вход по аккаунту


Патент USA US2405028

код для вставки
July so, 1946.
H. c. F'QRD
2,405,028 '
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 30, 1946.
H. c. FORD
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG. 2
HarzrzzZaZ C’j7'or-d
w/Mmfi, M1525‘:
July 39, 1946.
H_ c, FORD
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 3
July 30, 1946.
H. c. FORD
vOriginal Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 4
Hannibal C. Fbrd
ju?y 3, ‘W46.
H. c. FORD
Original Filed‘ Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 5
43 3
‘I _;
F: G. 6
HarzizzZaZ C'JFér'd
?m éfTORA/EYS.
511353’ 3Q» 594%
H. c. FORD
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926 ti!:
12 Sheets-Sheet 6
ER 4
Harzrzz'éal C’. F0
July 30, 1946.
H. ‘c. FORD
' 2,405,028
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 7
NRO 3b .
Hanrzz'éa Z (If-6rd
July 30, 1946.
H. c. FORD
Original Filed Sept.- 1’ 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 8"
My 3@, ww.
Original Filed Sept. lY 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet 9
HQ'F‘ZHZ 15m.’ (5'. F'arci
July 30, 1946-
H. 0. FORD
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12‘ Sheets-Sheet 1O
BY Hannibal C’. Fbrd‘
Original‘ Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet l1
July 3, 1946.
H, c, FORD
Original Filed Sept. 1, 1926
12 Sheets-Sheet l2
BYHarzrzz'éaZ CYFord
":5 / /
, - ‘l
9' é ‘%
Patented July 30, 1943
Hannibal C. Ford, Jamaica, N. Y., assignor to
Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application September 1, 1926, Serial No. 133,021
Renewed July 27, (1/935
136 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus for con
trolling the pointing, training and ?ring of the
guns of a battery, in which apparatus there is
employed a director having a computing instru
(Cl. 33-49)
tion which should be applied to the position of
the controlled guns to compensate for the roll of
the ship about an axis parallel to the line of
These prior arrangements for compensating
ment associated with it.
At the present time it is the usual practice to
control the guns of warships by means of sighting
for the effect upon the guns of angular movement
of the ship about an axis parallel to the line of
devices or directors as they are called, which
called, require the movement of comparatively
heavy parts' of the instrument with consequent
are placed in elevated positions from which bet
sight, or for cross-levelling, as it is now commonly
ter views of the target can be obtained than from 10 increased expenditude of energy and lessened
positions at or near the guns. Transmitters are
accuracy, for the operator who performs this
associated with these directors for sending to
function is working against the trainer and
the guns indications of the train and the eleva
pointer both of whom are manipulating the same
tion which should be given to the guns for the
in the performance of their duties.
azimuth and range of the target. These indi 15
In directors of the earlier types, the data re
cations are suitably corrected in accordance with
quired for setting the various elements thereof,
the various factors which a?ect the proper set
such as gun elevation, de?ection, etc., has either
ting of the guns and to take account of differences
been transmitted from distant stations, or has
between the positions of the directors and the
been determined at the director, and in either
guns which they are adapted to control, in order
case, has been applied to the director by setting
that most accurate ?ring may be obtained.
the elements manually in accordance with such
The guns adapted to be controlled in elevation
and train from a director may also be ?red from
It is an important object of the present inven
the director. For this purpose electrical circuits
tion to establish an operative combination of the
controlled by suitable contact devices at the di
distinctive director mechanism with other mech
rector are provided. In some cases these devices
anism, whereby there may be an interchange of
are adapted for actuation by an operator of the
quantities developed in one mechanism and dis
director while in other cases they are automati
pensed thereby to and used in the other. If de
cally actuated.
sired, the director mechanism may constitute an
The aim of guns on shipboard is affected by 30 instrument of one category, while its associated
angular motion of the ship around an axis par
mechanism may be in the nature of an instru
allel to the line of sight to the target, thereby
ment of a different type, the di?erent kinds of
introducing errors, commonly called trunnion tilt
instruments being so combined that they are
errors, depending upon the elevation of the guns
capable of automatically contributing essential
and the amplitude of the roll of the ship. Various
actuations to each other to supply movements
arrangements have been proposed for correcting
and mathematical quantities not developed in the
these errors in order that the guns may be main
recipient instrument. Thus, the laborious and
tained in vertical planes passing through the
continual manual introduction of necessary data
predicted position of the target, or brought into
into the director is obviated, as is hand computa
such position when they are to be ?red. One of
tion and the remote transmissions thereof. The
the earliest arrangements proposed for this pur
associated instruments through their automatic
pose depended upon the use of a pendulum for
interaction reduce the chance of human error and
swinging the sighting device of the director about
simplify the director operation, as well as ren
an element constituting a mimic or dummy gun,
dering it more reliable and continuous, whereby
so as to maintain these parts in a vertical plane
instantaneous information is constantly avail
during the roll of the ship. Other arrangements
have sought to accomplish the same result by
means of spirit levels. In order to overcome the
An instrument of the type known as a range
keeper for calculating the data required for the
disadvantages attending the use of pendulums
operation of the director may constitute the com
and levels for this purpose, it has been proposed
panion instrument for the director. The indica
to employ an optical instrument through which
tions of the range keeper may be utilized for
an observer may view a distant point, such as the
causing the director to follow a target at such
horizon, at a substantial angle to the line of sight
times as the latter cannot be seen through the
to enable him to maintain the-elements of the
sighting devices of the director. Certain elements
director in proper relation to produce the correc 55
of the range keeper are actuated from the ship’s
compass and others by the movement of the di
rector as it is turned in azimuth in following a
target. The range keeper is power-driven, and
in turn automatically actuates some of the ele
ments of the director in accordance with settings
which should be given them for the particular
conditions under which the director is being used.
Provision is also made for the manual actuation
of these elements, if, for any reason, the range 10
the ?elds of view of their telescopes, they dis
place the mimic gun in elevation and train in ac
cordance with the movement to be applied to the
real guns to compensate for the effect of the an
gular movement of the ship around an axis par
allel to the line of sight. The correctional move
ments of the mimic gun are transmitted to the
real guns whereby the cross-levelling correction
is applied to them.
Since the ?elds of view of the telescopes are
stabilized, the pointer and trainer receive no in
keeper becomes ineffective for this, purpose
through accident, or otherwise.
dications of the angular movement of the ship.
