Патент USA US2405002код для вставки
ju?y 3@, 1946» c. c. WHITTAKER ETAL 2,4059% CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDOES Original Filed Nov. 24, 1943 " WETNESSES: . W /MM 5 2 Sheets-Sheet l a 667area" / ail/?lgglzpToRs 0/ .1 / are/aw I Fue/ 6’. Lib/res. 6M 6 - ATTORNEY M5? 3% 14- c. c. WHITTAKER ETAL 2,405,002 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDOES Original Filed Nov. 24, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i795 2 - INVENTORS C/mr/es éfl'i/?iffaker and ?ueééf Jbnes. was ATTORNEY - 2,405,002 Patented July 30, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE 2,405,002 CONTRQL SYSTEM FOR TORPEDO-ES Charles C. Whittaker and Ruel C. Jones, Pitts burgh, Pa., assignors to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corpora tion of Pennsylvania , Original application November .24, 1943, Serial No. 511,581. Divided and this application 00 tober 17, 1944, Serial No. 559,077 7 Claims. (Cl. 114—20) l. Our invention relates to systems of control and, more particularly, to systems of control for tor pedoes ‘being utilized for exercise runs. The in vention presented herein is a division of our patent application Serial No. 511,581, ?led No vember 24, 1943 and entitled “Torpedo controls.” The present war has brought into use the elec trically driven torpedo but in such torpedoes for certain operations gas flasks are still necessary for the operation of certain devices. While it is ordinarily not important to provide for certain speci?c operations, as the disconnection of an electric motor from the ‘propulsion means, on the final run, it does become rather important how the system of control is utilized for a torpedo during exercise runs. ’ Further, since space is at a premium in a tor pedo so that a maximum explosive charge may be carried during war shots, all of the devices must be relatively small, compact and yet suf ficiently inexpensive not to raise the cost of a torpedo to excessive ?gures. One object of our invention is the provision of a system of control for an electrically driven torpedo wherein the source of energy to the pro pulsion motor is disconnected a substantially def inite time interval after a predetermined run of the torpedo has been completed. A broad object of our invention is the provi 2 Fig. '7 is a longitudinal sectional view of a low pressure relief valve. Referring to Fig. 1, I designates the torpedo having the exercise head 2 attached thereto, 3 designates the after-body of the torpedo in the region of the starting valve 4. This starting, or trigger, valve 4 is provided with a trigger arm 5 coacting with the dog 6 on the torpedo tube and this valve is designed to be opened at the opera tion of arm 5 when the torpedo is ?red. For the operation of the pneumatic devices a gas ?ask ‘I, which may contain an- under relatively high pres sure, as 3000 to 4000 pounds per square inch, is utilized. This ?ask is connected to the trig ger valve 4 actuated by the starting trigger 5 and, when opened, supplies air under pressure to the four-Way valve 9 and thence to the pneu matic switch l0 during one stage of operation and for another stage of operation to the four way valve 9, and then through the tube I I to the interior of the exercise head 2. A battery 12 is utilized for supplying the en ergy to the propulsion motor l3. This propulsion motor I3 is of the series type having no com mutating poles but is controlled for operation at constant speed by the governor mechanism M for shifting the brush ring 15 so that constant motor speed is maintained. The four-way valve is also designed to be oper sion of means for facilitating the recovery of a 30 ated by the governor mechanism to shift the four way valve from the connection shown to such a torpedo at the end of an exercise run. connection that the ?ask l is connected to the A more speci?c object of our invention is the chamber of the exercise head and the conduit provision of pneumatic time limit means for rap I6, for supplying the pneumatic switch with gas idly effecting the opening of a pneumatically op erated electric switch when the pressure for actu 35 pressure, is connected to the pressure relief valve H. ating the switch decreases to a given value. A better understanding of some of the details The objects hereinbefore recited are merely il of our invention can probably be had from a lustrative, because many other objects and ad study of a typical sequence of operation during vantages will become apparent from a study of the following speci?cation and the accompany 40 an exercise run. This operation is as follows: The instant the torpedo is ?red, the lever arm 5 ing drawings, in which: is actuated by the dog 6 and the valve 4 is opened Figure 1 is a schematic showing of our system whereupon gas from the flask l is admitted to the of control for facilitating