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Патент USA US2405050

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July 30, 1946-
R. A?. PFUNTNER ET AL
2,405,050
MAGNETIC COMPASS DEVIATION CQMPENSATQR
Filed March 2, 1945
?
2 Sheets-Sh閑t l
Figl.
Irwventors;
Richard ADFUTW?UWGT?,
Eleanor D.Wi son,
b E?
6: x)
?yTh n" Attorney.
_
July 30, 1946.
R. A. PFUNTNER ET AL
294959050
MAGNETIC COMPASS DEVIATION CQMPENSATOR
Filed March 2, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
' 45a
A 4/3
2
Inventors:
Richard A. PFuntnen
Eleanor? D. Wilson,
Th iv? Attorney.
Patented July 30, 1946
2,405,050
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,050
MAGNETIC COMPASS DEVIATION
COMPEN SATOR
Richard A. Pfuntner, Saugus, and Eleanor D.
Wilson, Brookline, Mass, assignors to General
Electric Company, a corporation of New York
Application March 2, 1945, Serial No. ?580,504
9 Claims.
(Cl. 33-225)
1
2
The present invention relates generally to mag
current, and, in addition, polyphase connections
netic compasses, and more particularly to a new
which are supplied with second harmonic cur
rents from a remotely located compensator trans
mitter unit. 'The second harmonic currents flow
ing in "the coil and the resulting second har
and improved deviation compensator used for
compensating for the e?ect of stray magnetic
?elds in the vicinity of the compass.
Magnetic compasses of the so-called remote
indicating type are now widely used on aircraft,
these compasses having the advantage that the
magnetic compass and its associated transmitter
may be located in a wing or some remote part of
monic ?uxes produced in the core cause unidi
rectional magnetic flux to flow across the diam
eter of the core. The transmitter is provided
with ?magnetic means for varying the magnitude
and polarity of the second harmonic currents sup
plied to the compensator core whereby the mag
nitude and direction of the unidirectional ?eld
the fuselage of the aircraft where ?the effects of
local magnetic ?elds and disturbances are less se
vere, the remote receiver indicator being located
produced across the diameter of the core may
in the control cabin or some other convenient
be adjusted to compensate, i. e., cancel out,
location. Deviation compensators for compasses, 15 effect of any stray magnetic ?eld in the vicinity
including the remote indicating type, frequently
of the compass.
are located adjacent the direction-sensitive ele
For a better and more complete understanding
ment of the compass, the compensator usually
of the invention reference should now be made to
comprising a number of small permanent mag
the following detailed description and to the ac
nets adjustably mounted so that the compensat
companying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a dia
ing auxiliary field produced thereby can be made
grammatic View, in perspective, of a remote in
to be equal and opposite to the ?eld caused by
dicating magnetic compass provided with a com
the plane?s permanent magnetism or other per
pensator and compensator transmitter unit
manently magnetized bodies in the vicinity of the
forming the subject matter of the present inven
compass. Such deviation compensators require 25 tion, Fig, ?2 is a v?schematic vwiring diagram show
local adjustment and are subject to the disad
ing the manner in which the windings of the
vantage that remote compass transmitters are
compensator and transmitter units shown in Fig.
usually located in a small, cramped space so that
frequently adjacent equipment or even part of
the airplane structure has to be removed to ren
der the deviation adjustment accessible.
An object of the present invention is to provide
a new and improved deviation compensator for a
1 are electrically interconnected, and Fig. 3 shows
a modi?cation in which the compensator carries
30 separate windings for the second harmonic cur
rents and the transmitter has two separate cores
and associated windings ?for the production of
second harmonic currents which are fed to the
magnetic compass.
compensator.
Another object of the invention is to provide a 35 Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, the devi
deviation compensator that is remotely adjust
ation compensator forming the subject matter
able so that there is no need for having access
of the present invention is shown as being used
to the remotely located compass.
in connection with a standard, remote-indicat
A further object of the invention is to provide
ing, magnetic compass used on aircraft compris
a remote controlled compass-deviation compensa
tor which is relatively simple, inexpensive, and
Which can be applied to any compass or device
used to detect the direction of the earth's mag
netic ?eld.