Another object of this invention is to produce
Such indications are necessary, particularly for
a director of simple construction in which the ef
the pointer to enable him to make adjustments of
fect of the angular movement of the ship about 15 the elements of the director which are under his
an axis perpendicular to the line of sight is au
control and to show at any instant how far the
tomatically compensated by means of relatively
guns are from the point at which. they should be
light optical elements associated with the
?red. Means are therefore provided for this pur
trainer’s and pointer’s telescopes proper which
pose consisting of an optical system for produc
are mounted in ?xed relation to the director. 20 ing in the ?eld of view of the pointers’ telescope
The optical elements are stabilized by means of
a gyroscope so that the target continually appears
in the ?elds of both telescopes in spite of the an
gular movement of the ship, thereby making it
unnecessary for either the trainer or the pointer
to impart any movement to their telescopes while
operating the instrument, other than that re
quired to follow the target in azimuth, which is
done by the trainer.
Associated with the optical elements of the di
an image of a member which partakes of the
movement of the ship.
For the convenience of the trainer, a corre
sponding image is produced in his telescope in
order that he may know when the guns are to be
?red, so that he may most accurately manipulate
the portions of the director under his control as
the instant for ?ring approaches.
In director ?ring systems it is customary to
30 employ a plurality of directors between which
rector is a member which is elevated and trained
the control of the guns may be divided or to pro
in accordance with the elevation and train which
vide stand by directors for use in case those in
should be given to the real guns, and which, there
control are disabled or destroyed. In systems
fore, may be regarded as a mimic gun. The
of this character the guns and the directors are
movements of the mimic gun are reproduced at 35 usually referred to a common point of reference
the real guns by a suitable signal transmission
which may be at the main ?re control position or
system. The director has a member for control
at some other location on the ship. It is, there
ling one element of an automatic ?ring device,
the other element of which ismaintained in a
fore, necessary to apply to the guns and the di
rectors, corrections for any factors which may be
predetermined position by the gyroscope. The
dependent upon the positions of the guns and the
position of the mimic gun with respect to the
directors with respect to the reference point, and
member is controlled automatically by the range
which, if not corrected, might cause the introduc
keeper in accordance with sight depression, i. e.,
tion of appreciable errors. A correction of this
the angular relation which the real guns should
nature is required for each of the directors which
bear to the line of sight. The position of the 45 is so far from the point of reference that the
member is controlled by the pointer in accordance
errors resulting therefrom are not negligible. One
with director correction, i. e., the point on the roll
Of such errors is that commonly known as hori
of the ship at which ?ring is desired.
zontal parallax which depends upon the horizon
It is a further object to provide, in connection
tal distance between the director and the refer
with the training and pointing elements of the 50 ence point, as a base line, the bearing of the tar
director, an arrangement whereby the errors due
get with respect to this base line and the range
to angular movements of the ship around an axis
of the target.
parallel to the line of sight may be more effec
Provision is, therefore, made in the instrument
tively eliminated with less expenditure of energy
for applying corrections to compensate for the
by the operator who performs this duty. To this 55 errors mentioned above as well as other correc
end, an optical system is provided for viewing the
tions, such as de?ection, drift and the like. In
horizon, or other distant point at a substantial
general, corrections dependent upon the relative
angle to the line of sight, and as an auxiliary to
positions of the guns and the directors are intro
this arrangement means are provided for viewing
duced between the elements of the directors and
a reference mark associated with the gyroscope,
the transmitters so that the latter send corrected
which through its connection with the mirrorsof
indications to the guns, while the other correc
the trainer’s and pointer’s telescopes effects the
tions are introduced between the sighting ele
stabilization of the image in the ?eld of view.
ments and the mimic gun so that the act of
Thus, through the auxiliary means there is pro
maintaining the former on the target causes cor
duced an arti?cial horizon, which may be used 65 rectional displacements to be imparted to the
in case the real horizon is obscured.
mimic gun which are sent to the guns by the
The instrument for viewing the horizon, or
transmitters of the director.
the reference point of the gyroscope, as the case
The particular nature of the invention as Well
may be, is suitably connected to a member associ
as other objects and advantages ‘thereof will ap-v
ated with the mimic gun and with a member
pear more clearly from a description of a pre
which carries the main mirrors, so that move 70
ferred embodiment thereof which is shown in the
ment is imparted to the latter to displace the
images of the target in the pointer’s and trainer’s
telescopes. As the pointer and trainer restore
the displaced images to their proper positions in
accompanying drawings in simpli?ed form by the
omission of structural details.
In these drawings,
Fig. 1 is a skeletonized perspective view showing
' The base I of the director is the bottom of a
diagrammatically the framing and certain of the
operating parts of the instrument in its simp1i~
pedestal, which further comprises legs 2 that sup
?ed form;
Fig. 2 is complementary to Fig. 1, and shows in
port a stationary gear or annular rack 3 at their
upper ends. At the center of the annular rack 3
is a journal 4, which is aligned with another jour
nal 5 in the base I, these journals rotatively
the same manner other elements of the instru
ment that in practice are draped about and. car—
ried by the parts of Fig. 1 that are adapted to be
oriented, which elements are shown in Fig. 2 to
preserve clearness;
Fig. 3 is a perspective diagram of the optical 10
systems forming part of the instrument, but
which are segregated from Figs. 1 and 2 to avoid
Fig. 4 is a diagram of the electrical circuits in
which the wiring of the instrument is included;
Fig. 757 is a face view of the range keeper showing
its dials;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged view of a portion of the
mounting a vertical training shaft 6, which pro
jects above the journal 4. Supported upon the
upper end of the shaft 6 to turn therewith about
a normally vertical axis is a main frame, which,
for simplicity, is shown in Fig. l as comprising
a bottom plate ‘I, a'major frame 8 and standards
9, which lie in a vertical plane normal to the
vertical plane that contains the frame 8.
With an axis of rotation coincident with that
of the main frame 8, a correction frame Ill is Div
otally connected'at II and I2 with such major
main frame, and has upwardly extending stand
?ring mechanism;
ards I3, in the upper ends of which a shaft I4 is
relation of own ship and a target at a given
tant object, such as a target, are mounted on
Fig. '7 is a geographical diagram, showing the 20 journalled. ‘Mirrors I5 and I6 for viewing a dis
the shaft I4 at a suitable angle to the incident
light rays.
