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Патент USA US2405033

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July 30, 1946.
w. F. GRIMES
2,405,033
HOT RIVE‘I‘ERv
Filed July 13, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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WILLIAM F.
IMES
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HIS (Ittorneg
July 30, 1946.
W.'F. GRIMES
2,405,033
’
HOT RIVETER
Filed July 15, 1944
ELEOTRICO
POWER
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2 Sheeté-Sheet 2
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“ Patented July so, 1946
2,405,033
‘UNl’l‘ED sures-PATENT OFFICE
William I‘. Grimes, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The "
National Cash Re?m Company,‘ Dayton,
Ohio, a corporation of Maryland
Alllllcation July 13, 1944, Serial No. 544,761
12 Claims. (01. 219-2)
,
l
.
This invention relates to an electric hot riveter
wherein the electric heating current is auto
matically interrupted‘ when the rivet assumes the
desired degree oi’ set.
.
'
.
Electric hot riveters. of the continuous pres
sure type, have been known heretofore that heated
struction and combinations of parts, the essential
elements of which are set forth in appended
claims and a preferred form or embodiment of '
which is hereinafter described with reference to
the drawings which accompanying and form a
part of this speci?cation.
‘ ‘
the rivet under pressure for a certain accurately
0f the drawings:
>
computed period ofrtime. In the use of such
Fig.'1-shows
the
ram
electrode
in
operative
rela
known riveters, the heating time must be com
, puted empirically for each Job set-up, because the 10 tion to the work and the work support electrode,
together with the novel control means.
variable factors, such as rivet size, heat conduc- '
Fig. 2 shows, in a broken-away view, the initial
tivity of the bodies to be Joined, and character
contact of the control element with the work to be
- istics of the rivet metal as to the heat necessary
,
riveted.
to bring about a condition of metal flow under
the available riveting force, make longer or 15 Fig. 3 shows, in a broken-away view. the initial '
contact of the riveter tool electrode with the rivet. >
shorter heating periods nry. Such interval .
Fig. 4 shows the rivet upset and the control
time ordinarily must be computed to a small frac
means in the operated condition.
'
v
tion of a second. Inaccurate timing results in
. Fig. 5 is a diagram of a typical heating circuit
failure to upset the rivet or in burning the rivet.
and electric control switches with relation to the
This invention is directed to the cut-oil.’ control 20 electrodes
of the device.
"
of the heating current applied to a rivet, by the
Fig. 6"shows, in ‘side elevation, a typical hot
movement of the electrode riveting tool, as the
riveter embodying the invention.
rivet is upset. As the rivet setting tool touches
Figs. 7 and 8 show modi?ed‘forms of the inven
the tenon of the rivet, a mechanical condition is
vtion wherein the control elements do not contact
set up in a control device so that further move
the workpiece.
‘
Y
ment of the tool, as the rivet is upset under heat
The
invention
is
disclosed
as
one
in which the
and pressure, results in an interruption of the
force is applied to the rivet by the operator, al-i
heating‘ current. This invention, therefore, pro
though it will be apparent that pneumatic, hy
vides an electric hot riveter without an interval
timer. Doing away with a control in terms of an so draulic, or other ramming means may be used
together with the novel automatic control devices
interval of time eliminata failures due to in
without departing from the scope of the inven
correct choice of the time, and to failures due to
_ tion.
deviation of materials from standard character
General description
istics on which the time interval happens to be
chosen.
~
There is shown in Fig. 6 a machine frame 20
Therefore, an object of ‘the invention is to pro
having a knee 2!, and a head 22 having a ram
vide an electric hot riveter whose electric circuit
is controlled by the movement of the riveter tool
as the rivet assumes a set.
