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Патент USA US2405064

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July 30,
4a»
J. D. TEAR
GUN SIGHT
Filed Sept. 25, 1940
INVENTOR
JAM ES D.TEAR
ATTORNEY
Patented July 30, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT ,QFFICE '
James D. Tear, Great Neck, N. Y., assignor to
Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application September 25, 1940, Serial No.v358,2,46 _ p
11 Claims. (Cl. 89-41)
2
This invention relates to sights for gun's, espe
cially of ‘the type in which the gun is‘ driven at
an adjustable rate and the sight is automatically
displaced from the gun in proportion to the‘rate
tion trunnions 3 and 4 respectively. The gun
trunnions 3 'are'su'pported on brackets 5 rigidly
supported by a turntable 6 which is mounted for
rotation about a center bearing 7. The sight
so that the gun leads the sight to allow for the
trunnions 4 are mounted in a yoke 8 having -a
movement of the target during the time of ?ight
of the projectile.
bushing 9 depending therefrom. The bushing‘ 9
In sights of this type, such as is shown in
United States Patent No. 1,067,859, it is custom
ary to set the deflection of the sight from the gun
and the yoke B are rotatably mounted on a stud
by simply angularly displacing the bore of the
l0 projecting vertically from the turntable 6 into
the bore of the bushing 9.
Surrounding the turntable 6 is a stationary
training rack l l and meshing therewith is a pin‘
sight from the bore of the gun in proportion to
the rate of train or the rate of change in bearing
of the target and the time of flight of the pro
jectile, so that the gun leads the sight. In the 15
ion I2 rotatably mounted‘in a bracket l3 carried
by the turntable 6. On the turntable E is a vari
able speed device M which is shown as the two
ball friction type disclosed in United States Pate
prior art, when the sight lagged behind the target
ent No. 1,317,915, although‘ any suitable type of
variable speed drive such as mechanical, hydrau
lic or electrical, may be used. The output shaft
i5 drives the pinion l2 through gears l6 and ll‘.
due to an under set rate of train, and an in
creased rate of train was set up, although the
gun was automatically trained at the increased
rate, the sight was further displaced from the
target, as the displacement of the sight from the
gun is proportional to the rate of train. The in
crease in the displacement of the sight from the
gun, neutralizing for the moment the movement
in train of the sight, caused operators in their
efforts to keep up with and on the target to give
further and greater changes in the rates of train
than were required. When the sight thus over
' The constant speed input for the variable speed
corrected did come on the target and the rate
of the variable speed device is such that as the
of train‘ was then decreased, the angular dis
placement of the sight from the gun, known as
handle is pointed tothe right, that is, moved
clockwise about its trunnions '23, .the- turntable
de?ection, was correspondingly decreased, there
by causing the sight to be moved further ahead
of the target. This hunting action, especially
when ?ring at high speed targets, made it ex
tremely dif?cult to set the rate of train correctly
and keep the sight on the target.
,It is an object of this invention to eliminate
this erratic action of the sight by providing a con
trol mechanism in which the correction to the
rate of the gun initially moves the sight in a di
rection relative to the gun to bring the sight on
the target and then the sight is moved in the re
device M is provided by a constant speed motor [8
acting through shaft l9 and worm 28. The rate
control member 2! of the variable speed device
I 4 is moved by a control handle 22 pivoted on ver
tical trunnions 23in a bracket 24 mounted on the
turntable?. ,The inner end 25 of the handle 22
?ts between two lugs 29 On the rate control mem
ber 25.
The direction of rotation of the output
will be rotated in the .same direction and as the
handle is pointed to the leftthe turntable will
rotate counterclockwise. It is evident that the
‘ rate of rotation of the-turntable is substantially
proportional to the displacement of the handle 22
from its central position, in whichv position the
output of the variable speed device is stationary
and there is nomovementof the turntable.