Fig. 8 is a mathematical diagram of the rela
As shown in Fig. 3, image rays received by the
tion of own ship and the target at such instant;
Figs. 9 to 14. inclusive, taken in a group, consti— 25 mirror I5 may be traced by the central ray I‘!
through the objective lens I8, and prisms I9, 20
tute a diagrammatic illustration of the mecha
and 2| into the trainer’s erecting and eye-piece
nism of the range keeper which is associated with
system contained in the tube 22, having an ocu
the director;
lar 23. Concurrently, the image rays at the mir
Fig. 15 shows the mechanical own ship and tar
get vectors, as viewed perpendicularly to their 30 ror l?are re?ected, as may be traced by the
central ray 24, through the objective lens 25, and
positions in Figs. 9 and 10;
prisms 26, 21 and 28 into the pointer’s erecting
Fig. 16 is a diagram showing the variable
and eye-piece system contained in the tube 29
range relation between own ship and a target, as
having an ocular 3B.
well as the changeable target bearing;
To keep the mirrors I5 and IE on the target,
Fig. 17 is another diagram illustrating the com
they are stabilized, as shown in Fig. 1, wherein
bining of the gun sight depression and the cor
the mirror shaft I4 is provided‘ with an arm 3|
rection for vertical parallax to establish the di
which is connected by a link 32 to another arm 33
rector sight depression;
co-extensive with arm 3|. The arm 33 is rigid
Fig. 18 is a diagram, which discloses a method '
of obtaining sight depression from advance range 40 with a rock-shaft 34 journalled in the standards
I3 carried by the correction frame I0.
as effected through the mechanism of the range
Rigidly attached to and depending from the
rock-shaft 34 is an actuating arm 35, the un
Fig. 19 is a vertical section through one of the
attached end of which is received by the bifur
similar follow up mechanisms shown in Fig. 14;
cated end of a shorter arm 36 which is rigid with,
Fig. 20 is an elevational view of the mechanism
depends from and is stabilized by an outer gimbal
of Fig. 19 showing the high and low speed cams in
ring 37, as subsequently explained. The gimbal
coincident positions and with the movable con
ring 31 is provided with trunnions 33 and 39 piv
tact in its neutral position;
otally mounted in the correction frame I0.
Fig. 21 is a similar view showing the high and
Since the shorter arm 36 is stabilized, as will
low speed cams in positions which they occupy
be hereinafter explained, the parts of the instru
when sight depression is being measured in one
ment that accompany the ship as it rolls will have
direction, and with the movable contact engaged
an angular displacement with respect to the
with the proper ?xed contact; and
shorter arm 36 equal to the angle of the roll of
Fig. 22 is another similar view disclosing the
high and low speed cams in other positions which 55 the ship. Inasmuch, however, as the radial length
of the arm 35 is twice that of the shorter arm
cause the movable contact to engage the other of
36, the angular displacement of the arm 35 is
the ?xed contacts in accordance with the reverse
equal to only one-half the angle of the roll of
the ship. Thus, rock-shaft 34, its lever arm 33,
the assembly of the director ?rst, I, shown in Fig. 60 lever arm 3|, mirror shaft I4 and mirrors I5
and I6 turn relatively to the ship through one
1, represents a base adapted to be bolted or other
half the angle of roll of the ship. Accordingly,
wise secured in rigid and non-rotative manner to
a platform at an observation station which will be
the mirrors, while rocked through this lesser an
associated with one of two relatively movable ob
gle with respect to the parts which sway with the
jects, one of which may be a navigable craft. For 65 ship, have their entering image rays stabilized
the purposes of this disclosure, this craft may be
and therefore maintain the target in the fields
regarded as a warship, but it is to be understood
of view of the trainer and pointer.
that the use of the invention is not limited to
Pivotally supported in the outer gimbal ring
marine Vessels, since it is obvious that a land for
31 by trunnions 40 and 4| journalled therein is
ti?cation and a marine vessel, or a land forti?ca
an inner gimbal ring 42, in which other trunnions
direction of sight depression.
Referring now to the drawings, and examining
tion and an aerial craft, as well as a marine craft
and an aircraft, constitute relatively movable ob
jects, and it will become clear that by embodying
the invention in a suitable design, it is adaptable
, to use in a wide variety of conditions.
43 and 44 are pivotally mounted to support a
gyroscope 45 to which they are attached. This
gyroscope is of the electric induction motor type,
75 and when energized tends to remain ?xed in
space in accordance with the principle of suc
Depending from the inner gimbal ‘42 is a
bracket 46, attached to the lower end of which is
. a spring 41.
As the spring is also a?ixed to the
scope, it cannot move down and becomes, at
such times, the fulcrum of the lever 49-5l,
which under these circumstances does not act as
a bell-crank.
Accordingly, as the upper end of the arm 5|
casing of the gyroscope, it tends to draw the
bracket 46 toward the latter. This action is
opposed by a linkage of parts, including a ver
is thrust inward, the lever 49—-5| swings upward
about the inner extremity of its arm 49, raising
the pivot 48, and, of course, the bracket 45, which
tically disposed bell crank lever pivoted at 48
depends from the inner gimbal ring 42. The
to the depending bracket 46, and having an arm 1O latter is tilted about the trunnion axis 43—44, as
49 the end of which bears on a lug 5|!‘ projecting
is the outer gimbal ring 3‘! because of the trun
from the casing of the gyroscope. Another arm
nions 46-4 |. As the outer gimbal ring 31 tilts, the
5| of this bell crank lever has, through the me
arm 36 rigidly combined therewith necessarily is
dium of an anti-friction thrust pin 52, a connec
angularly displaced about the trunnion axis
tion with the endpf an arm 53 of a horizontally 15 38—-39, the lower end of the arm 36 correspond
disposed bell—crank,lever. The latter is ful
ingly displacing the lower end of the actuating
crumed at .54 to the outer end of a bracket 55,
arm 35 of the rock shaft 34. Simultaneously, the
which projects from the outer gimbal ring 31.
rock-shaft lever arm 33 is likewise displaced, and
The other arm 56 of the horizontal bell-crank
through the link 32 and 3| similarly moves the
lever is connected by another anti-friction thrust
mirror shaft I4, thereby correctively tilting the
pin 51 to a double arm lever 58, which has an
intermediate pivotal connection to a bracket 59
af?xed to one side of the correction frame I6.