the propulsion of a conduits 8 and 8’. The conduit 8’ leads to var torpedo for a given length of time and the recov 45 ious devices on the torpedo having no connection ery of the torpedo at the end of a run; with the invention herein described. The conduit Figs. 2 and 3 are showings even more sche 8 leads to the four-way valve 9 and, as shown by matic than those in Fig. 1, illustrating modi?ca the broken lines, provides gas pressure to the tions of our system of control; pneumatically operated switch I 0 which is there Fig. 4 is a side view of a four-way valve uti 50 upon operated with a short time delay to close lized in our system of control; the contacts l8 to thus establish a circuit from Fig. '5 is an end view of the subject matter the battery [2 through the motor ?eld winding [9, the motor armature, conductor 20, and con shown in Fig. 4; tacts [8 back to the battery l2. The motor thus, a Fig. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of a pneu maticallyoperable switch; and 55 very short time after the torpedo leaves the ?ring 2,405,005‘; 3 4 tube, assumes the propulsion of the torpedo driv at the instant the four-way valve 9 is operated ing it through suitable gyroscopic controls towards the target. If an exercise run only is contemplated, no war head is used, but the exer may be 3000 pounds .per square inch, it will slow cise head 2 is used. ' ' The governor mechanism Ill through suitable gearing operates the stem 2! toward the right, ly be dissipated by the pressure relief valve I‘! and once the pressure has dropped to a given low value which may be 350 to 400 pounds per square inch, the pressure for maintaining the . pneumatically operable switch closed is sudden shifting the brushes to maintain the motor at a ly removed and the switch contacts iii are constant speed. After the run is substantially rapidly opened. completed, the dog 22 on stem 2| actuates the 10 With the high pressures encountered, the pres latch lever 53 to release the lever arm '61 coupled sure relief valve can usually be depended upon to the relatively strong spring 25 which is under without special design to effect the operation of considerable stress. This spring causes the four way valve to rapidly rotate in a clockwise direc the switch It to its open position within a rela tively short time, as 15 to 20 seconds. If, how tion connecting the conduit ‘8 to the conduit ll, 15 ever, it is feared that this valve may actually be thus driving the ballast water from the exercise head and making the torpedo buoyant so that perfectly gastight and that the pneumatically operable switch be also perfectly gastight, then a recovery may be facilitated. ' restricted exhaust port may be provided in the It is important that the switch contacts [8 and system supplying pressure to the switch. In Fig. other devices may not be injured by a slow op 20 2, we have shown this restricted opening ll’ at eration of the pneumatic switch 10. The con the four-way valve so thatwhen the four-way duit It, therefore, by the operation of the four valve is operated to the position to supply the way valve G is connected to the low pressure re gas to the exercise head, conduit 15 is connected lief valve ll. This low pressure relief valve I‘! to the port ll. At such time the conduit supply after a substantially predetermined interval of 25 ing pressure to the switch is connected to the re time, namely, at a predetermined pressure in stricted exhaust port in the four-way valve, and conduit is suddenly dumps the pressure at the since, as shown, the low pressure relief-valve is time remaining in this conduit I6, thus permit interconnected with this conduit, it will also ting a rapid opening of the contact members l8 of function to cause rapid operation of this switch. the pneumatic switch H3. In Fig. 3 we have shown a scheme of control The low pressure relieve valve (referring to not requiring a four-way valve. In this case, the Fig. 7) is provided with a base 3% for connection valve 155 is a simple valve for merely opening the to the pneumatic system and for connection to connection of the flask to the exercise head. It the cylindrical portion 3| of the valve, This cy will be noted that in this case the switch re lindrical portion is divided in two chambers by a 35 mains connected to the flask, but since substan partition 32 provided with the valve seat 33 for tially all of the gas under pressure from the flask receiving a ball valve 34. This ball is held within is utilized to expel the ballast water from the a cup-shaped piston 35 disposed in the lower exercise head, the pressure will naturally drop chamber of the cylindrical valve construction. in the pneumatic system and after a given time The upper chamber is provided with discharge 40 the low pressure relief valve will function to openings 36 and has internal threads 31 for re rapidly effect the operation of the pneumatically ceiving the valve adjusting nut 38. This nut once operable switch. adjusted may be held in adjusted position by the The pneumatically operable switch comprises lock nut 39. This nut further has an axial open a connection 41 to be connected to the conduit ing for receiving the stem 40 provided with the £6, a cylinder 48 for housing the piston 49. This rim til at the base and. the projection 42 there piston is designed as a valve at the region 50 and below, contacting with the upper surface of the coacts with the valve seat 5| in the region of the ball valve til. A spring supporting collar 43 rests mid-portion of the cylinder 48. The reduced on the rim lil and against the lower or d0wn~ upper end of the piston is rigidly connected to wardly facing region of the adjusting nut. 38. The downwardly facing region is provided with an annular chamber so that a spring 44 may be supported between the collar and the base of the chamber in nut 38. This spring is selected to have a predetermined strength and by means of suitable adjustment of the nut 38 may be caused to press downwardly 0n the ball valve 38 with a predetermined force. This low pressure relief valve is designed to have a relatively slow leak past the ball valve 34, so that the pressure in the lower chamber once the pressure of the ?asl; is removed is caused to disappear slowly, but when this pressure in the lower chamber has decreased to a sufliciently low value, the pressure on the lower portion of the ball valve becomes less than the pressure of the projection 42 acted upon by the spring 44. Then the ball valve 314 is moved downwardly and the lower chamber of vthe relief valve is open direct ly to the discharge openings 36, thus dumping the pressure in the lower chamber. ’ the inverted cup-shaped member 52 having the re-entrant shoulder connection 53. The upper outer portion of the cylinder is provided with a collar 54 and a spring 55 under compression is disposed between the collar 54 and the re-entrant shoulder connection to. thus normally hold the piston in‘ the position shown. . The piston is provided with a rod having the stop nut 56. On this rod is disposed a contact member 5'! suitably insulated from the rod by the insulating sleeve 58. The contact ‘member 5'1’ slides freely on the piston rod and is designed to resiliently engage the contact members l8. To effect this resilient engagement of the con tacts, a spring 59 under compression is disposed ' between the lower face of the contact members and a suitable circumferential outer ledge on the outer portion of the cup-shaped member 52. The piston is designed to ?t somewhatlloosely in the cylinder so that when pressure is admitted to the conduit i6, there-is some leakage of the gas past the piston and the switch is thus not operated with too much impact so. as to injure any portion of the switch. ,Hrqwever, once the This lower chamber, as shown in Fig. 1, is con nected to the conduit [6 supplying vpressure to the pneumatically operable switch 10. It is thus ap piston is forced upwardly, the conical portion 50 parent that although the pressure in conduit H5 75 engages the valve seat 5|, thus providing a sub 72,405,002 5 6 necting said‘ load device to said source of elec tric energy; a trigger valve, actuated upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connecting the source of pres sure to said‘ pneumatic switch to cause operation of said‘ switch to then connect said source of electric energy to said electric load device, means responsive to a predetermined operation of said load device for disconnecting the source of pres stantiall'y perfect seal against any leakage of the gas from the switch. ‘The four-way valve is provided with the neces— sary four connections to the flask, pneumatic switch, exercise head, and relief valve, respec tively. This valve has its lever 5i.’ connected to a link lil which, in turn, is connected to another lever 62 which may be extended so as to form a handle for resetting this valve manually. The sure from the pneumatic switch, and means op» four-way valve is provided with a tripping latch 10 erable a predetermined time after the disconnec tion of said pneumatic switch from said source of 63 biased in a clockwise direction about the pivot pressure to rapidly decrease the actuating pres pin 64 by the spring 65 disposed between the ledge sure from said pneumatic switch to thus cause 65 and the right-hand end of the latch member rapid opening of said pneumatic switch thereby 53. The dog 22 on the governor mechanism, at disconnecting the load device from said source the end of the run, is designed to move the latch of electric energy. ' ' r member 63 counterclockwise whereupon the dog .3. In a system of control for a torpedo, in 6?