23 mounted therein for movement toward and
away from the knee. In the embodiment of the
invention shown, a pedal 24 is used to furnish
Another object of the invention is to provide 40 force to move the ram toward the knee. Down
ward movement of the pedal 24, rockable counter
clockwise on stud 25 against the spring I acauses
rivet is upset to the desired'conformation.
link 26 to move upwardly against compression
Another object of the invention is to provide
spring 27, which transmits the moving force to
a control for a resistance type of electric hot 45 link 28, rocking lever 29 counter-clockwise on
riveter which is adjustable to determine how far
stud 30, and lowering ram 23. Compression spring
the upset rivet end shall extend above the work
27 limits the pressure with which the ram 23 or
tools carried thereby may he forced against a
Another object of the invention is to provide
body interposed between it and the knee. Upon
a riveter having an electrode ram supplying heat 50 compression of spring 27, contacts 35 and 32 meet
ing current to the rivet'irom the commencement
(see also Fig. 5), closing a circuit (Fig. 5) includ
of the necessary force applied bythe ram until
ing conductor 33, switch 34 (see also Figs. 1, 2, 3,
the rivet is seated.
,
and 4) having normally closed contacts 35 and 38,
With these and incidental objects in view, the
I conductor 31, electric power source 38', conductor
invention includes certain novel features of con
a hot pressure riveter of the electric resistance
type wherein the electric energy is cut off as the
piece.
.
-
-
39, transformer primary coil 49, conductor t3,
acoaoss -
3
4
and contact 32. Power source 38 may be of any
type suitable for creating high current values, as
in the transformer secondary coil 4i and asso
ciated circuit connected through the work, as will
be described. It is apparent that a battery may
be used as the power source without use of a
_
'
tacts 3i and 32 (Figs. 5 and 6) meet in the pri
mary circuit after the pressure applied through
spring 21 approaches the limit. Adjustment screw
I00 (Fig.. 6) is used to determine the pressure '
point at ‘which the current is applied.
Screw 8! (Fig. 1) on cross piece 54 may be ad
transformer device.
Insulatedly mounted on ram head 42 (Figs. 1
and 6) is a ram electrode 44 having an electrode
Justed to openswitch 34 at the degree of set de
sired for the rivet tenon. Feeler 61 may be ad
justed by the screw threads to accomplish the
tool‘ holding part 45 electrically joined thereto.
same purpose
Tool holder 45 (Fig. llhas a central aperture 46,
into which is fastened the electrically conductive
rivet setting tool 4'l (Fig. 1) by means of conduct
ing set screw 48. The tool 470’ has a. rivet setting
work end 48 made of suitable hardconductive
material.
_
'
Paralleiing tool aperture 456 are apertures Eli
Switch 34 is preferably of the type having a
snap action on very small movement, 50 as to
achieve more exact control. It is to be noted that
switch 34 may be used in other places than in the
primary coil circuit to operate auxiliary switch
ing devices or electronic relays to interrupt the
current source, thus permitting the use of very
heavy currents. Switch 34 might also be placed
and Si, in which are mounted rods b2 and 53,
directly in the secondary coil circuit without de
joined at their upper ends by insulator cross
piece54 in a cavity 55 and fastened at their lower 20 parture from the principles of the invention.
Figs. 7 and 8 show modi?ed forms of the in
ends to cylinder 56, through which the projecting
vention wherein the switch 34 is actuated by a
end of tool 4i freely passes. Parts 52, 53, and 5E3v
?xed feeler liii adjustable by screw 99 according
are insulated from the tool holder 45 by in
to a job set-up Fig. 7 shows the switch 34 on the
sulators such as insulators 59, 60, M, and 62, which
act also as bushings in which the parts can slid 25 knee 2! and the feeler IN on the tool holder 45,
and Fig. 8 shows the switch 34 on the ram tool
ably move. Thestructure comprising parts 52,
holder
45 and the feeler on the knee 2i. It is to
53, 54, and 58 moves as a unit within the limits
be observed that, while in these modi?ed forms
imposed by the distance between surface 65 and
of the invention a new adjustment of the feeler
surface 66. Cylinder 56 has a cone-shaped feeler
61 screwed onto its lower end. Feeler 611 surrounds 30 I00 might have to be made for each height of
work, there is no time control needed, as the 8180-,
but does not touch the lower end of tool 41 and
tric interruption is caused by the rivet's being up
projects beyond it a slight distance. _ Between '
set.