mirrors l5 and I6, as desired. If the knob 63 be
turned in the reverse direction, there will be a
reversal of action, and the mirrors will be tilted
in the reverse direction. In performing the mir
' ror-adjusting operation the reaction against the
gyroscope is not .su?icient nor does it last long
At its lower end, the lever 58 is bifurcated and
has a travelling nut 60 pivoted therein, the nut
being on a threaded shaft 6|. This shaft has
an unthreaded portion that is journalled in a
bearing 62 carried by the correction frame I0,
there being collars ?xed to the shaft on oppo
site sides of the bearing to prevent longitudi- ,
nal displacement of the shaft 6|. A knob 63 on
the outer end of the shaft 6| makes it possible
to turn it for adjustment purposes referred to
As the gyroscope tends to remain ?xed in space,
the trunnions 43 and 44 projecting therefrom into
pivotal connection with the inner gimbal ring 42
stabilize the latter about the trunnion axis 40-4 |.
The inner gimbal ring 42 is also stabilized about
the trunnion axis 43-44, since its depending
bracket 46 is pivotally connected at 48 to the
vertical bell~crank lever 49—5|, which is sta
bilized by having its arm 49 bearing on the gyro
scope, while its arm 5| bears against the arm
53 of the horizontal bell-crank lever, the other
enough to produce appreciable precession thereof.
Excessive, or any, precession-a] inclination of
the gyroscope 45 may be removed by directly pre
cessing the latter. If the gyroscope has pre—
cessed about the trunnion axis 40—4|, a knob 64
(see Fig. 1) is turned in the proper direction, and
with it a shaft 65, thereby tilting a double arm
lever 66 secured on the inner end of this shaft.
Actuated by one or the other of the arms of the
lever is a force-applying bell-crank lever 61 or
68, which bell-cranks are similar, one being piv
oted at 69 and the other at “l6.
Each bell-crank lever 6'! and 68 has a lug ‘H
adapted to be brought into an engagement with
a pin or stop. as a spring ‘E2 draws the bell-crank
lever away from the lower pointed end of the
casing of the gyroscope 45. Either spring ‘I2 is
adapted to yield to manual force applied through
' the lever 66, which acts only in one direction at
arm 56 of which reacts against the upper end
a time, whereby either the precessing bell-crank
of the ?xedly positioned lever 58. The spring
4"! contributes by eliminating lost motion in the
lever 61 or 68 is swung against the lower end of
the gyroscope casing, so applying a torque about
linkage comprising the co-acting bell-crank
the trunnion axis 43-44‘, thereby causing the
50 gyroscope 45 to precess about the trunnion axis
Because of the stabilization of the inner gimbal
ring 42 about the axis 43—-44, the trunnions 46
Should gyroscopic wandering take place about
and 4|, which pivotally connect the inner and
the trunnion axis 43-44, restoration of the spin
outer gimbal rings, stabilize the outer gimbal
ning axis of gyroscope 45 to a vertical position
ring 3‘! about the trunnion axis 38-39, whereby 55 may be accomplished by turning another knob
the arm 36 of the mirror-control is stabilized.
13, shown in Fig. 1. This knob is on shaft, 14,
Times will probably occur when the gyroscope
which is forked at its inner end to co-act with
45 will wander a little and it will be desirable
a pin projecting transversely and beyond both
to adjustthe angle of the mirrors I5 and I6
sides of the trunnion 46. In this way, a torque
mechanically without precessional manipulation
is applied about the trunnion axis 46-—4| and
of the gyroscope. The knob 63 will accordingly
the correctional precession will accordingly take
be operated to turn the threaded shaft 6| in the
place about the trunnion axis 43-44.
proper direction to effect the desired mirror ad
With the mirrors l5 and I6 stabilizing the
gjustment. The travelling nut 60 will thus be
image rays against vertical displacement from
shifted longitudinally of the threaded shaft 6 I, re 65 the target, as described, it remains necessary to
sulting in a partial rotation of the double arm le
maintain the mirrors on the target when it moves
ver 58. If the upper end of the lever 58 is conse
horizontally away from the point on which the
quently moved outward, for example, the pin 5'!
sight optics are focused. Any relative azimuthal
will push the arm 56 of the horizontal bell-crank
displacement of the target and the craft carry
lever outward, the arm 53 thereof moving inward. 70 ing the gun director will be evidenced in the
trainer’s telescope by the displacement of the
This causes the anti-friction pin 52 to be thrust
against'the upper end of the arm 5| of the ver
target’s image therein with respect to the verti
tical bell-crank lever, moving it inward. As the
cal cross wire of the telescope. Thereupon, the
extremity of-the other arm 49 of the vertical
trainer operates the hand wheel 15 shown in
bell-‘crank lever rests on the lug 50 of the gyro 75 Fig. 1 as being secured to a shaft 16 to the inner
end of which a gear pinion TI is ailixed. This
pinion drives a gear ‘I8 carried by a sleeve ‘I9
that is freely revoluble on a shaft 80, and also
secured to the sleeve ‘I9 is a pinion 8|, which
meshes with a gear 02 rigidly mounted on a
training shaft 03.
Extending under the bottom plate I of the
main frame, the shaft 83 is provided with a
bevel gear 84, which meshes with another bevel
gear 85 on the upper end of a vertically disposed
shaft 86. Secured to the lower end of the shaft
86 is a pinion 81 which is in mesh with the sta
tionary annular rack 3. Operation of the train
er’s hand wheel ‘I5 causes the pinion all to be
the rotors I I2 and I23 of the ?ne and coarse train
receivers automatically assume the same relation
to their respective stators III and I22 that the
transmitter rotors have with regard to their
stators, as is well understood in the art. Dials
(not shown) turn with the receiver rotors and
read against indexes to visualize the measures of
train occasioned by turning the rotatable portion
of the gun director 'in azimuth.