Further objects and advantages of my inven
tion will become apparent as the following de
40 ing a compass transmitter unit I and an indi
cator receiver 2, the two units being coupled to
gether by means of an electric cable 32 which
carries the necessary signal ?impulses for repro
ducing the?compass indications of the transmit
45 ter I at the remotely located receiver indicator
2.
The compass transmitter unit I may comprise
scription proceeds.
a conventional compass element comprising a pair
According to the present invention deviation
compensation is accomplished by the provision
of permanent magnets 3 which are pendulously
supported on a vertical post 4 by means of a jew
of an annular core of permeable magnetic ma 50 elled bearing 5 so that the compass magnets :3
terial which is located in magnetic relation with
are free to swing in .-a horizontal plane and seek
the directional element of the compass. The core
the magnetic meridian. Angular position of the
has coil means associated therewith having ?a sin
compass magnet 3 in the transmitter unit is re
gle phase connection adapted to be connected to
produced at the receiver indicator unit 2 by a well
a source of alternating or periodically varying 55 known ?second harmonic 'telemetering system
2,405,050
4
comprising a transmitter ring 6 located beneath
the compass magnet, the ring being electrically
uniformly distributed exciting winding 23, the end
spondence. Mounted for rotation within the re
ceiver ring 1 are a pair of permanent magnets 8
responding polyphase connections of the corn
pensator winding l3 and the transmitter winding
which are mechanically coupled to a compass
23 are electrically connected.
Associated with the core 22 of the transmitter
unit are a pair of cylindrically shaped permanent
connections of which are brought out at points
21% and 25 to form single phase connections which
connected by the cable 32 to a similar ring 1
are connected to the alternating current supply
at the receiver indicator. The permanent mag
net ?eld. from the compass magnet 3 which is Cl leads l8 and El". The winding 23 is also provided
with tapped connections 26 and 2i which are
produced across the diameter of the transmitter
located so that the connections 25 and 2'! and
ring 6 causes a ?ow of second harmonic current
the common connection ?2.5 are equally spaced
between the transmitter receiver rings 6 and ?I,
around the periphery of the winding 23 to form
these currents causing a unidirectional magnetic
?eld to flow across the diameter of the receiver 0 symmetrical polyphase connections corresponding
to the polyphase connections !5, i8 and i9 of the
ring ?I, the angular position of the ?eld extend
compensator winding i3. As shown, the cor
ing across the rings 6 and 1 remaining in corre
card 9. The permanent magnets 8 tend to main
tain themselves in alignment with the unidirec
magnets 28 and 2d, the magnets being mounted
tional magnetic ?eld ?owing across the diameter
of ring 1 so that the compass card 9 reproduces
the angular position of the compass magnet 3
relative to the aircraft on which the compass sys
tem is mounted, the cardinal characters on the
compass card 9 being read against the station
ary index it]. The remote indicating compass
adjacent the core on opposite sides thereof. The
magnet 23 is mounted on a rotatable shaft 30 the
axis of rotation of which coincides with the axis
of the magnet cylinder and extends in the direc
tion or" the line Al, A2. The magnet 25} is mounted
on a rotatable shaft M, the axis of rotation of
system thus far described is entirely convention 25 which coincides with the axis of the magnet cyl
inder and extends in the direction of the line
al and forms no part of the present invention
El, E2. As shown, the axes Al, A2 and BI, B2
as the deviation compensator, which will now be
are mutually perpendicular and lie in planes in
described, is applicable to all types of magnetic
cluding mutually perpendicular diameters of the
compasses including both the pivoted magnet
core 22.
and induction types.
The cylindrical magnets 28 and 29 are each
The deviation compensator, forming the sub
magnetized across a diameter of the cylinder so
ject matter of the present invention, comprises
that diametrically opposite points on the surface
a compensator ring i I which may be mounted, as
of the cylinder constitute north and south poles,
shown, in the upper portion of the compass trans
mitter unit i so that it is in a position to mag
35 as indicated.