On the control member 2! of the variable speed
device I4 is a rack 27 meshing with a pinion 28
on arateshaft 29 which drives one side of a dif
vferential 30, the other side of which is connected
by a shaft 3| to pinion 32 to position the rate
verse direction to its correct position relative to
the gun corresponding to the new rate of move 45 control member 33- of a second variable speed de
vice 34. The output shaft 35 of this variable
ment of the gun. While this second movement
speed device is connected to the third or center
of the sight is in a direction to move the sight
from the target, it neutralizes the ?rst movement
and adds the required correction in de?ection.
In order to train the gun to cause the sight to be
automatically brought back on the target an ex
cess correction must be temporarily introduced
and gradually reduced as the sight approaches
the target until the optimum condition is at
tained.
The single ?gure of the drawing shows an em
bodiment of the invention in schematic perspec
tive in its neutral or secured position.
'
Referring now to the drawing, the gun I and
the sight 2 are mounted on conventional elevae
member of the differential 30 by a shaft 36. The
input member of variable speed device 34 is driven
by a worm 31 on shaft 19 driven by motor [8.
A second differential 38 connects a branch 29a
of the rate shaft 29 and the output shaft 35 to
shaft 39 which acts through a multiplier unit at!)
and a shaft 4| to rotate the sight 2 on its vertical
axis by means of a worm 42 on the shaft 4| mesh‘
ing with a worm gear 43 carried-by the bushing 9.
The multiplier unit 49 may be of the type
shown in United States Patent No. 2,194,477 or
any other suitable type. The shaft 39 is one in
put, to the multiplier, the- handcrank 44 is the
2,405,06é
4
selected as (k) and the gears associated with
variable speed device 34 are such that the ratio
tion of the shaft 39 and the hand crank 44. The
rotation. of hand crank 44 may represent range.
of transmission to differential 38 from gear 28
or time of ?ight. The output shaft 4| and the
movement of the sight 2 relative to the gun will
therefore be proportional to the rate of train‘
multiplied by the range or time of ?ight. This
through device 34 is (1+k). It will therefore be
seen that for any change (dB'—dB) in the set
ting of member 2| by handle 22, there will be a
offset of the sight from the gun is generally des-.~ ‘
ignated as de?ection (Ds).
As will be»_herein-:
after explained the position of the input shaft'39
to the multiplier 40 represents. the rate of. train
and corresponds to the position of the rate con
trol member 2| of the variable speed device I4,
when the rate control member 33 of the variable
W speed device 3.4 is. at its zero or'neutral: position.
.
The ratio of the gears in the branch 29a and on
shaft 29 between differential 38 and pinion 28 is
other input and the shaft 4| is the output or
product of the values represented by the rota
1o.
resultantv change in the output of differential 38,
i. e. shaftv39, equal to
—Ic(dB"—dB) + (l+k) (dB’-dB)
which equals (dB'—dB). The portion
—7c(dB’—dB)
is. applied directly‘ and immediately through
shaft 23"'and the branch 2.3a and the portion '
_ Operation
+-('1+7s) (dBQ-dB). is: applied through di?eren
tial3il: and variable. speed device 34 with a slight
and described on the basis that the movement 20 time. lag. The corresponding ?nal change in de
?ection (D’s'—D's) is equal to (dB'—dB) t, where t
of the output of the differential 38' is the com
is the time of ?ight of the projectile.
bination of two separate movements, one due to
The operation of the apparatus will be analyzed
the movement of control member 2| which is con
When no changes in the rate of. train are be
ing made, the control member 33 of variable
nected directly to diiferential 33 through the
branch 29a of shaft 29, and a second movement 25 speed device 34 is automatically brought to its
mid-position as the output shaft 35 is connect
dueto the movement of control member 2| which
ed to the‘ control member through. differential 30
is connected to‘ differential 38 through differen
by shaft 36, it being restored to this‘ position after
tial 30 and variable speed device 3'4. The sec
each change in bearing rate by the restoring ac-'
ond movement is completed later than the ?rst
because of the mechanical lag in the follow-up 30 tion of the shaft 36. It will thus be seen that
this action is in effect that of a ‘delayed follow
action of the variable speed device. The second
up that is, the. resultant motion of shaft 35 is
movement is in the opposite direction to the
proportional to the motion of shaft 29.‘
>
?rst and is of greater magnitude, as will be: de
~ The invention is shown as applied‘ to the train
scribed hereinafter.