insulator 6i and surface ‘iii of feeler Si is a corn°
This novel hot riveter operates perfectly over
pression spring ‘H keeping the feeler 6i resiliently
in the position shown in Fig. i, the lip 16 of the 35 a wide range of current values and therefore
can accept work of widely varying current re-~
feeler extending beyond the tool head 49.
quireinents without adjustment of the electric
On knee 2i is placed a bolster electrode, like
4 electrode 12, formed to hold by the head the type
' power source.
_
The invention is not restricted to the resistance
rivet as having a stud head 14 held in a hole 13 40 type of heating, although it is the preferred type.
as the heating may be accomplished by other
with the tenon ‘I5 in the line of movement of the
means such as by use of an induction coil sur
work end 49 of the rivet setting tool 41.
rounding the work. It is to be noted that the
As the ram descends, the lip ‘IS oi’ the feeler
invention is not dependent on the mode of electric
61 comes into contact with the upper surface of
heating.
.
the work piece ll, in which the stud to be riveted
While the form of the invention shown and
is inserted through the hole 18 made for that
described herein is admirably adapted to ful?ll
purpose (see Fig. 2). On continued downward
the objects primarily stated, it is to be under
movement of the ram, the feeler 61 is held sta
stood that it is not intended to confine the in
tionary by the work piece, and the work end 49
of the rivet setting tool contacts the end of the 50 vention to the forms or embodiments disclosed
herein, for it is susceptible of embodiment in
tenon of the rivet (see Fig. 3). Cross piece 54 is
various forms all coming within the scope or the
'moved upwardly slightly, as shown in Fig. 3, by
claims which follow.
reason of the upward movement of the parts Si.
What ‘is claimed is:
r
‘
56, 52, and 53 relative to the tool 411. At this
1. In an electric hot riveter device for riveting
point, the then cold rivet temporarily halts move
a plurality of parts together, the combination of
ment of the ram 23 (Fig. 6), and spring 21 com
two opposed electrode pressing members; means
presses until contacts 3| and 32 close. The rivet
to move the electrodes toward each other, said
tenon 15 (Fig. 1) is heated by the ensuing current
moving means including a force~limiting means;
passing through it from one electrode to the other
of rivet to undergo treatment. Fig. 1 shows the
and reaches a plastic state where the downward 60 an electric circuit to .heat the rivet; an energizing
circuit for the ?rst-mentioned circuit made com
force of the ram causes the rivet to upset, as shown
plete as the pressing members contact a rivet
in Fig. 4, allowing the setting tool 47 to move
and the pressure reaches the limit, said ener
downwardly further relatively to lips 16, increas
gizing circuit including a control means mounted
ing the movement of cross piece 54 toward switch
34 until it pushes switch actuating pin 80 and 65 on one of said pressing members and actuable to
raises contact 35, breaking the primary coil supply
break the circuit; and a sensing member movable ‘
into contact with one of said parts to actuate the
control means to break the circuit as the rivet is
lected of a strength necessary to transmit force
upset by the heat of the current and pressure.
sufficient to upset at rivet heated to a plastic state.