When the magnets 28 and 29 are
netically influence the compass magnets 3. The
rotated to the position shown, the magnet 28 will
ring H is mounted in a horizontal position so
that the axis of the ring coincides with the axis
of rotation of the compass magnet 3.
cause a unidirectional magnetic ?ux  to flow
across a diameter of the core 22 in the direction
of axis Bi, B2, and the magnet 2:?. will cause a
unidirectional magnetic flux �to ?ow across a
diameter of the core 22 in the direction of the
As- shown in Fig. 2, the compensator ring H
comprises a closed core [2 which is preferably,
axes A2, Al. The magnetic ?uxes (pi and �produced by the magnets '28 and 29 return to
opposite poles of the magnets through the core
although not necessarily, annular in shape. The
core is also preferably laminated and formed of
a highly permeable magnetic material, such as,
for example, magnetic material known to the 45 22, as indicated by the flux arrows and in this
manner the ?uxes link the winding 23.
trade as ?Permalloy? or ?Mumetal.? The core 12
The ampere turns of the windings l3 and 23 on
carries a uniformly distributed winding it, the
the compensator and transmitter cores i2 and
end connections of which are brought at adjacent
points on the ring, the end points of the winding
21 are selected such that alternating current sup
50 plied from the supply lines it and ii? causes par
being numbered i4 and H5,
The coil connections it and 55, which may be
termed a single phase connection, are connected
to a source of alternating current supply, the
supply leads being numbered l6 and H.
The winding i3 is provided with tapped con 55
nections i8 and Hi, the taps being spaced so that
the connections l8 and i9 and the common con
tial saturation of the cores i2 and 22. The par
tial saturation in the core 22 causes a periodic
variation in the permeability of the core which,
in turn, causes an accompanying periodic varia
tion in the unidirectional ?uxes M and �which
link the winding 23, As the result of the periodic
variation or pulsation of the ?uxes pi and Q52,
second harmonic currents and voltages are in
nection it are located at three equally spaced
duced in the winding 23. Due to the symmetry
points around the periphery of the coil, i. e., they
are 120� apart, these connections being termed 60 of the polyphase interconnection between the
windings l3 and 23 of the compensator and trans
polyphase connections. Second harmonic cur
mitter, corresponding second harmonic currents
rents supplied from a remotely located trans
and voltages are induced in the winding l3 of the
mitter unit, indicated generally at 20, are intro
compensator. The second harmonic currents in
duced into the winding i3 through the polyphase
connections l5, l8 and I9, and the second har 65 duced in the winding E3 of the compensator pro
monic currents cause a unidirectional compen
duce second harmonic ?uxes which circulate
sating magnetic ?eld to flow across the diameter
of the core l2, as will be more fully described.
around the core l2 and across diameters thereof
in the same relative directions as the ?uxes
The compensator transmitter unit 2E! comprises
(M and �circulate in the transmitter core 22.
70 Second harmonic ?uxes in the core l2 are alter
nating in nature, but due to the periodic satura
tion of the core 92 due to the flow of exciting
current of fundamental frequency in the wind
ing it a rectifying action takes place so that the
75 magnetic ?uxes ?owing across the� diameter of
a ring 2! which may be similar to the compen
sator ring H, the two rings being electrically
interconnected by electric connections indicated
generally at 39. As shown in Fig. 2, the trans
mitter ring 2! comprises an annular core 22 of
permeable magnetic material, the core carrying a
2,405,050
5
the core l2 are unidirectional in nature.
6
windings 23 and is. since they are mutually per
pendicular. Therefore, it is possible to adjust
the magnetic ?ux M and 45!? without in any way
Thus
the unidirectional ?ux  produced across the
diameter of core 22 by the magnet 28 produces
a corresponding unidirectional ?ux ' ?owing
across the diametric axis Bl?, B2? of the com
pensator core. Similarly, the unidirectional mag
netic flux e2 produced by the permanent magnet
29 and ?owing across the diametric axis A2, Al
affecting the mutually perpendicular magnetic
CR
?uxes �and e2?, and vice versa. This feature
is very desirable since it facilitates the deviation
compensation adjustment which will now be de
scribed.