With the apparatus in its secured position, 35 ing of. a- gun and the de?ection of the associated
sight, but it‘ is apparent and intended that the
with the control members of the variable speed
invention shall be applied to other movements of
devices l4 and 34 in their neutral positions as
the gun, such as elevation. It is also contemplat
shown, the operator points handle 22 in a di
ed that various dials may be applied to the mech
rection, say to the right, to swing the turntable
to the right to pick up the target. The member 40 anism for indicating the instantaneous values
represented by different parts of the mechanism
2| is moved to its extreme position without re
as desired.
gard to the de?ection in order to bring the
It is evident that various changes may be made
sight on the target as quickly as. possible, As
in the form, construction and arrangement of
the sight swings towards the target the oper
the various parts of the mechanism. without de
ator cranks the time of ?ight value into the mul
tiplier 40 by crank 44.
I
When the sight approaches the target, the
rate of train of the turntable 6 is reduced and
parting from the spirit of the invention as de
?ned. in they appended claims.
I claim:
'
1'. In combination, a gun mounted for angular
adiusted to’ the exact rate of change of bearing 50
movement, a member‘ having a movement pro
(dB) of the. target by adjusting the position of
portional to the angular velocity of the gun, a
rate control member 2|‘ by moving'handl'e 22' as
sight
mounted for angular movement relative to
hereinafter described. The sight is thereby set
the gun, differential means actuated in part by
for the corresponding de?ection (Us) by reason
the movement of the member for directly mov
of the output of differential 38 and multiplier 40.
ing the sight towards the gun for an increasing
To illustrate the operation of the apparatus
rate of angular velocity of the gun, and other
to effect a change in. rate of train, it is assumed
means for actuating the differential means by the
that the target. is moving to‘ the right and the
movement of the member for moving with de
rate of change of bearing (dB), represented by
layed‘ action the sight relative to the gun in re
the. position of shaft 3-‘! and the handle 22, is
verse direction.
underset. that is. the sight is lagging behind the
2. In combination, a gun mounted for angular
target and a higher rate (dB') andtherefore a
movement, a member having a movement pro
greater de?ection (D's) are required. ‘
portional to the angular velocity of the gun, a
The ooerator points handle 22 further to the
sight mounted for angular movement relative to
right and immediately sees the sight move to the
the gun, differential means actuated in part by
right‘ or towards the target. due to the movement
the movement of the member for directly mov
of’ shaft 39 which is directly connected to han
ing the sight towards the gun for an increasing
dle 22 through member 2 |, differential 38 and the
rate
of angular velocity of the gun in one ratio,
branch 29a of shaft 29. At the same time, shaft
and other means for actuating. the differential
29‘ through differential 30. moves the control
member 33 of variable speed device 34 and after 70 means by the movement of the member for mov
ing with delayed action the sight relative to the
the mechanical time lag in the action of variable
gun in the‘ reverse direction in another ratio.
speed device 34. shaft 35 moves shaft 39 through
3. In combination, a gun mounted for angular
di?eren-tial 38 in the opposite direction and in an
movement, a member having a movementpro
amount canal to the ?rst movement plus the de
sired correction to the rate of train or (dB'-dB). 75 portional to the angular velocity of the gun, a
5
2,405,064
sight mounted for angular movement relative to
the gun, a differential, means connecting the
member directly to the differential in one ratio, a
delayed action follow-up, means connecting the
member to the differential through the follow-up
in another ratio, and means connecting the out
put of the differential to angularly displace the
sight relative to the gun.