‘ on the hub of the lever 62 is released. The combination, a source of gas under relatively spring 25 thus causes the levers 5i? and E2 to raphigh pressure; a source of electric energy; an i'dly move in a counterclockwise direction through an angle of substantially 96° to thus change the 20 electric load device; a gas pressure line provided with a region permitting a relatively slow leak connection from that shown in Fig. l to such a age of gas from the gas pressure line; a pneu connection that conduits 8 and ii are intercon nected, and conduit it and the reiief valve are interconnected. ' While we have shown but few systems of con matic switch for connecting said load device to said source of electric energy; a trigger valve, O trol and but single embodiments of the details, we do not wish to be limited to the particulars shown or described but wish to be limited only by the scope of the claims hereinafter recited. We claim as our invention: 1. In a system of control for a torpedo, in com bination, a battery, a motor for driving the tor~ pedo, a source of gas under relatively high pres sure, an exercise head for the torpedo which is to be ?lled with gas, as air, at the end of an actuated upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect ing the pressure line to the source of pressure to thus cause operation of said pneumatic switch to connect said load device to said source of elec tric energy; and means operable by a predeter mined operation of said load device to discon nect said pressure line from said source of pres sure, whereby said gas leakage causes a decrease in pressure in the pressure line; and means re sponsive to a predetermined gas pressure, less than the pressure of said source of pressure, for rapidly dumping the pressure in the pressure line exercise run to make the torpedo buoyant to fa to thus cause rapid operation of said pneumatic cilitate recovery of the torpedo, a governor actu switch to open position. ated means for maintaining the speed of the 4. In a system of control for a torpedo which motor substantially constant till the battery is 40 includes electrical devices and is ?red from a substantially exhausted, a trigger actuated valve torpdo tube, in combination, a source of elec operable to open when the torpedo is ?red to thus trical energy; an electric load device; a pneu connect the source of gas pressure to various de matic switch for controlling the circuit arrange vices in the torpedo for effecting various opera ment of said lead device and source of electric tions, a spring biased control valve having a rela 45 energy; a source of gas under pressure; conduit tively small leakage port, a pneumatically oper means, including means providing a relatively able spring biased switch for connecting the small leakage of gas from the conduit means motor to the battery, a minimum pressure valve when containing gas under pressure; a trigger disposed to be coupled to the pneumatically op valve; a dog on the torpedo tube for actuating erable switch, said control valve being normally 50 the trigger valve, when the torpedo is ?red, to held in a given position to connect the source of connect the source of gas pressure to the conduit gas to the pneumatically operable switch to thus means; switch control means for connecting the effect the connection of the motor to the battery pneumatic switch to the conduit means to thus an instant after the trigger valve is opened by cause interconnection of the load device with said the ?ring of the torpedo, means responsive to a 55 source of electric energy; means, operable after a predetermined operation of the load device, for given operation of the motor speed control means operating said switch control means to disconnect for releasing said spring biased control valve the pneumatic switch from the source of gas whereby the spring causes rapid operation or the pressure; and means responsive to a given gas valve to disconnect the pneumatically operable switch and the minimum pressure control valve 60 pressure in the conduit means for suddenly dump from the source of gas and connect them to the ing the gas pressure in the conduit means to thus rapidly operate said pneumatic switch to leakage port and connect the exercise head to the disconnect the load device from the source of source or gas to make the torpedo buoyant, said electrical energy. minimum pressure control valve being operable, 5. In a system of control for a torpedo that is when the operating pressure for the pneumati 65 ?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, a cally operable switch decreases to a given low source of electric energy; a load device disposed value by reason of the relatively slow leakage of to be energized by said source of electric energy, gas through the leakage port, to rapidly exhaust a pneumatic switch having contacts for connect the gas from the pneumatically operable switch to thus effect a substantially snap-action like dis 70 ing the load device to the source of electric en connection of the motor from the battery. 2. In a system of control for a torpedo, in combination, a source of gas under relatively ergy; a source of gas under relatively high pres sure; gas conducting conduits having some leak age at one point; a gas flow control valve; a dog on the torpedo tube; a trigger valve, actuated by high pressure; a source of electric energy; an electric load device; a pneumatic switch for con- 75 said dog upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect 2,405,002 7 ing' certain of said conduits to the source of.‘ gas pressure; said gas flow control valverhaving two operative positions, in one position the pneu matic switch is connected to the source of gas pressure, and in the second position the pneu matic‘ switch is connected to the leaky portion of said ' conduits - only, whereby the, pneumatic 8 sponsiveto a predetermined operation of the load device for causing the operation of the flow con trol valve from its ?rst position to its second position; and means operable when the pressure in the pneumatic switch has decreased to a given value, because of said leakage, to suddenly dump the actuating pressure for the pneumatic switch to thus e?ect sudden disconnection of the load switch is subjected to a decreasing pressure; means responsive to a predetermined operation device from the source of electric energy. of the load device for causing the operation of 10 '7. In a system of control for a torpedo that is the ?ow control valve from its ?rst position to ?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, an its second position; and means operable when electric motor for propelling the torpedo; a bat the pressure in the pneumatic switch has de tery; a source of as under relatively high pres creased to a given value, because of said leakage,’ sure; a pneumatic switch for connecting the to suddenly dump the actuating pressure for motor to the battery; said pneumatic switch in the pneumatic switch to thus effect sudden dis cluding a compression chamber of variable vol connection of the load device from the source of ume that permits ?uid leakage only during the electric energy. ' movement of the switch from its open position 6. In a system of control'for a torpedo that is ?red from a torpedo tube, in combination, a source of electric energy; a load device disposed to be energized by said source of electric energy; a pneumatic switch having contacts for con necting the'load device to the source of electric energy; said pneumatic switch’ having a compres_ sion cylinder to which gas under pressure may be admitted, a leaky piston in the’ cylinder, a valve seat in the cylinder, said piston having a seat ing surface for coaction with the valve seat‘in the cylinder so that admission'of gas under high _ pressure to the cylinder will actuate the piston with some delay till the valve seating surfaces engage making the compression cylinder leak proof; a source of gas under relatively high pres sure; gas conducting conduits having same leak- ; age at one point; a gas flow control valve; a dog on the torpedo tube; a trigger valve, actuated by said dog upon ?ring of the torpedo, for connect Iing cetrain of said conduits to the source of gas pressure; said gas ?ow control valve having two operative positions, in one position the pneu matic switch is connected to the source of gas pressure, and in the second position the pneu matic switch is connected only to the leaky por tion of conduits, whereby the pneumatic switch ‘ is subjected to a decreasing pressure; means re to its closed position, whereby a relatively short time delay in operation is obtained and the speed of operation of the switch is maintained within safe limits with gas pressures of relatively high value; a trigger valve; a dog on the torpedo tube for actuating said trigger valve at the moment of ?ring of the torpedo to thus connect 'the source of vgas pressure to the chamber of vari able volume of the pneumatic switch to thus e?‘ect the connection of the propulsion motor to the battery a short time after operation of the trigger valve; motor speed control means; an exercise head for the torpedo; a gas conduit hav ing a slow leakage; ‘means operable by said speed control means for transferring the connection of the pneumatic switch from the source of gas pressure to'the gas conduit having the slow leak age and for connecting the source of gas pres sure to the exercise headrto facilitate recovery of'the torpedo; and pressure responsive means operable after the gas pressure in the gas conduit has decreased to a given value because of leak age to dump the pressure in the gas conduit to time eiiect a rapid opening of the pneumatic switch. CHARLES C. WHITTAKER. RUEL C. JONES.