Such training of the gun director effects a
basic measure of train for the guns, and, there
fore, the transmitters and receivers just referred
to are conveniently designated as the gun train
transmitters and receivers. The latter are
ordinarily located at the guns, though some of
them may be in other places where it is desir
oriented about the annular rack 3, and, since
the shafts 83 and 85 are carried by the main
able to know the amount of required gun train
frame, the latter and the parts mounted thereon
for calculative or directive purposes.” " '
are trained. These parts include the correction
To merely train the guns on a moving target
frame I0, the standards I3 of which support the
mirror shaft I4 and the mirrors I5 and I6, 20 would be a little use, for, if the former were ?red
under these conditions, the target would have
whereby these mirrors are turned in azimuth
passed from the ‘place of ultimate impact of the
as much as is necessary to cause them to con
projectiles by the time the latter arrived there.
tinue to bear on the target during relative dis
Accordingly, a range keeper I26 is operatively
placement of it and own ship.
combined with and carried by the rotary portion
The parts illustrated in Fig. 2 are supported
of the gun director and is shown in Fig. l as be
by and turn with the main frame shown in
ing mounted on the main frame 8 of the director.
Fig. 1, and the shaft 83 is shown in Fig. 2, where
it drives through gears 08, shaft 69 and other
gears 90 to turn shaft 9|. A bevel gear 92 on
the shaft 9| drives a similar gear 93 on a shaft
94, which in turn e?ects rotary displacement of
a rotor 95 of a transmitter of ?ne measures of
the training of the gun director. Such ?ne
measures integrate into larger amounts of train,
As shown in Fig. 5, the range keeper I26 is
provided with an information-disclosing face,
having a number of dials and counters, the re
spective purposes of which will become apparent
It is advantageous to maintain a
prescribed practice with respect to these dials
and counters, and, according to the existing
which are more conveniently noted in terms of 35 conditions, they may be regarded as occupying
a “secured position,” when the range keeper is
coarse measures. To this end, the shaft BI is
not in use, a “standby position” when it is about
provided with a pinion 96 of a gear reduction
to be put in use, or to be in a state of operation
train comprising other gears 97, 98, 90 and I00,
subsequent to the “standby position.”
the last named gear being on a shaft with one
In the range keeper, there are certain ele
of a pair of bevel gears IQI, the other bevel gear 40
ments which have variable positions, including
of which is ?xed on a shaft I02. This shaft
neutral positions. Since the director ?ring ap
turns a pair of gears I03 one of which is on a
paratus herein disclosed will usually be carried
shaft I04 that turns a rotor H35 of a transmitter
by a craft subject to oscillatory motion, the re
of coarse measures of train of the instrument.
Any suitable type of transmitter may be used 45 ferred to elements and their associated parts are
liable to be subjected to minor stresses resulting
in either direct or alternating current circuits,
from vibratory impulses. By adopting a “se
but for simplicity of illustration alternating cur
cured position” wherein such elements may be
rent transmitters have been shown wherein the
retained in neutral positions, there is an avoid—
rotors 95 and I05 are rotatively mounted within
ance of the development of small stresses during
stators I06 and I07, respectively. As shown in
periods of instrument inactivity, which is con
Fig. 4, conductors I08, I09 and H0 connect
tributory to the safeguarding of the accuracy of
spaced points of the delta-wound stator I06 of
the instrument.
the ?ne train transmitter with correspondingly
Prior to, but when the director ?ring appa
spaced points of the delta winding of a stator II I
ratus is about to be placed in use, the dials, etc.,
of a ?ne train receiver, which is provided with
of the range keeper I26 are manipulated to as
a rotor I 12 encompassed by the stator III. Con
sume the “standby position.” Thus, the switch
ductors I I3 and I M connect the ?ne train trans
which controls the motor from which power is
mitter rotor 95 across the alternating current
derived for the range keeper may be turned on,
main line conductors H5 and H5, while con
ductors It‘! and H8 connect the ?ne train re 60 and a check of the speed of the parts of the
range keeper which are synchronized with time
ceiver rotor E I2 across the main line conductors.
may be had by comparing the clock dial 600 and
Similarly, conductors H9, I20 and I2I con—
its associated graduations 66! with the reading
nect spaced points of the stator I0‘! of the coarse
of a stop watch. For the “standby position,” the
train transmitter With corresponding points of a
motor switch is turned o? with the clock pointer
stator I22 of a coarse train receiver, the rotor
marked on dial 660 positioned at zero.
I23 of which is connected by conductors IN and
With the energization of the circuits which
I25 across the alternating current main line con
are responsive to the follow-up mechanism I59
ductors H5 and HE. Conductors I05’ and
(see Fig. 4) that is controlled by the ship’s com
I05" connect the transmitter rotor I05 across
pass, own ship’s compass dials I58, I51 and I51’
these main line conductors.
will function automatically.
Training the gun director as outlined above
In making the dial settings for the “standby
causes the ?ne and coarse train transmitter
position” of the instrument, own ship’s speed dial
rotors 95 and I05 to become displaced withvre
430 is set by the knob 430' which, as shown in Fig.
gard to their stators I06 and I01, respectively,
9, operates a gear train comprising gears 662,
and, in consequence of the described circuits,
553, 664 and 655,'the last named'gear being-on
a shaft'etc, which isrprovided with a worm 661
rigidly affixed thereto.
For the “standby position” the present range
counter 433 is set for the range at which it is ex
pected to pick up the target. This setting is
made by turning the range crank handle ‘I22,
Meshing with the worm
657 is a worm gear 7668 carried by a shaft 659
mounted on which for rotation therewith is own
shown in Fig. 11, so turning shaft ‘I23, which car
ries a friction-driving member ‘I24, which bears
ship’s speed dial 430. The target’s speed dial 43!
is set equal to own ship’s speed by operating the
against a bevel gear 725 to normally turn the
knob 43!’, shown in Fig. 10 to actuate a gear
same, but to slip without driving it in case of
train comprisinggears 67,0, 61! and 612, the last
abnormal resistance for any reason, whereby no
mentioned gear being mounted on a shaft 613 10 harm may result to the mechanism responsive
amxed to which is a worm 614, which meshes
to movement of the handle ‘I122.
with a‘worm' gear 675 that is carried by a shaft
The bevel gear ‘I25 is secured on a shaft "I26,
616 which turns the target’s speed dial 43 I. ‘Tar
which also carries a disc ‘I21, the disk having its
periphery notched at ‘I28, whereby a roller 129
get dial 42"! is set parallel to the own ship’s dial
425', this setting in conjunction with the equal
speed settings'already referred to keeping the
indicated range rate zero.
on the end of a pivoted and spring-in?uenced
arm ‘I30 snaps into successive notches ‘I28. This
causes the operator to feel periodic points of
De?ection will be
small, but not zero owing to the fact that for
slightly increasedand abrupt resistance to the’
turning of the handle ‘I22, each miniature jolt
to the operator’s hand indicating to him, without
requiring observation of the counter, a change
equal speeds of own ship and a target, the mils
de?ection‘due -to own ship and to the target are
not‘ the same. There is also a slight de?ection
due to drift. To set the target’s dial 42‘! parallel
in the reading of the present range counter 433
of a given number of yards, say 100.
