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Патент USA US2405068

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JQDTEAR ET AL
'GUN SIGHT
Filed March. 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet l
July 30, i946.
J. D. TEA-R ETAL
GUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
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ATTORNEY
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GUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
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INVENTORS
JAM as imam
.ELL‘QYT P. Ross
ATTORNEY
J. D. TEAR ET AL
¿f3-@§68
GUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 4
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INVENTORS
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JAM s DÄ'ÈAR
ELU@ “mmss
July 30, 15946.
J. D. TEAR ET AL
2,405,068
GUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 5
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INVENTORS
JAMES DJEAR
ELLIOTT R R055
Y,lurarozïnvEY
«Fully 3, i946.
J. D. TEAR ET AL
2,405,068
GUN‘ SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 6
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'..|._D. TEAR ETAL
2,405,068
GUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet '7
ELUOTT P` ROSS
ATTORNEY
July 30, 1946.
2,405,068
J. D. TEAR'ET AL
QUN SIGHT
Filed March 20, 1941
9 sheletè/-sheet 8
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INVENTORS
JAMES D_TEAR
ELLIOTT P. ROSS
ATTORNEY
July 30, 1946.
J. D. TEAR ET AL
2,405,058
GUN SIGHT.
Filed March 20, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 9
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INVENTÓRS
BY
JAMES DÍTEAR
ELL‘OTT P. ROSS
ATTORNEY
2,405,068
UNHTE‘ÉD> STATES PATENT GFFICE
Patented July 30, 1946
2,405,068
GUN SIGHT
James D. Tear, Great Neck, and’Elliott P. Ross,
Forest Hills, N. Y., assignors to Ford Instrument
Company, Inc., Long Island City, N. Y., a cor
poration of New York
Application March zo, 1941, serial No. 384,236
i5» claims’. (o1. sas-49)
2
This invention relates to gun sights which are
automatically displaceable relative to the gun in
pivoted to rotate about horizontal and vertical
axes.
Two motors are mounted in the' casing and
accordance with the rate of movement/ of the
connected through follow-up controls to main
gun, and particularly to sights for guns that are
mounted in fixed positions on a firing ship such Vix tain the centerline of the casing parallel to the
spin axis of the gyro and at the same time to
as, for example, an airplane.
.
apply precessing forces to the gyro to cause the
The directing of a gun iixedly mounted 0in an
gyro to prec'ess toward the centerline of the air
airplane has been a diiiicult problem because the
plane at a rate directly proportional to the dis
gun has to be trained and elevated with refer
placement of the centerline of the casing from
ence to a target by adjusting'the horizontal and
the centerline of the airplane. The gyro is
azimuth position of the airplaneand it Was nec-.
essary for the pilot to approximate the angle that
mounted in the casing with its spin axis parallel
the airplane had to lead or point ahead of and
to the centerline of the casing when the gyro is
in its mid or neutral position. A conventional
sight is ñxedly mounted in such a position on
above the target that the projectile would inter
cept the target.
1
The problem is further complicated because
the casing that its optical axis is parallel to the
consideration has to be given to the changes in
the rate of change of bearing of the target as a
centerline of the casing. It will thus be seen that
firing airplane closes in from one side on a Inov
ing airplane target.
.
’
'
The solution of the problem also involves the
application of elevational movement of the sight
vrelative to the gun to compensate for the rate of
change in the vertical plane of space of the posi
tion of the firing airplane relative to the target
and forthe shape of the trajectory of the pro'jeo
tile, which is a function of the range.
The object of this invention is to provide an
when the casing is in its neutral position rela
tive to the airplane or gun and the gyro is in its
20 neutral position relative to the casing, then the
centerline of the airplane, the optical axis of
the sight, the centerline of the casing, and the
spin axis of the gyro are all parallel to each other,
When such a gyro and casing with its associ
ated sight are mounted in an airplane that is
maneuvered to keep the sight pointed at another
airplane or any other object as a target, any
tendency for the airplane to change its position
relative to the gyro is used to automatically de
bore of a gun, >that is flxedly mounted in the hori 30 termine the instantaneous rate of change of di
rection of the line of sight in the horizontal and
zontal plane of and parallel'to the longitudinal
vertical planes of space.
horizontal axis of a ñring airplane, in accord
apparatus to position the sight relative to the
ance With the instantaneous Vrates of change of
It is Well known in the fire control art that the
bearing and elevation respectively of the target
horizontal displacement of the sight from the
and the range of the target.