Thesecondary coil 4i (Fig. 5) is connected to 70 ‘ 2.: In combination, a source of electric energy;
a press having two jaws each of which is an elec
support electrode ‘I2 (see also Fig: 11) by con
trode; means to move the jaws toward one an
ductor 90 and is connected to ram electrode 44
other to hold a metal rivet and press it; nor
by conductor SI, and the current is completed as
circuit (see Fig. 5). Compression spring 21 is se
the work end 49 (Fig. 1) of the setting tool touches
the rivet tenon. but is not energized until con
>maliy incomplete electric means for coupling the
energy source to the electrodes to pass] a. current
'
~ aeospsa
from one electrode to the other through the rivet.
upsetting of the tenon; and a means mounted
said means including a pressure switch making,
on the ram controlling the amount of upset the
the electric means complete as the pressure on
rivet is given, said last-named means including
the rivet reaches a'deiinite value below the cold
a ieeler which moves the actuating means to open
?ow pressure point of the rivet, and said electric
the control switch asthe ram electrode comes
means containing a normally closed control
within a certain distance of the workpiece.
switch mounted on one of said jaws and movable
6. In a device for hot riveting a metal mem
therewith; and means mounted on the said one > her to -a perforated workpiece by upsetting a
of the Jaws for movement therewith and rela
tenon on the rivet, the combination of an elec
tive thereto, which when moved relatively to the
trode for supporting the member with the tenon
said one Jaw opens the control switch, said means
protruded through the perforation in the work
being actuated relatively to said one jaw by move
piece; 'a'ram electrode supported so that it may
ment of an electrode in following the rivet as it
be moved toward the protruding tenon in op
is upset after it is heated by current to the ?ow
posed relation to the supporting electrode; means
point.
'
3. In a, machine for, upsetting a rivet in a
workpiece, thev combination of a source of electric
energy; a press having two Jaws each of which
15 to move the ram with, a force less than required
to upset the rivet when cold but more than re
quired ‘to upset the rivet when heated substan-~
tially to hot .forglng temperature; an electric
is an electrode; means to move the jaws toward '
circuit. including the ram electrode, the rivet,
one another .to hold a-metal rivet and press it; 20 and vthe support electrode in series; an energiz
circuit means for coupling the energy source to‘
ing source of electric power; means which in
the electrodes to pass a current from one elec
cludes a normally closed control switch, and a
trode to the other through the rivet, said circuit
normally open switch which is closed as the ram
means including a pressure switch making the
is moved against the tenon with maximum force,
circuit complete as the pressure on the rivet, 25 coupling said source of power to the electric cit‘.-v
reaches a de?nite value below the cold ?ow pres
cuit, which circuit is thereby energized to heat
sure point oi’ the rivet, and said circuit means
‘the tenon to upsetting temperature; actuating
containing a normally closed control switch
means carried by the ram which, when moved,
mounted on one of said Jaws and movable there
opens the control switch at a predetermined point
with; and movable means mounted on said one 30 in the upsetting of the tenon; and a means '
Jaw and movable relatively thereto and, which
mounted on the ram and including a ieeler which
when moved relatively to said one jaw opens the
moves to open the control switch as the ram elec
control switch, said movable means being moved
trode comes within a certain distance of the
relatively to the said one jaw by movement of
workpiece, said feeier- being adjustable on the
an electrode in following the rivet as it is upset
ram to control the amount of the upset.
‘
after it‘ is heated by current to the flow point,
7. In a device for electricallytreating a body,
said moving means including a feele'r gauge
the combination of a stationary electrode; an
movable into contact with the workpiece and ad~
opposed electrode movable toward the'stationary
Justable to determine the extent of the upset.
, electrode; means to move the opposed electrode
4. In an electric hot riveter, the combination 40 toward the stationary eiectrode; a feeler member
of an electric rivet heating means; a power cir
carried by the opposed electrode, said member
cuit for the heating means including a normally
having a normal position on said electrode lead
closed switch operable to interrupt the power
ing the same in a direction toward the stationary
through the heating means; a supporting elec
electrode but movable backwardly relatively
trode for a rivet; a ram electrode movable against 45 thereto; and a source of electric potential sup
a supported rivet; means to move the ram elec
plied to the electrodes through circuits includ
trode to press against the supported rivet; and
ing a switch, said switch being caused to open
a movable member carried by the ram electrode
and vcut oil’ the electric potential by the relative
which when moved a predetermined distance
movement of the feeler member on the opposed
opens the switch to interrupt the circuit through 50 electrode when the movement exceeds a certain
the heating means as the ram electrode moves
selected amount from normal position as the
said predetermined distance to upset the rivet.