With the above understanding of: the invention
of the transmitter core 23 produces a correspond
ing unidirectional flux </>2? flowing across the 10 both as to the structure and. organization of the
elements and the manner in which the compen
diameter of the compensator core E2 in the di
sating component magnetic fields of varying
rection of the diametric axes A2?, Al?. The two
?uxes a!? and � produced across the mutually
perpendicular diameters combine to produce a
resultant unidirectional ?ux (pa.
As shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, suitable
deviation adjustment knobs 33 and 34 are provid
ed by means of which the permanent magnets
28 and 29 can be rotated about their respective
axes Al, A2 and BI, B2, the knobs 33 and 34
being mechanically connected to the shafts 353
and 3! by shafts 35 and 36, and gears 31 and
38. By rotating the permanent magnets 28 andv
29, the components of unidirectional flux pro
duced thereby and flowing in the direction of the
axes Al, A2 and Bi, B2 may be adjusted with
reference to both magnitude and direction. In
this manner the magnitude and polarity of the
second harmonic currents ?owing from the com
strength at right angles to each other may be
produced across the diameter of the? compensator
core l2, the manner in which the device func
tions to compensate for eil?ect of a stray magnetic
?eld upon the reading of the compass will readily
be understood. The compensator ring II is ori
ented so that the axis Al?, A2? is parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the aircraft on which the
compass system is installed. In adjusting the
compensating device, the aircraft is headed by
means of a transit or otherwise so that its fore
and aft axis, and the axis Al?, A2?, are exactly
parallel to the north-south meridian of, the
earth?s magnetic ?eld which is represented by
the vector 46 in Fig, 1. The presence of a stray
magnetic ?eld, such for example as might. be
caused by the engine or some other magnetic
pensator transmitter to the compensator, and 30 part of the aircraft becoming magnetized, would
exert a turning moment on the compass mag
consequently the magnitude and direction of the
nets 3 so that the compass card 9 will not give
the indication that it would otherwise give in the
absence of such a disturbing magnetic ?eld. As
as viewed from the top in Fig. 1, so that the .., suming that this disturbing magnetic ?eld is of
such magnitude and direction that its horizontal
north and south poles are brought into alignment
component is represented by the vector B in Fig.
with the axis Cl and C2 of the core 22, there
1, this horizontal component of the disturbing
will be no component of unidirectional ?ux ?ow
?eld may itself be resolved into two components
ing across the diameter of the core in the direc
at right angles to each other. These components
tion of the axes Bl, B2, and consequently the .
are component BS parallel to the direction of the
flux ? will be reduced to zero. If rotation of
earth?s magnetic ?eld, and also to the fore and
the magnet 28 is continued for 90 degrees more,
aft axis of the aircraft, and a component Ba at
the magnet poles will be reversed from the posi
right angles to the direction of the earth?s mag
tion shown in Fig. 1 and the ?ux.  will ?ow in
the direction of the diameter B2, Bl. This will 4:3 netic ?eld and. lying exactly athwartship. Since
the fore and aft axis of the aircraft is headed
cause a corresponding reversal in the flux ?
corresponding unidirectional ?uxes ' and oil?
may be adjusted as desired. Thus, for example,
if the magnet 28 is rotated 90� counterclockwise,
in the compensator core so that its direction will
north and south, the component BS exerts no in
?uence, i. e., turning moment, on the compass
correspondingly be in the direction of the diame
magnets 3, since, as pointed out above, this com
ter B2?, Bl?. By rotating the magnet 23 to in
termediate angular positions it will be apparent 50 ponent is parallel to the direction of the earth?s
magnetic ?eld. The component Ba, however,
that the magnitude and direction of the unidi
which is at right angles to the direction of the
rectional ?ux es] and �l' can be varied as de
earth?s ?eld, will cause the compass magnets 3
sired. Similarly, by rotating magnet 29, the mag
to be de?ected from the true north-south posi
nitude and direction of the unidirectional ?uxes
tion which they would otherwise normally occupy
�and � can also be adjusted as desired. Thus 55 in the earth?s ?eld so that the indication of the
it will be apparent that by correlated adjustment
obtained by rotating the adjusting knobs 33 and
34 and the permanent magnets 28 and 29, a re
sultant unidirectional ?ux  ?owing across the
diameter of the compensator core l2 can be ob
tained having any desired magnitude and direc
tion.