For the purpose of this speciiication and the
appended claims the longitudinal horizontal axis
of the ñring airplane and the longitudinal hori
03 Ul bore of the gun (deflection or Ds) is directly pro
portional to the rate of change of bearing (dB)
and the time of flight (t) of the projectile and
that the time of flight of the projectile is a func
tion of the range (R). This relation is expressed
zontal axis of the casing supporting and housing
the mechanisms are defined as the “center line 4-0 by the equation
of the airplane” and the “center line of the cas
Ds
ing” respectively.
» The particular mechanisms disclosed herein as`
embodiments of the invention are illustrative of
From this equation itis seen that the rate of
mechanisms used to apply the invention to the 45 change of bearing is directly proportional to the
problem of directing a gun nxedly mounted on
deiiection (Ds) and inversely proportional to the
one airplane ñring on another airplane as a tar
time of flight (t) or range (R). It is therefore
to be understood throughout the specification
get, but it will be understood that the invention
has other applications, such as directing a gun on
and claims that'the Word range is intended to
any form of mount Where the sight for directing 50 include a function of range or time of flight.`
The motor, in the casing, which is connected to
the gun is displaced from’the bore of the gun an
move the casing in azimuth to keep its centerline
amount depending upon‘fthe 'rate of` vangular
movement of the gun `or gun mount.
' g '
The mechanisms include an inertia element
that inherently resists any change in its position
in Space, such as a gyroscope.
The gyro is
mounted on supporting arms and concentric
rings and is free to rotate about its horizontal
an'd its vertical mounting axes. fThe arms are
mounted in a director casing or _frame `Whiohisv
parallel to the spin axis of the gyro, applies the
corresponding precessing force to the gyro
through a dividing mechanism to cause the gyro
to precess in azimuth at the rate dB, which, as
shown by Equation 1 is directly proportional to
the deiiection (Ds) and inversely proportional to
the range (R). The effect of this combination
60 is to offset* the centerline of the casing and there
eficaces
e
Fig. 'l is a vertical cross-sectional View of the
casing and mechanisms ,taken online 1-'I of
fore of the sight from the bore ofthe gun by the
deñection (Ds) .and to apply a precessing force
to the gyro equal to the rate of change of bear
ing of the target, when the range (R) is set into f,
'the dividing mechanism. This precessing force
acting on the gyro will cause the gyro to precess
Fig. 6;
» ' Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing
fthe added parts of a second modification;
Fig. 9 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the
. casing and mechanisms taken on line 9-9 of
at the same rate the firing airplane _must changeVV
heading or the gun must be trained or elevated,
to keep the sight pointed at the target, while theY
' Fig. 8, and
«
I
Fig. 10 is a wiring diagram showing ther elec
sight is offset from the gun the proper amount 10 trical connections.
AWith reference to Fig. 1, I represents an air
to allow for the movement of- the target during .
the time of flight.
I 1 plane having a gun 2 ñxedly mounted parallel
Y
The motion of the firing airplane through Yspace ` 1 to theecenterline of the airplane. The line 3 rep'
resents the direction of the line of sight relative
does not enter into the problem as the Velocity
of the ñring ship is merely additive to the initial 15 to the centerline of the airplane I, as the gunis
Y being ñre'd at another airplane ortarget 4.
Velocity of the projectileïthat is, the Velocity of
the »projectile relative _to .the barrel of the gun.