As the range handle ‘I22 is being turned, the
bevel gear ‘I25 turns another bevel gear 13!, so
turning a shaft 132 and bevel gears ‘I33 and ‘I34,
the gear ‘I34 being rigidly combined with one side
‘I35 of a differential ‘I36. The center ‘!3‘! of the
differential is thus caused to rotate and turns the
to the own ship’s dial 425, a crank handle 61?,
shown in Fig. 10, is operated to turn’ a shaft
618, gears 619 and a shaft 630. A bevel gear 687!
at one end ofthis shaft drives another bevel gear
E82'which is rigid with one side 683 of a differen
tial 684. The center 685 of the differential, which
comprises a spider and bevel gears rotatively
mounted thereon, is secured to a shaft 686 upon
which is mounted a gear 68‘! that drives gears V858
and 689, the latter being rigidly mounted on a
shaft 690 that carries the target dial ‘421.
Another setting is that of the target’s bearing
to correspond to the expected initial bearing,
this setting being effected by operating the gen
shaft ‘I33 on which it is pinned, whereby there
is a drive established from the shaft ‘I38 through
bevel gears 139, a shaft ‘I40, gears '!‘4I,,a shaft
‘I42, gears ‘I43, a shaft ‘I44 and gears ‘I45 to the
present range‘counter 433.
Although the indicated range rate is zero, the
advance range may differ from present range,
erated bearing crank handle 69!, shown'in Fig.
11. A shaft 602 is turned by handle 69!,1 gears
093, shaft 694,‘other gears 695 and another shaft
596 also‘being'turned.w The center 09‘! of a dif
because own ship’s and the target’s movements
have different effects on the range ‘prediction.
The range at which it is expected to pick up
the target having been set upon the present
range counter 4333, the switch I36 (see Fig. 4) in
the director is closed, causing thepower motor
ferential 698 is secured to the'sh'aft 6396, and is
turned thereby'to turn a side 609 of the differ
ential 6'98, thus-turninga bevel gear 100 which
I2‘! to be driven.
is rigid with. the ‘differential side ‘6-09. V The’ bevel
A drive is established from the power motor
gear‘100 drives another bevel gear 710! on a shaft ~ 3 I21, shown in Fig. 2, which extends from this
102, which extends to'and carries a gear ‘I03,
motor by a driven shaft I28, carrying a gear I329.
shown in Fig.0.’ The gear 703 drives another
Driven by the latter is a gear I30 secured on a
shaft !3! which enters and forms part of a power
gear ‘I04, which is compounded with a ge‘ar7105,
the latter‘ gear driving avgear ‘I06 that iskrigidly
mounted on a'sleeve ‘I01, which carries own ship’s *
vernier' compass dial I51’.
Also mounted on the
sleeve 101' is another gear ‘!08 meshing with a
gear 109 that is compounded withra gear H0.
The gear ‘!I0 drives a gear ‘I! I carried by a sleeve
‘H2, which is the‘ tubular shaft for the major
compass dial I51. The latter may thushbe set
to read against the end 429’ of the pointer 429
to give themajor reading of the expected tar
get’s true bearing (see Fig. 5), while the Vernier
I35, returning therefrom by conductors I39 and
compass dial I51’ will read against a ?xed pointer "
420'" to give'a micrometer readingrofrthe ex
pected target’s true bearing. The same result
may be accomplishedby using the same handle
69! and turning the compass rings I5‘! and I51’
until own ship dials 425 and 425' indicate’ the
expected initial relative bearing when read
against'the ?xed pointers 429 and 429"’.
As the gear 1!! rrotates,'it drives a gear 1! 3
fastened on a shaft ‘!I4, resulting in the turning
of the latter, bevel gears H5 and a shaft ‘H6,
which, as shown in Fig.‘ 10, turns other bevel gears
1!‘!, a 'shaft'IIB, a gear ‘!IIS on the latter, and a
gear "120 on a sleeve 72!, which carries the com
pass ring I58 that is associated with the target
dial 421.
clutch I32. This clutch is diagrammatically
illustrated in a simple form in Fig. 4, and includes
a disk-like gear I33, which is susceptible to lat
eral play. It has a neutral position in which it
is out of mesh with a gear train I34, but is adapted to be placed in mesh therewith upon the en
ergization of an electromagnet I35.
A conductor I3‘! extends from the positive line
conductor I38 to the coil of the electromagnet
I40 to the negative line conductor I4I. Under
these conditions, the disk gear I33 is rotating
and is drawn by the electromagnet I35 into mesh
with the gear train I34, which drives the shaft
As'seen in Fig. 2, the shaft I42 turns bevel gears
I 43, and the power drive continues by a shaft
I44, under the control of any suitable speed regu
lating mechanism I44’, such as that shown in my
United States Patent No. 1,577,618, issued March
23, 1926, the mechanism being operated in ac
cordance with time. The time-controlled power
drive proceeds :by gears I45, a shaft I43, bevel
gears I 41, another shaft J48, other bevel gears
I49, a shaft I50, bevel gears I 5!, another shaft
I52, arpair of bevel gears I53, a shaft I54, and
75 through gears I55 turns a shaft I56. The shaft
I56, as shown in Fig. 1, extends into the range
keeper I26 to operate portions of its mechanism.
In the range keeper I26, the power shaft I56,
which is synchronized with time, carries a pinion
146, shown in Fig. 11, which meshes with a gear
141 on a shaft 148, which also carries another
gear 149. The gear 149 drives the disk gear 156'
of a range integrator 156 more extensively re
ferred to hereinafter, the disk gear 156' continu
ing the drive through a pinion 15I, a shaft 152,
bevel gears 153, another shaft 154, other bevel
gears 155 to a shaft 156.
This shaft turns bevel
gears 151, shown in Fig. 9, the drive proceeding
switch I96, through the same and by conductors
I9I and I46 to the negative line conductor MI.