.
remote compass card 9 is erroneous. This errone
ous indication may be corrected by rotating the
adjusting knob 33 so as to rotate the permanent
magnet 28 until a compensating component of
magnetic ?eld exactly equal to and opposite in
direction to the component Ba is produced by the
compensator ring in the direction of the diameter
Bl?, B2?. When this point is reached, the north
It is important to note that the only possible
interference between the magnetic ?elds produced
index line on the compass card 9 will be exactly
by the magnets 28 and 29 is in the direction of 65 opposite the stationary reference index II].
the axis Cl, C2 of the core. Interference in this
In order to effect the athwartship compensa
direction, however, is immaterial, since magnetic
tion, the aircraft is headed east and west by
?ux ?owing in this direction does not circulate
means of a transit or otherwise. The component
around the transmitter core 22 and therefore does
B5 of the stray magnetism that was formerly par
not result in the generation of second harmonics 70 allel to the direction of the earth?s ?eld will now
currents in the winding 23. There is no inter
be at right angles thereto, and consequently will
ference between the unidirectional magnetic
exert an in?uence or turning moment on the
?uxes �l and �which extend in the direction of
compass magnets 3 such as to de?ect them from
the axes Bl, B2 and Al, A2, and which are effec
the positions that they would ordinarily occupy
tive in producing second harmonic currents in the 75 in the earth?s ?eld with the result that the com
2,405,050
7
8
pass card 9 will not indicate true east or west,
core 22a is provided with a uniformly distributed
exciting winding 4511 which is electrically con
nected to the alternating current supply lines l6,
H, as shown. The core is also provided with two
as the case may be.
The effect of the compo
nent BS may be balanced out, however, by ro
tating the adjusting knob 34 and the permanent
magnet 29 until an auxiliary component ?eld CR diametrically opposite polyphase windings 4 l a and
42a which are located adjacent the diametric axis
exactly equal to and in opposite direction to that
Al, A2, the polyphase windings being connected
of the component BS is produced by the com
in series opposition and also connected to corre
pensator ring H in a direction of the axis Al?,
AZ?. This adjustment may be made by rotating
the knob 34 and observing when the stationary
index It] lies in coincidence with the east or west
index line on the compass card 9, as the case
may be.
'
sponding windings 4| and 42 on the compensator
core. The cylindrical permanent magnet 28 ex
tends across the diameter of the core 22a and
is mounted for rotation about the diametric axis
Al, A2. In a similar manner, the transmitter
core 2% is provided with a uniformly distributed
The deviation transmitter unit 20 may be con
veniently located adjacent the remote indicat? 15 exciting winding 45b which is connected to the
alternating current supply lines [6, l1, as shown.
ing compass indicator 2 and the above-described
The core 221) is also provided with a set of poly
deviation compensation adjustment can be made
phase windings 43b and 44b which are located
without need for access to the compass transmit
adjacent the diametric axis Bl, B2, the windings
ter unit I which may be located in a wing tip
or at some remote location in the fuselage.
20 being connected in series opposition and also
connected to corresponding windings 43 and 44
It is not necessary that the compensator ring
on the compensator core. The cylindrical per
H be mounted above the compass magnets 3 as
manent magnet 29 extends across the diameter
shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, the only require
of the core 221) and is mounted for rotation about
ment being that the ring l i be mounted in hori
zontal position and that the axis of the ring 25 the diametric axis Bl, B2.
The permanent magnet 23 produces a uni
coincide approximately with the axis of rota
directional magnetic ?ux  which circulates in
tion of the compass magnets. Thus, if it is de
the core 22a so as to link the polyphase windings
sired to reduce the overall height of the trans
ill a and 42a, causing second harmonic currents
mitter unit 1, the ring H may be located below
the compass magnets and, if the physical dimen 30 to be induced therein, these currents also ?ow
ing in the corresponding windings M and 42 of
sions of the compass transmitter ring 8 are suf
the compensator. This causes a corresponding
?cient, the compensator ring may even be mount
unidirectional flux � I ? to ?ow across the diameter
ed within the transmitter ring.
of the compensator core in a direction of the axis
It is to be noted that one of the advantages
of this system of deviation compensation over a 35 B l ?, B2?. As in the case of the embodiment shown
system where direct current excited electromag
in Fig. 2, by rotating the permanent magnet 28 the
nets are used is the fact that the strength of the
magnitude and polarity of the second harmonic
compensating ?eld produced by the compensator
current flow can be adjusted to obtain the desired
ring H is insensitive to changes in supply volt
in the saturated region of the magnetization
magnitude and direction of the component 4A?
of the compensating ?eld.