`It is- also well known that when firing at an
elevated >`target the g vertical displacement of the
TheY
line v5 represents the direction of the path of the
firing airplane I and the direction of the path of
the projectileV to the intercept point 2a. The
sight from the bore of the gun (elevation or Es) 20 angle between the'lines 3 and 5 is the deflection
angle (Ds).
l
'
'
is proportional to the rate of >change of elevation
Referring'to Figs. 2 to 5, inclusive, and particu
(dE)` and the time> of flight (t)- of the projectile, `
larly to Fig. 3, 6 represents a'casing’ mounted for
which is a function of the range (R). VThis rela
rotation about its‘ transverse horizontal axis on
tion is expressed by the equation
25
’
v
Es
-
`Es=olE R or dE _R-
(2)
ball bearings '1,1 one of which is supported byV
trunnion Ta, _upright brace 8 and frame 9, and’
the other of ' which is supported vby frame Vl).
Frame
9 is mounted to rotate about _itsjvertical
`Thesecond motor is therefore connected to
axis in ball bearings I0 supported vin _base II.
apply a 'precessing force to the gyro directly pro
portional to the vertical Vdisplacement of the 30 Base Il is mounted on some suitable support of
the airplane with the lower face of base> II in
sight from the gun and inversely proportional to
the
horizontalt plane of the airplane.
thè-range and tormove the casing in Aelevation toY
Access to the inside of the casing is had through
keep its centerline horizontally yparallel to theV
openings I2 in the front and back Walls of the
spin aXis of the gyro.
`
`
*A .
.
casing 6. The openings I2 are covered by plates
Modifications of the invention are disclosed in 35 I3 secured to the casing 6 by bolts. A cover plate
one‘of which changes in rates, as indicated yby
I3a is secured to frame 9 to protect the gearing
movement of the follow-up motors', are utilized to
mounted on the frame 9.
y
displace the follow-up controls to cause the sight
To the' inside walls of casing B are secured two
toïbe momentarily delayed inv attaining its new
cross-straps I4 and I5 which act as supports for
posi-tion relative to the gun. The_eiïect oi this de 40
pivots I6 on which ring I‘I is mounted. On‘the
lay is that the operator senses any change in the
walls of casing 6 are also secured two arms I8‘
rate of turning of the airplane or gun mount im
and I9, which act as supports for pivots 20 and 2|
mediately upon changing the control.
on which ring 22 is mounted. Pivotally mounted
A second modification discloses a connectionv
from Vthe motors to the gyro to cause the gyro 45
to _be precessed by movement of the motors. in
addition to thevprecessional rate applied tothe
in'ring 22'is gyro .23.
'
.
e
The casing of the gyro 23 carries pins `24 >which
extend> along the s_pin axis of the gyro anden
gage slots 25‘in -ring I1. whereby a rotational force
gyro because of the rotary position of the motors
is
applied to ring I'I about its vertical axisto apply
or'» the sight relative to the gun. The effect of
this second precessing force is to cause the gyro 50 a force to gyro 23 to precessit about its horizon
tal axis on pivots 20 and 2 I`. The rotational force
and the sight to be moved toward the target in
is applied to ring I‘I about‘its vertical axis by arm
addition to the movement due to the continuously
applied precessing force.
,
26 which is rigidly connected to ring I'I. The
mechanisms to applythe force to arm ,26 will be
'
The details of apparatus to accomplish the de
sired functions will now be described in detail. 55
In the drawings:
.
described
hereinafter.
I
.
'
Y
Y.
.
Also secured to ring Il is arn_1.21_„on the end
of which is mounted a roller 28which ,engages
Fig. 1 is a plan view showing the positional re-l
electrical contacts 29 which are _insulated from
each other andv from a frame ‘30 to which they are
secured. Frame 30 is held in position by bolting
the. targetirom one side;
.
60 it to strap I5. The contacts 29 and roller 28 serve
Fig. -2 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of
to control the deñection motor 3I the function
the casing showing the mechanisms ofthe inven
of which will be _described hereinafter. The ,
tion, taken on line 2-_2 of Fig. 3;
roller 28 is connected to a power supply by the
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional View ofthe
i conductor 28'. 'I‘he contacts 29 are connected to
casingand mechanisms, Vin the simplest form,
the motor 3_I by the conductors 29’ and the Vmotor
taken on‘the centerline 3_3 of Fig. 2, except-that
3l is connectedto the’power supplyv by the con
the> gyroand the associated precessing arms are
lation _of one airplane iìring on another-airplane
as a target, as the firing airplane is closing in on
shown in elevation;
-
ductorSI’.