The result is the energization of the electromag
net I81, and a consequent attraction thereby of
a disk-gear I92 of a diagrammatically illustrated
compass clutch I93.
Another electromagnet I94 is present in the
compass clutch I63, the gear-disk I92 being posi
tioned ‘between the electromagnets I81 and I94, .
and having ‘sufficient lateral play to permit it to
be attracted by either and to be in a neutral po
sition when not so attracted. The electromag
net I94 is energized when the switch arm I16,
responding to a compass movement of opposite
by a shaft 158, bevel gears 159, a shaft 166 and
bevel gears 16I to a shaft 162, which, as shown 15 sign to that previously referred to, engages the
contact I 19 instead of contact I16. At such times,
in Fig. 10, carries a worm 163. Meshed with this
direct current from the positive line conductor
worm is a worm gear 164 on a shaft 165, which
I38 to the switch arm I16, as previously traced,
carries the clock dial 666, operated in accordance
goes to the contact I19, and by a conductor I95
with time, as previously stated.
to the coil of the electromagnet I94. From this
Reference to Fig. 11 shows that time-controlled
coil the current proceeds by conductors I96 and
power shaft I56 also establishes another drive
I89, cut~out switch I96 and conductors I9I and
through gears 146 and 141, shaft 148, gear 149,
I46 to the negative line conductor I4I.
another gear 166, a shaft 161, bevel gears 168, a
According to whether the ship’s compass indi
shaft 169, other bevel gears 116, a shaft 1H and
cates changes in the ship's heading to the right
a gear 112 to the disk gear 113' of an inverse
or to the left, one or the other of the electro
range integrator 113, which is more appropriately
magnets I81 and I94 of the compass clutch is
referred to further on, it su?icing, for the present,
energized, attracting the disk-gear I92. When
to show the introduction and application of power
the latter is attracted by the magnet I81, the
synchronized with time in the range keeper I26.
Consideration of the compass dials of the range 30 disk-gear I92 is thrown into mesh with a gear
train I91, shown in Fig. 4, thus turning a shaft
keeper I26, as they relate both to own ship and
I98. Energization of the magnet I94 carries
the target will now be had. Compass dials I51
the disk-gear I92 into mesh with another gear
and I58, relating respectively to own ship and
train I99, turning the shaft I98 in the reverse
the target, are centrally located on the face of
range keeper I26, as shown in Fig. 5, and these
For coarse readings, a coarse compass trans
dials, as well as a Vernier compass dial I51’ which
mitter is used and has a rotor 266 connected across
is associated with compass dial I51, are operated
synchronously with the ship’s compass. To this
end, a follow-up mechanism of any suitable well
known type, indicated at I59 in Fig. 4, is con
the alternating current mains H5 and H6 by
conductors 26I and 262. The delta winding of a
40 stator 263 has spaced points connected by con
ductors 264, 265 and 266 to correspondingly
trolled by the ship’s compass. The follow-up
spaced points of a stator 261 of a coarse compass
mechanism turns a shaft I66, gears I6I and
receiver. Rotatable within the stator 261 is a
through another shaft I62 turns a rotor I63 of a
rotor 268. which is connected across the alter
compass transmitter for ?ne increments of the
compass indications. The rotor I63 is connected 45 nating current main line conductors by conduc~
tors 269 and 2I6. Relative displacement of the
across the alternating current line conductors I I 5
rotor 266 and the stator 263 of the coarse trans
and H6 by conductors I64 and I65. The ?ne
mitter effects a corresponding relative displace
compass transmitter has a stator I66 spaced
ment of the rotor 268 and its companion stator
points in the delta winding of which are connected
by conductors I61, I68 and I69 with correspond 60 261 of the coarse compass receiver. Rotary
movement of the rotor 268 turns a shaft 2“ to
ingly spaced points of a similar stator I16 of a
which is affixed a drum cam 2I2 that operates a
fine compass receiver. Within the stator I16 is a
lever 2 I3, which is similar to the lever I16, and is
rotor I‘II connected by conductors I12 and I13
fulcrumed at 2 I4.
across the alternating current line I I5-—I I6.
In its neutral position, the lever 2I3 is out of
1When the rotor I63 of the ?ne compass trans 55
engagement with a pair of electrical contacts
mitter alters its relation to its stator I66, the rotor
M5 and 2I6. When the contact 2I5 is engaged
I1I of the ?ne compass receiverassumes a cor
by the lever 2I3, a circuit is completed from the
responding relation to its stator I16. Rotary
positive line conductor I 38, through conductors
movement of the ?ne compass receiver rotor I1I
turns a rotor shaft I14 on which a drum cam I15 60 I86 and 2 I1, the magnetizing coil 2 I8 of the relay
I83, a, conductor 2I9, the lever 2I3, contact 2I5,
is mounted, the cam groove therein receiving one
conductors 226 and I86, the coil of the compass
end of a lever I16 which is fulcrumed at I11.
clutch magnet I81, conductors I88 and I89, cut
Normally, the lever I16 is in a neutral position,
out switch I96, and conductors I9I and I66 to the
but as the rotor turns it is swung so that its op
posite insulated end engages one or the other of 65 negative line conductor I4I,
Accordingly, the core 22I of the relay I83 at
a pair of electrical contacts I18 and I19.
tracts the relay armature 222, which is pivoted to
Upon the engagement of the arm I16 with the
the core 22L thereby opening the contacts I82
contact I18,‘ current flows from the positive line
and I 84. and thus the ?ne compass receiver circuit
conductor I38, shown in Fig. 4, to a conductor
I86, continuing through a conductor I8I, a mov 70 through the magnet I81 of the compass clutch.