member contacts any body held between the elec
5. In a device for hot riveting a metal mem
trodes. .>
,
her to a perforated workpiece by upsetting a
8. In a device for electrically treating a body,
tenon on the rivet, the combination/oi an elec 55 the combination of a stationary electrode; an
trode for supporting the member with the tenon
opposed electrode movable toward the stationary
protruded through the perforation in the work
electrode; means to move the opposed electrode
piece; a ram electrode supported so that it may
toward the stationary electrode; a ieeler member
be moved toward the protruding tenon in opposed
carried by the opposed electrode, said feeler
relation to the supporting electrode; means to 60 member having a normal positionen said elec~
move the ram with a i'orce less than required to
upset the rivet whenv cold but more than re
trode leading the same in a direction toward the
stationary electrode but movable backwardly rel-'
quired to upset the rivet when heated substan
atively thereto ii a body is contacted as the elec
tially to hot forging temperature; an electric-cir
trodes move toward one another; and a source
cuit including the ram electrode, the rivet, and 65 of electric potential supplied to the electrodes
the support electrode in series; an energizing
through circuits including a switch, said switch
source of electric power; means which includes
being caused to operate and cut on’ the electric
a normally closed control switch, and a normally
potential when the relative movement of the
open switch which is closed as the ram is moved
ieeler member on the opposed electrode exceeds
against the tenon with maximum force, coupling 70 a certain selected amount from normal position.
said source of power to the electric circuit, which
circuit is thereby energized to heat the tenon ,
to upsetting temperature; actuating means car- "
9. In an electric hot riveter, the combination
of a pressing electrode; means to supply the '
pressing electrode with electric potential; an
ried by the ram which, when moved, opens the
insulated sleeve surrounding the elec
control switch at a predetermined point in the 78 electrically
trode which normally sheaths the work end oi
eeoeucae
e rivet, the ieeler member‘ moves; and a. switch
in circuit with the electrode actuated by the
movement of the feeler member when the elec»
the electrode but which is resiliently movable
hackwardly to present the electrode to working
position; and an electric switch in circuit with
the electrode operated as the ‘backward move»
ment of the sleeve reaches a certain amount.
10:111 an electric hot riveter, the combination
of an electrode presser member; emember mow
trode and the feeler member are in a certain p0
sltion relative to one another, depending on the
_
ably supported on and protruding ‘beyond the
working end of the electrodethe direction of pos
adjustment of the feeler member.
I
12. In an electric hot riveter, the combina
tion of a. ram for supplying moving force to press
a rivet; e sheathed electrode carried by the ram,
sible movement of said member being in a, re 30 sold sheath being retractable, ‘permitting the
electrode to contact a rivet, said electrode being
trecting direction to' allow the working end of
eclepted to press the end of.’ e, rivet to toe formed
the electrode to present the electrode to working
and the sheet being adapted to contact e, Work»
piece through which the said end oil the rivet pro~
trudes, thereby to cause relative motion between
the electrode and the sheath as the rivet upsets;
position; e- switch in circuit with the electrode;
and adjustable means interposed between the
movable member and the switch to cause the
switch to operate after a retraction of the mov
able member a selected ‘distance.
and an electric switch in circuit with the elec»
trode which is operated by the sheath es the rivet
11. In an electric hot riveter, a ram; c rivet
pressing electrode carried toy the ram; a Zeeler
member movebly and edjustebly mounted on the
rem so that, as the electrode presses and upsets
is upset.
'WILL'iAll/i
it is hereby certi?ed
'
GR'IMTPS
@ITOI‘S oppeer in. the printed speci?cetiom or ' '
numbered patent requiring; correctlon es toilows:
msert a cement; column 2%, line 13, claim is, tor “sheet”
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