'
.
-
"
v
'
. There is attached to ring 2,2 an arm 32 by which
casing and mechanisms taken on line 4'-4 of 70 a precessing force is applied to gyrol 23 aboutits
' . Figjl is a vertical cross-sectional View of Ythe
F153;
Fig. 5
5-1-5 of
.
.
'
’
1
,
’
horizontal> axis yto, 'precess it aboutY its vertical
v
View similar >to Fig.>4 taken online
3; Í 1
- j
Fig. 6 is a >View .similar to Fig. 3 butfshowing
the added parts of one modification;
axis. There is also connected to ring 22 an arm
33 on the end of which is mounted roller 34 which
_
is
is connecteclto thepower supply by aconductór
34’. Roller 34 cooperates with contacts 35 which Y
2,405,068
5,
6.
are insulated from each other and from an arm
comes to the mid position when the rate'will be
zero and the sight will be parallel to the bore of the
gun and the centerlineof the airplane.v Now, if
the airplane is turning, say to the right, to follow
36 on which they are supported. Roller 34 andv
contacts 35 serve to control elevation motor 31.
The contacts 35 are connected to motor 31 through
conductors 35’ and motor 31 is connected to the
and close in on a target in a relative position as
power supply by conductor 31’. Arm 36 depends
indicated inFig. 1, the spin axis of the gyro will
tend to'keep its position-in space and there will
from arm |8.
»
»
Deflection motor 3| is connected by gears 38, 39,
be a relative counter-clockwise movement of the
spin axis-of the gyro from the centerline of the
48, 4|, shaft 42, gears 43, shaft 44, gears 45, 43
and 41, to a circular, toothed plate 48 secured by 10 casing and the centerline of the plane. As a result
of this relative movement roller 28 comes in
bolts to base ||. It will thus be seen thatmotor
3| `will drive the frame 9 and the supported mech
physical contact with one ofthe electrioalcon
tacts 29 and motor l3| turns the casing E counter->
anism in azimuth, that is, about its vertical axis.
Elevation motor 31 is connected by gears 49
clockwise about the base || through gears 39, 48,
and 50, shaft 5|, and gear 52, to a toothed arcu 15 4|, shaft 42, gears 43, shaft 44, gears 45, 45 -and 41,
until the casing is moved to bring the centerline
V ate arm 53 extending downwardly fromtrunnion
of the casing parallel to the spin axis of the gyro.
1a which is secured against rotation in brace 8 by
key 54. It will thus be seen that motor 31 will
At the same time the motor ‘3| applies a precessing
drive casing 5 about its‘transverse horizontal
force on the gyro 23,v through gear 4|, slide 55,
axls.
20 divider 56,’ spring 69, and arm 32, proportional to
' Referring particularly to Figs. 3 and 5, gear 4|
the displacement of the sight from -thebore of the
previously described is also in mesh with rack
gun divided by the range, until the clockwise-ro
tational rate of the spin axis of the gyro is the
teeth on slide 55 which is one input of a conven
tional divider 56. Slide 55 is supported in a
grooved guide 55a secured to the walls of casing
6. The other input slide 51 of divider 56 ismoved
by gear 58 on shaft 59 which is set in accordance
with the range of the target by either of the
knobs B9. Dials 3| on shaft 59 cooperate with
indices 62 to indicate the set-in value of the 30
range.
y
v
’
The output link E3 of divider 59 is located by
the intersection of slides 55 and 51 in its central
portion and is pivoted at its lower end on pin 64
which is secured by bolts tothe arm I9. The out@i ‘f
put or upper end of link 63 is pivotally connected
to slide 65 which moves in guide 55 secured to the
walls of casing 6.
,
‘
At the ends of slide 65 are mounted pins S1 and
same as the true clockwise movement of the air
plane, when a balance is obtained and the proper
deñection is set up in accordance -with‘the equal
tion
Ds=dB-R.-
'
'
'
-
»
-
i
The generation of the rate of change in elevau
tion and the setting in of the correction in eleva
tion isaccomplished in the‘same manner `as that
for the rate of change ofsbearing and the deiiec
tion correction previously described.