Similarly, the permanent magnet 2d produces a
unidirectional ?ux �which flows through the
curve.
core 222) so as to link the polyphase windings 43b
age over a considerable range.
The reason for
this is the fact that the cores l2 and 22 operate
In Fig. 3 of the drawings, there is shown a
modi?ed arrangement in which separate wind
ings are provided for carrying the second har
monic currents which are effective in producing
unidirectional magnetic ?elds across the diam
eter of the compensator ring ll.
Also in this
and 44?], thereby inducing second harmonic cur
rents in these windings which also ?ow through
corresponding windings 43 and 44 on the com
pensator core. This produces a unidirectional
magnetic field 452' across the diameter of the
compensator core in a direction of the axis A2?,
Al '. By rotating the permanent magnet 29, the
polarity and magnitude of the second harmonic
currents, and consequently the magnitude and di
rection of the component � of the unidirectional
compensating ?eld can be adjusted as desired.
Thus, by a correlated adjustment of the perma
nent magnets 28 and 29 the resultant compensat
phase windings 4!, 42, 43 and 44. The poly
ing unidirectional magnetic ?eld  can be made
phase windings which carry the second harmonic
equal and opposite to the horizontal component
currents are shown in heavier lines in the draw
of the stray magnetic ?eld whereby the desired
ings to distinguish them from the exciting wind
ings. The exciting winding 40 is connected to (if) deviation compensation adjustment is obtained in
the same manner as previously described in con
the alternating current supply lines 56 and l?! as
nection with the embodiment of the invention
shown. The diametrically opposite polyphase
shown in Fig. 2.
windings 4| and 42 are connected in series op
The arrangement shown in Fig. 3 has the ad
position, as are the diametrically opposite poly
vantage that the magnets 28 and 29 may be
phase windings 43 and 44, in vorder to obtain a
physically spaced from each other so as to avoid
cancellation of the voltages of fundamental or
any possible mutual demagnetizing action of the
supply frequency induced therein caused by a
magnets due to interaction of their ?elds. Also,
circulation of pulsating magnetic flux of supply
with this arrangement the magnets may be poled
frequency induced by the exciting winding All.
at opposite ends of the cylinder rather than across
As shown, the polyphase windings 4t, 42, 43 and
the diameter, the magnets being mounted to ro
44 are grouped so that they lie adjacent the dia
tate about the axis of'the associated core rather
metric axes Al?, A2? and Bi?, B2?.
than the axis of the cylinder in a manner similar
In this modi?cation the transmitter unit 20
to the relation of the compass magnets 3 rela
is provided with two separate cores 22a and 22b
for-medv of ymagnetically permeable material. The > tive to the transmitter ring 8. Such'a construc
modi?cation two separate cores are used in the :
transmitter so that the permanent magnets 28
and Y253 can be physically separated if desired. In
this modi?cation the compensator core if? is pro
vided with a uniformly distributed exciting wind~
ing 40 and. two sets or pairs of grouped poly- .-~
2,405,050
9
tion is more efficient magnetically in that a
10
cated remote from said compass, said cores hav
greater ratio of length of the magnetic material
ing similar coil means associated therewith, the
along the magnetic axis to area perpendicular to
coil means associated with each core having a
the axis may be obtained.
single phase connection and polyphase connec
While we have shown and described particular
tions, the corresponding polyphase connections
embodiments of our invention, it will occur to
of said cores being electrically interconnected,
those skilled in the art that various changes
means for supplying a periodically varying cur
and modi?cations may be made without depart
rent to the single phase connections of said cores,
ing from our invention, and we therefore aim in
means for producing a unidirectional magnetic
the appended claims to cover all such changes and 10 ?eld across a ?rst diameter of said second core
modi?cations as fall within the true spirit and
whereby a unidirectional ?eld is produced across
scope of our invention.