Because, however, of the described circuit which
able contact I82 of a relay I83, a ?xed contact
passes through the arm 2I3 and contact 2| 5 of
I84 and a conductor I85 to the lever I16. From
the coarse compass receiver, the magnet I81 of the
here the current goes by contact I18 and conduc
compass clutch I93 remains energized. There
tor I86 to the coil of an electromagnet I81, then
proceeding by conductors I88 and I89 to a, cutout 75 fore, as the power motor I21 continues to drive
the shaft I28, the gear I29 thereon drives a gear
ing in the direction under consideration, the
223 vwhich is secured on a shaft 22:‘; on which the
stator I19 exerts a torque upon the rotor I1I‘
causing its movement, in accordance with a well
known law, whereby the drum cam I19 acts upon
the lever I19 to quickly throw the latter into
engagement with contact I19. Thereafter, the
already described driving of the stator I19 simul
taneously with the urging of the rotor I1I, but
disk-gear I92 is also a?ixed. Accordingly, the
disk-gear I92 is still kept in mesh with the gear
train I91, and the shaft I99 continues to rotate,
but is under the control of the coarse compass
The coarse compass receiver is in con
trol only when the ,?ne compass receiver is out
, of synchronism with the ?ne compass transmitter
in the opposite direction to that in. which this ro
by more than an allowable extent. The arm 2 I3 10 tor is being urged, results in the shaft I14 and
of the coarse compass receiver is at other times
drum cam I15 being maintained from further
in its neutral position out of engagement with both
of its associated contacts 2 I5 and 2 I9.
When the rotor 298 turns in the opposite direc
rotation, since by as much as the rotor I1I' tends
to turn in response to the ?ne compass trans
mitter, the stator I19 is being reversely driven
tion to that already-referred to, in response to a
to'offset the impulse of rotor I1I to turn.
reversed change in the ship’s heading, and the
This condition continues until the stator I19
lever 2I3 engages the contact 2IB, current ?ows
has been driven by the amount corresponding to
from the positive line conductor I39, through con
the extent of the torque developed between the
ductors I 89 and 2H1, the relay magnet ‘coil 2I9,
rotor I93 and stator I69 of the fine compass trans
mitter in consequence of the angular displace
conductor 2I9, lever 2I3. contact 2I9, conductors
225 and I95 to and through the other magnet of
ment of the rotor I93 proportionately to the
change in the ship’s heading in the particular
the compass clutch I93 thence going by con
direction being considered. This continued oppo
ductors I99 and I39, the cut-out switch I99, and
sitional co-operative action of the stator I19 and
conductors I9I and I49 to the negative line con
ductor Ml. This causes the disk-gear I92 of the
rotor ill of the ?ne compass receiver neutralizes
the torque developed therebetween by the set
compass clutch I 93 to be attracted by the electro
magnet I99, thereby throwing the disk-gear I92
ting of the ?ne compass transmitter, so that by
the time that the stator I19 has been operated
into‘mesh with a gear train I99. As a result, the
proportionately to the extent of the torque de
driven shaft I98 of the compass clutch is driven
reversely to the direction previously referred to, 30 veloped in the ?ne compass transmitter there is
no torque left between the stator I19 and the ro~
while under the control of the coarse compass
tor I1I of the ?ne compass receiver. Since the
rotor I'iI moves initially to engage arm I16 with
As previously explained, the ?ne compass trans
contact I19 while the stator I19 is stationary, this
mitter, shown in Fig. 4c, is actuated by the com
stator is not driven angularly as far as is the ro
pass follow-up mechanism I59. A reduction gear
tor I1I by therangular amount necessary for the
train 221 is driven by the shaft I92, and turns
arm I16 to move into engagement with contact
a shaft 228 of the coarse compass transmitter, so
I18. ‘Therefore, when the stator I19 and rotor
I ‘II have been simultaneously reversely driven by
~ mitter. In a similar manner, the stator I19 of the 40 the amount that causes the rotor I19 to have been
urged through an angle that is equal to the angle
?ne compass receiver is connected through a
of change in the ship’s heading in the given di
reduction gear train 229 with the stator 291 of the
rection, the stator I19 will be behind the angular
coarse compass receiver. ‘The reduction gear
displacementof rotor I ‘II by the angular distance
train 229 is operated from the driven shaft I98
through which the lever I16 moved to engage
of the compass clutch, the shaft I98 driving
contact I18. A counter torque exists between the
through bevel gears 239, shown in Fig. 2, a shaft
stator I19 and the rotor I1I at the time when
23I, bevel gears 232, another shaft 233, a worm
the torque therebetween due to the setting of
239, a worm gear 235, a shaft 239, a gear 231 and
the ?ne compass transmitter becomes neutralized
a gear 298 which is mounted on the stator I19 of '
turning the rotor 299 of the latter in the correct
ratio to the rotor I93 of the ?ne compass trans
the ?ne compass receiver. The reduction gear 50 as described, Consequently, the rotor IN is now
turned reversely to its former direction of urge
train 229 turns a gear 239 and so a gear 299, which
into a zero-torque relationship with the stator
is mounted on the stator 291 of the'coarse compass
I19, which turns shaft I14 and drum cam I15
Since the distance between the contact end
of lever I16, when it is in its neutral or mid-po
sition, and either ?xed contact I18 or I19 is
small, the circuit closure is effected quickly upon
the actuation of lever I16 by drum cam I 15 as
the latter turns with the ?ne compass receiver
rotor I1I in the direction in which this rotor is
caused to turn by the ?ne compass transmitter.
As explained hereinbefore, when, for instance,
the lever I16 engages contact I18 a previously
traced circuit is closed through the electro-mag
net I81 of the compass clutch I93, whereby its
output shaft I98 is driven and in turn, as shown
in Fig. 2, drives gears 230,, shaft 23I, gears 232,
shaft 233, worm 234, worm gear 235, shaft 239,
by the angular amount necessary to return the
lever I16 into its former or neutral position.
Thisopens the circuit through the compass clutch
I93, stopping the drive of the stator I19 at the
time when rotor I1I has been actuated in exact
proportion to the angle of change in the ship’s
heading in the direction of such change.
If the ship’s heading changes in the opposite
direction, the operation is similar but in the re
verse direction, whereby lever I19 engages con
tact I19, thereby energizing the other electro
magnet I94 of compass clutch I93, which then
drives the stator I19 in the opposite direction to
that previously described. Hence, any change in
the heading of the ship in either direction is ac
curately measured for the angular value of the
stator I19 of the ?ne compass receiver. The 70 change of heading for the direction in which the
stator I19 is thus turned in the opposite direc
change takes place.
tion to that in which the rotor I1I of the ?ne
If for any reason, such as the ship changing its
compass receiver is being urged to turn by the
course too rapidly for the ?ne compass receiver
?ne compass transmitter.
to closely follow the ?ne compass transmitter, the
Accordingly, when the ship changes its head
?ne compass receiver gets out of synchronism
gear 231 and the gear 238 that is mounted on the
Без категории
Размер файла
6 883 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа