be
supported between the collar and the base of the
chamber in nut 38. This spring is selected to
have a predetermined strength and by means of
suitable adjustment of the nut 38 may be caused
to press downwardly 0n the ball valve 38 with a
predetermined force.
This low pressure relief valve is designed to
have a relatively slow leak past the ball valve 34,
so that the pressure in the lower chamber once
the pressure of the ?asl; is removed is caused to
disappear slowly, but when this pressure in the
lower chamber has decreased to a sufliciently low
value, the pressure on the lower portion of the
ball valve becomes less than the pressure of the
projection 42 acted upon by the spring 44. Then
the ball valve 314 is moved downwardly and the
lower chamber of vthe relief valve is open direct
ly to the discharge openings 36, thus dumping the
pressure in the lower chamber. ’
the inverted cup-shaped member 52 having the
re-entrant shoulder connection 53. The upper
outer portion of the cylinder is provided with a
collar 54 and a spring 55 under compression is
disposed between the collar 54 and the re-entrant
shoulder connection to. thus normally hold the
piston in‘ the position shown.
.
The piston is provided with a rod having the
stop nut 56. On this rod is disposed a contact
member 5'! suitably insulated from the rod by the
insulating sleeve 58. The contact ‘member 5'1’
slides freely on the piston rod and is designed to
resiliently engage the contact members l8.
To effect this resilient engagement of the con
tacts, a spring 59 under compression is disposed
' between the lower face of the contact members
and a suitable circumferential outer ledge on the
outer portion of the cup-shaped member 52.
The piston is designed to ?t somewhatlloosely
in the cylinder so that when pressure is admitted
to the conduit i6, there-is some leakage of the
gas past the piston and the switch is thus not
operated with too much impact so. as to injure
any portion of the switch. ,Hrqwever, once the
This lower chamber, as shown in Fig. 1, is con
nected to the conduit [6 supplying vpressure to the
pneumatically operable switch 10. It is thus ap
piston is forced upwardly, the conical portion 50
parent that although the pressure in conduit H5 75 engages the valve seat 5|, thus providing a sub
72,405,002
5
6
necting said‘ load device to said source of elec
tric energy; a trigger valve, actuated upon ?ring
of the torpedo, for connecting the source of pres
sure to said‘ pneumatic switch to cause operation
of said‘ switch to then connect said source of
electric energy to said electric load device, means
responsive to a predetermined operation of said
load device for disconnecting the source of pres
stantiall'y perfect seal against any leakage of
the gas from the switch.
‘The four-way valve is provided with the neces—
sary four connections to the flask, pneumatic
switch, exercise head, and relief valve, respec
tively. This valve has its lever 5i.’ connected to
a link lil which, in turn, is connected to another
lever 62 which may be extended so as to form
a handle for resetting this valve manually. The
sure from the pneumatic switch, and means op»
four-way valve is provided with a tripping latch 10 erable a predetermined time after the disconnec
tion of said pneumatic switch from said source of
63 biased in a clockwise direction about the pivot
pressure to rapidly decrease the actuating pres
pin 64 by the spring 65 disposed between the ledge
sure from said pneumatic switch to thus cause
65 and the right-hand end of the latch member
rapid opening of said pneumatic switch thereby
53. The dog 22 on the governor mechanism, at
disconnecting the load device from said source
the end of the run, is designed to move the latch
of electric energy.
'
'
r
member 63 counterclockwise whereupon the dog
.3. In a system of control for a torpedo, in
6?‘ on the hub of the lever 62 is released. The
combination, a source of gas under relatively
spring 25 thus causes the levers 5i? and E2 to raphigh pressure; a source of electric energy; an
i'dly move in a counterclockwise direction through
an angle of substantially 96° to thus change the 20 electric load device; a gas pressure line provided
with a region permitting a relatively slow leak
connection from that shown in Fig. l to such a
age of gas from the gas pressure line; a pneu
connection that conduits 8 and ii are intercon
nected, and conduit it and the reiief valve are
interconnected.
'
While we have shown but few systems of con
matic switch for connecting said load device to
said source of electric energy; a trigger valve,
O
trol and but single embodiments of the details,
we do not wish to be limited to the particulars
shown or described but wish to be limited only by
the scope of the claims hereinafter recited.
We claim as our invention:
1. In a system of control for a torpedo, in com
bination, a battery, a motor for driving the tor~
pedo, a source of gas under relatively high pres
sure, an exercise head for the torpedo which is
to be ?lled with gas, as air, at the end of an
actuated upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect
ing the pressure line to the source of pressure to
thus cause operation of said pneumatic switch to
connect said load device to said source of elec
tric energy; and means operable by a predeter
mined operation of said load device to discon
nect said pressure line from said source of pres
sure, whereby said gas leakage causes a decrease
in pressure in the pressure line; and means re
sponsive to a predetermined gas pressure, less
than the pressure of said source of pressure, for
rapidly dumping the pressure in the pressure line
exercise run to make the torpedo buoyant to fa
to thus cause rapid operation of said pneumatic
cilitate recovery of the torpedo, a governor actu
switch to open position.
ated means for maintaining the speed of the
4. In a system of control for a torpedo which
motor substantially constant till the battery is 40 includes electrical devices and is ?red from a
substantially exhausted, a trigger actuated valve
torpdo tube, in combination, a source of elec
operable to open when the torpedo is ?red to thus
trical energy; an electric load device; a pneu
connect the source of gas pressure to various de
matic switch for controlling the circuit arrange
vices in the torpedo for effecting various opera
ment of said lead device and source of electric
tions, a spring biased control valve having a rela 45 energy; a source of gas under pressure; conduit
tively small leakage port, a pneumatically oper
means, including means providing a relatively
able spring biased switch for connecting the
small leakage of gas from the conduit means
motor to the battery, a minimum pressure valve
when containing gas under pressure; a trigger
disposed to be coupled to the pneumatically op
valve; a dog on the torpedo tube for actuating
erable switch, said control valve being normally 50 the trigger valve, when the torpedo is ?red, to
held in a given position to connect the source of
connect the source of gas pressure to the conduit
gas to the pneumatically operable switch to thus
means; switch control means for connecting the
effect the connection of the motor to the battery
pneumatic switch to the conduit means to thus
an instant after the trigger valve is opened by
cause interconnection of the load device with said
the ?ring of the torpedo, means responsive to a 55 source of electric energy; means, operable after
a predetermined operation of the load device, for
given operation of the motor speed control means
operating said switch control means to disconnect
for releasing said spring biased control valve
the pneumatic switch from the source of gas
whereby the spring causes rapid operation or the
pressure; and means responsive to a given gas
valve to disconnect the pneumatically operable
switch and the minimum pressure control valve 60 pressure in the conduit means for suddenly dump
from the source of gas and connect them to the
ing the gas pressure in the conduit means to
thus rapidly operate said pneumatic switch to
leakage port and connect the exercise head to the
disconnect the load device from the source of
source or gas to make the torpedo buoyant, said
electrical energy.
minimum pressure control valve being operable,
5. In a system of control for a torpedo that is
when the operating pressure for the pneumati 65
?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, a
cally operable switch decreases to a given low
source of electric energy; a load device disposed
value by reason of the relatively slow leakage of
to be energized by said source of electric energy,
gas through the leakage port, to rapidly exhaust
a pneumatic switch having contacts for connect
the gas from the pneumatically operable switch
to thus effect a substantially snap-action like dis 70 ing the load device to the source of electric en
connection of the motor from the battery.
2. In a system of control for a torpedo, in
combination, a source of gas under relatively
ergy; a source of gas under relatively high pres
sure; gas conducting conduits having some leak
age at one point; a gas flow control valve; a dog
on the torpedo tube; a trigger valve, actuated by
high pressure; a source of electric energy; an
electric load device; a pneumatic switch for con- 75 said dog upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect
2,405,002
7
ing' certain of said conduits to the source of.‘ gas
pressure; said gas flow control valverhaving two
operative positions, in one position the pneu
matic switch is connected to the source of gas
pressure, and in the second position the pneu
matic‘ switch is connected to the leaky portion of
said ' conduits
-
only,
whereby
the, pneumatic
8
sponsiveto a predetermined operation of the load
device for causing the operation of the flow con
trol valve from its ?rst position to its second
position; and means operable when the pressure
in the pneumatic switch has decreased to a given
value, because of said leakage, to suddenly dump
the actuating pressure for the pneumatic switch
to thus e?ect sudden disconnection of the load
switch is subjected to a decreasing pressure;
means responsive to a predetermined operation
device from the source of electric energy.
of the load device for causing the operation of 10
'7. In a system of control for a torpedo that is
the ?ow control valve from its ?rst position to
?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, an
its second position; and means operable when
electric motor for propelling the torpedo; a bat
the pressure in the pneumatic switch has de
tery; a source of as under relatively high pres
creased to a given value, because of said leakage,’
sure; a pneumatic switch for connecting the
to suddenly dump the actuating pressure for
motor to the battery; said pneumatic switch in
the pneumatic switch to thus effect sudden dis
cluding a compression chamber of variable vol
connection of the load device from the source of
ume that permits ?uid leakage only during the
electric energy.
'
movement of the switch from its open position
6. In a system of control'for a torpedo that is
?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, a
source of electric energy; a load device disposed
to be energized by said source of electric energy;
a pneumatic switch having contacts for con
necting the'load device to the source of electric
energy; said pneumatic switch’ having a compres_
sion cylinder to which gas under pressure may be
admitted, a leaky piston in the’ cylinder, a valve
seat in the cylinder, said piston having a seat
ing surface for coaction with the valve seat‘in
the cylinder so that admission'of gas under high _
pressure to the cylinder will actuate the piston
with some delay till the valve seating surfaces
engage making the compression cylinder leak
proof; a source of gas under relatively high pres
sure; gas conducting conduits having same leak- ;
age at one point; a gas flow control valve; a dog
on the torpedo tube; a trigger valve, actuated by
said dog upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect
Iing cetrain of said conduits to the source of gas
pressure; said gas ?ow control valve having two
operative positions, in one position the pneu
matic switch is connected to the source of gas
pressure, and in the second position the pneu
matic switch is connected only to the leaky por
tion of conduits, whereby the pneumatic switch ‘
is subjected to a decreasing pressure; means re
to its closed position, whereby a relatively short
time delay in operation is obtained and the speed
of operation of the switch is maintained within
safe limits with gas pressures of relatively high
value; a trigger valve; a dog on the torpedo tube
for actuating said trigger valve at the moment
of ?ring of the torpedo to thus connect 'the
source of vgas pressure to the chamber of vari
able volume of the pneumatic switch to thus
e?‘ect the connection of the propulsion motor to
the battery a short time after operation of the
trigger valve; motor speed control means; an
exercise head for the torpedo; a gas conduit hav
ing a slow leakage; ‘means operable by said speed
control means for transferring the connection
of the pneumatic switch from the source of gas
pressure to'the gas conduit having the slow leak
age and for connecting the source of gas pres
sure to the exercise headrto facilitate recovery
of'the torpedo; and pressure responsive means
operable after the gas pressure in the gas conduit
has decreased to a given value because of leak
age to dump the pressure in the gas conduit to
time eiiect a rapid opening of the pneumatic
switch.
CHARLES C. WHITTAKER.
RUEL C. JONES.
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