4. In combination, a gun mounted for angular
movement, a member having a movement pro
6
means for connecting the output of the second
di?erential to the second control member and
means for connecting the output of the second
variable speed device to the other side of the ?rst
differential and to the other side of the second
differential, whereby the output of the ?rst dif
ferential is responsive immediately to the move—
ment of the ?rst control member in one direction
and responsive in delayed action to the movement
of the ?rst control member in the reverse direc
portional to the angular velocity of the gun, a
tion.
sight mounted for angular movement relative to
9. In combination, a rotatable mount, power
the gun, a di?erential, means connecting the
means for angularly moving the mount, a variable
member directly to the differential in one ratio, a
speed device associated with the power means,
delayed action follow-up, means connecting the 15 said variable speed device including a control
member to the differential through the follow-up
member for controlling the angular velocity of
in another ratio, a multiplier, means connecting
the mount, a sight mounted on the rotatable
the output of the differential to one input of the
mount and angularly adjustable relative thereto,
multiplier, means settable in accordance with a
a control handle, means actuated by the control
function of range connected to the other input of 20 handle for positioning the control member, a
the multiplier, and means connecting the output
differential having two input members and an
of the multiplier to angularly displace the sight
output member, means connecting the output
relative to the gun.
member of the differential to the sight for angu
5. In combination, a gun, power means for an
larly adjusting the sight relative to the mount,
gularly moving the gun, said power means includ 25 means connecting the control member to one in
ing a settable member adapted to control the an
put member of the di?erential to displace the
gular velocity of the gun, a sight mounted for
sight in a direction responsive to movement of the
angular movement relative to the gun, differen
control member, follow-up means responsive with
tial means actuated in part by the movement of
delayed action to the movement of the control
the member for directly moving the sight towards 30 member, and means connecting the output of the
the gun for an increasing rate of angular velocity
follow-up means to the second input member of
of the gun, and other means for actuating the
the differential to displace the sight in the oppo
differential means by the movement of the mem
site direction.
ber for moving with delayed action the sight rel
10. In combination, a rotatable mount, power
35
ative to the gun in the reverse direction.
means connected for angularly moving the mount,
6. In combination, a gun, power means for an
gularly moving the gun, said power means in
a variable speed device associated with the power
means and including a control member for con
cluding a settable member adapted to control the
trolling the rate of movement of the mount, a
angular velocity of the gun, a sight mounted for
sight mounted on the rotatable mount and an
angular movement relative to the gun, differen 40 gularly adjustable relative thereto, a control han
tial means actuated in part by the movement of
dle, means actuated by movement of the control
the member for directly moving the sight towards
handle for moving the control member to change
the gun for an increasing rate of angular velocity
the angular rate of movement of the mount,
of the gun in one ratio, and other means for actu
means actuated by the movement of the control
ating the differential means by the movement of 45 member for moving the sight relative to the
the member for moving with delayed action the
mount in the direction of the change of rate of
sight relative to the gun in the reverse direction
movement of the mount, and delayed action fol
in another ratio.
low-up means actuated by the movement of the
7. In combination, a gun, power means for an
control member for moving the sight in the re
gularly moving the gun, said power means includ 50 verse direction relative to the mount.
ing a settable member adapted to control the an
11. In combination, a rotatable mount, power
gular velocity of the gun, a sight mounted for
means connected for applying angular move
angular movement relative to the gun, a differ
ment to the mount, a variable speed device asso
ential, means connecting the member directly to
ciated with the power means and including a con
the differential in one ratio, a delayed action fol 55 trol member for controlling the rate of angular
low-up, means connecting the member to the
movement of the mount, a sight mounted on the
differential through the follow-up in another ra
rotatable mount for angular displacement rela
tio, and means connecting the output of the dif
tive thereto, a control handle, means actuated by
ferential to angularly displace the sight relative
movement of the control handle for moving the
60
to the gun.
control member to change the rate of angular
8. In combination, a gun, a variable speed de
movement of the mount, means simultaneously
vice including a control member adapted to an
actuated by the movement of the control handle
gularly move the gun, a sight mounted for angular
for causing angular displacement of the sight in
movement relative to the gun, a differential,
the direction of the change of rate of angular
means connecting one side of the differential to
movement of the mount, and delayed action fol
the control member, means connecting the out
low-up means controlled by the movement of the
put of the differential to angularly position the
control handle and operative to remove the an
sight relative to the gun, a second variable speed
gular displacement of the sight caused by move
device including a control member, a second dif
ment of the control handle.
ferential, means for connecting the ?rst control 70
JAMES D. TEAR.
member to one side of the second differential,
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