What we claim as new and desire to secure
a corresponding diameter of said ?rst core, means
for producing a unidirectional magnetic ?eld
by Letters Patent of the United States is:
across a second diameter of said second core
1. A compass compensating device comprising a 15 at right angles to said ?rst diameter whereby uni
closed core of permeable magnetic material lo
directional ?eld is produced across corresponding
cated in magnetic relation with said compass,
diameter of said ?rst core, and means for vary
means for producing a periodically varying mag
ing the magnitude and polarity of the unidirec~
netic flux in said core, means for inducing second
tional magnetic ?elds in the direction of said ?rst
harmonic magnetic ?uxes in said core at spaced
and second diameters of said second core whereby
points around the periphery thereof, whereby to
to vary the magnitude and direction of the result
produce a compensating unidirectional magnetic
ing unidirectional ?eld produced across the di
?eld across said core, and means for varying the
polarity and magnitude of said second harmonic
?uxes whereby to vary the magnitude and direc
ameter of said ?rst core.
5. A remote controlled deviation compensator
for a magnetic compass comprising a ?rst annu
tion of said unidirectional compensating magnetic
?eld.
lar core of permeable magnetic material located
in magnetic relation with said compass, a second
2. A deviation compensator for a magnetic com
annular core of permeable magnetic material lo
pass comprising a closed core of permeable mag?
cated remote from said compass, said cores hav
netic material located in magnetic relation with 30 ing similar coil means associated therewith, the
said compass, coil means associated with said core,
coil means associated with each core having a
said coil means having a single phase connection
single phase connection and polyphase connec
and polyphase connections, means for supplying
tions, the corresponding polyphase connections
said single phase connection with a periodically
of
said cores being electrically interconnected,
varying current, means for supplying second har- ?
means for supplying a periodically varying cur
monic currents to said polyphase connections
rent to the single phase connections of said cores,
whereby a unidirectional magnetic ?eld ?is pro
a ?rst elongated cylindrical permanent magnet
duced across said core, and means for varying the
associated. with said second core and extending in
polarity and magnitude of said second harmonic
current whereby to vary the magnitude and di 40 the direction of a ?rst diameter of said second
core, a second elongated cylindrical permanent
rection of said unidirectional ?eld.
magnet also associated with said second core and
3. A compensating device for a magnetic com
extending in the direction of a second diameter
pass ccmprising an annular core of permeable
of said second core at right angles to said ?rst
magnetic material located in magnetic relation
with said compass, coil means on said core having bl diameter, said cylindrical permanent magnets
being magnetized across a diameter of the cylin
a single phase connection and polyphase connec
der so that mutually perpendicular unidirection
tions, a source of periodically varying current
al magnetic ?elds are produced across said second
connected to said single phase connection to pro
core in the direction of said ?rst and second di
duce a periodically varying ?ux in said core,
transmitter means for supplying second harmonic
ameters whereby corresponding unidirectional
magnetic ?elds are produced across correspond
currents to said polyphase connections to produce
a compensating unidirectional magnetic ?eld
ing diameters of said ?rst core, and means for
across said core, a ?rst adjusting means associ
separately rotating said ?rst and second mag
ated with said transmitter means for varying
nets about their cylinder axes so as to vary the
the polarity and magnitude of said second har
magnitude and polarity of the unidirectional
monic currents supplied to said polyphase con
?elds produced thereby in a direction of said
nections so as to vary the magnitude and direc
?rst and second diameters whereby to Vary the
tion of the component of said unidirectional ?eld
magnitude and direction of the resultant unidi
in the direction of the ?rst diameter of said core,
rectional ?eld produced across the diameter of
a second adjusting means associated with said
said ?rst core.
transmitter means for varying the polarity and
6. A compensating device for a magnetic com
magnitude of said second harmonic current sup
pass comprising a circular core of permeable
plied to said polyphase connection so as to vary
magnetic material located in magnetic relation
the magnitude and direction of the component of
with said compass, said core having an exciting
the unidirectional magnetic ?eld in a direction of
winding connected to a source of periodically
a second diameter of said core at right angles to
varying current and two sets of polyphase wind
said ?rst diameter whereby the magnitude and di
ings, said polyphase windings being so arranged
rection of said compensating unidirectional mag
that when one of said sets of polyphase windings
netic ?eld may be varied by the correlated adjust
is energized with a second harmonic current a
ment of said ?rst and second adjusting means.
70 unidirectional magnetic ?ux is produced across
4. A remote controlled deviation compensator
a ?rst diameter of said core and when the other
for a magnetic compass comprising a ?rst annu
set of said polyphase windings is connected to
lar core of permeable magnetic material located
a source of second harmonic current a unidi
in magnetic relation with said compass, a second
rectional magnetic flux is produced across a sec
annular core of permeable magnetic material lo 75 ond diameter of said core extending at right an
2,405,050
11
12
gles to said ?rst diameter, means for supplying
second harmonic currents to said two sets of
polyphase windings, and means for separately
varying the polarity and magnitude of the sec
ond harmonic current supplied to each of said
polyphase windings whereby to vary the magni
tude and direction of the resultant unidirectional
axes passing through each set of polyphase wind
ings being mutually perpendicular, a ?rst trans
mitter for supplying second harmonic current to
one of said sets of polyphase windings, a second
transmitter for supplying second harmonic cur
rent to the other of said sets of polyphase wind
ings, said ?rst and second transmitters each hav
ing adjusting means associated therewith for
?ux produced across the diameter of said core.
varying the polarity and magnitude of the sec~
'7. A compensating device for a magnetic com
pass comprising a circular core of permeable 10 ond harmonic currents supplied to said sets of
polyphase windings whereby to vary the magni
magnetic material located in magnetic relation
tude and direction of the right angle components
with said compass, coil means in inductive rela
of the resulting unidirectional magnetic ?eld
tion with said core, said coil means having a pair
produced across the diameter of said ?rst core.
of single phase connections and two pairs of poly
9. An electromagnetic device adapted to be
phase connections, means for supplying a periodi 15
used as a transmitter of second harmonic cur~
cally varying current to said single phase connec
rents comprising a core of permeable magnetic
tions, said polyphase connections being arranged
material, coil means on said core having a single
so that when a source of second harmonic current
phase connection and polyphase connections,
is connected to one of said pairs of polyphase con
nections a unidirectional magnetic ?ux is pro 20 means for connecting said single phase connec
tion to a source of alternating current, a ?rst
duced across a ?rst diameter of said core and
when a source of second harmonic current is con
elongated cylindrical permanent magnet asso
nected to the other of said pairs of polyphase con
nections a unidirectional magnetic flux is pro
ciated with said core and extending in a direc
tion of a ?rst diameter of said core, a second
duced across a second diameter of said core ex
tending at right angles to said ?rst diameter,
means for supplying second harmonic currents
to said pairs of polyphase connections, and means
for separately varying the polarity and magni-v
tude of the second harmonic currents supplied to
each of said pairs of polyphase connections
whereby to vary the magnitude and direction of
the resultant unidirectional ?ux produced across
25 elongated cylindrical permanent magnet also as
sociated with said core and extending in a direc
tion of a second diameter of said core at right
angles to said ?rst diameter, said cylindrical per
manent magnets being magnetized across the
diameter of the cylinder so that mutually per
pendicular, unidirectional magnetic ?elds are
produced across said core in a direction of said
?rst and second diameters, and means for rotat
ing said ?rst and second magnets about their
8. A remote controlled deviation compensator 35 cylinder axes so as to vary the magnitude and
polarity of the unidirectional ?elds produced
for a magnetic compass comprising an annular
thereby in the direction of said ?rst and second
core of permeable magnetic material located in
diameters whereby to vary the magnitude and
magnetic relation with said compass, a dis?
polarity of the second harmonic voltages devel
tributed exciting winding and two sets of poly
phase windings on said core, the polyphase wind 40 oped across said polyphase connections.
RICHARD A. PFUN'I?NER.
ings of each set being diametrically opposite and
ELEANOR D. WILSON.
connected in series opposition and the diametric
the diameter of said core.
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