The modification of theinvention shown in
Figs. 6 and 7 differs Vfrom. thateshownV in Figs.
3` to 5 inclusive only inthe `>action of the controls
for the deflection and elevationrmotors, 3| and 31
respectively.
Since the -same numbers are? used
88 which support spring 69. The center point of 40 for correspondingfparts their operation` or vcon
the spring 69 is connected to the upper end of arm
32 previously described.
Y
struction Will not be described except as the Vadded
partsof the modification aiîect their operation.
rThe difference in the controls is that> the frame
The motion of motor 31 transmitted to shaft 5|
30 and the arm 36, carrying the Acontacts 29 and
is also transmitted to gear 19 which is pinned to
shaft 5|, and thence through gears 1| and 12’to 45 35 -respectively,-instead of being rigidlyrseciírê‘d
to cross strap |5 and arm |8 are yieldably mount
slide 13, which is one input of a conventional
ed relative thereto ¿andare displaceable from their
divider 14. The other input to divider 14 is slide
normal central position in accordance with the
15 which is set in accordance with the range Aby
speed and direction of rotations of the motors 3|
gear 15 connected to shaft 59 which is moved“ as
previously described. The output link 11 of 50 and 31 by means of drag devices 83 and81 re
spectively.
divider 14 is located by the intersection of slides
The drag device 83 consists of a shaft 88 carry
13 and 15 and is pivoted at its lower end on pin
ing a disk 89 integral therewith. The frame 38
18 secured to arm I8. The output end of link 11
is secured to a hub 90 which is pinned to the
is pivoted to slide 19 which moves in guide 8i)
shaft 88 and carries'an arm 9| the-outerend of
secured to the walls of casing 3.
which is normally centered by two springs 92
At the center of slide 19 is mounted pin 8|
connected to eyes 93 in the side of casing E. The
which is connected to the center of spring 82 the
upper end of shaft 88 is rotatably mounted in the
ends of which are connected to wire 83. Wire 83
cross strap I5 on the same axis as the pivot«|5
passes over grooved pulleys 84 mounted on the top
wall of casing 3. The center of wire 83 is con 60 and the lower end is mounted in cross strap 94.
The disk 89 is enclosed in a housing 95 which
nected to arm 26 previously described.
carries a gear 96 meshing with a gear 91 mounted
A conventional sight 85 is mounted on the top of
to be rotated by deiiection motor 3| through gears
casing 6 with its optical axis parallel to the center
38 and 39. The housing 95 is ñlled with oil or
line of the casing.
(35 other liquid so that rotation of the housing by
Operation (deflection)
If the ñring plane l is flying straight ahead, the
the motor causes a drag on the disk 89 which dis
places the frame 39 and contacts 29 from their
normal central position at which they are held
gyro, casing and sight will be automatically
by springs 92. This displacement is proportional
brought to their mid position parallel to the gun
bore by the action of the motors 3| and 3‘1 under 70 to the speed of rotation of the motor 3|.
The‘drag device 81 is similar to drag device
the control of contacts 28-29 and 34-35 respec
86 and consists of a Shaft 98 -having an integral
tively. For example, if the gyro and casing are
disk Y99 enclosed in a housing |00, one side of
to the left of the mid position, a precessing force
which is _gear 12 driven by elevation mot-or 31
will be applied tothe gyro to cause it »to precess
‘to the 'right ata reducingrate -until the gyro
through gears 49, 50, 19 and 1|. 4The shaft 98
:2,405,068>
is mounted at one end in casing 6 and at the
other end in arm' |8_ on` the"same axisV as pivot
pilot notices that the line'of Asight is falling loe-í
hind the target, _he will turn his airplane Vfaster
20. yThe arm 36 is secured to a hub, |0|A which
is pinned to shaft 98 andcarries a' second arm
to the rightwhich will cause the motor 3l to
start to move the sight to the left relative to the
|02 thevouter end ofwhich is connected to springs
gun and to increase the rate of training of the
|03 which are connected to eyes |04 mounted,v on
gyro to make its rate the same as the relative
the wallsof casing 6.> The housing |00 vis filled
with oil or other liquid s0. that rotation of the
elevation motor 3l, displaces the arm 36 and con
tacts 35 from their normallylcentral position an loy
angular movement of the target. This change
of rate of itself will not cause the sightto catch
up with the target but the action of the drag
device |05 will apply va second> processing force
»to theA gyro due to the rótation of the motor3|
amount `proportional to the speed ofthe motor.
The Vdisplacement.ofthe contacts 2‘9 and 35
from their normal position relative to the lcasing Y
due to the drag devices is in the direction 'the
casing is moved bythe motors 3| and 31 :respec
tively, and an amount proportional to the speed
of
the
motors.
-
v
.
1
"
Y
~
»
which force will cause the gyro to precess momen
tarily in the direction of the target. VThis pre
cessing of the gyro is in addition to that applied
through the divider 56.
y
It will be seen that Whenever the sight moves
off of the target the change of the rate of turn
-
The effect of vthis displacement on the opera
tion >irs-,that When the operator changes therate
ing orflthe airplane made by the pilot will not
only change the rate of continuous precessing of
of change of course of the firing airplane to bring 20 the gyro but will momentarily cause the gyro Vto
precess additionally in a direction to bring the
thesight on the target, thel sight instead of being
maintained continuously parallel to the spin axis
of the gyro by the follow-up motors is displaced
line of sightv back on the target. -
Y
Similarlyv any movement of the sight from the
target in elevation will be »corrected both in rate
therefrom in the direction the operator is chang
ing the rate of turning of the firing airplane and 25 and position by the pilot changing the rate of
turning of the> airplane in elevation.
the operator therefore will see a temporary move-Y
While the‘invention has been described as ap
ment of theV sight relative to the `target in the
plied to a sight for a gun-ñxedly mounted on
sameÍ direction he is changing the, rate ofturn
an airplane, so that theyrate of turningof. the
ing. Because vof this movement the tendency of
the operatorto overcorrect the changeyof head 30 airplane ¿to keep the vsight on'the target auto
matically displaces the sight from the gun the
proper amount to allow for movement of the tar
»The modiñcation; of atheY inventionv shown;> in
get.v during the time of flight, Vit is obvious that
Figs..8 and ‘9 dli’fersirom that; shown-in Figs. 2
if the sight mechanism is secured to the gun
to 5, inclusive, by the additionof a second pre
cessing connection from each> .of the ,motors 3| 35 cradle of any gun mount the movement of the
mount to keep the sight on the target will auto
andLBl to the' gyro 23.; `In addition'to .the con
matically offsetl the sight the -correct amount
nections throughvthe dividers~56 and '|4’by1which
fromv the bore of theY gun. Likewise the sight
the' gyro is Vcaused to precess all-.a rate propor
mechanism if mounted on a dummy gun cradle
tional to the displacement of the casing andv sight
ing'is.reduced._:V
I
`
.y
,
1,
.
v
f
=
1
-
from the vbore ofçthegun, a second connection is 40 may be usedas. a director and the position of the
dummy gun transmitted to the real gun may be
provided from each motorrincluding a drag de
vice Which applies va'precessing force to the gyro
in »proportion to thez-rateof >turningof the motor,
used Vto position the real gun.
'
Í
Itis obvious that various changes Amay be made
by those skilled in the art in the details of the
invention as disclosed in the drawings and de
scribed above Within the principle and scope of
tor_3| to apply `forces tothegyro tocause pre- , » the invention as expressed in the- appended
cession in train and-gthe drag v_device |06 is actu->
ated by the elevation motor„3|¿ to apply1forcesfto
1. In .combination with a manipulatable device,
the gyro'to -cause precession' in elevation.v ,1 ~ 60
sighting means comprising a casing ~pivoted on
The drag device |05 consists of a dragfdísklß'l
the device for relative angular movement about
secured on shaft 42 which is rotatedby deflection
a predetermined axis, a sight carried by the cas
motor -_3I.Y A housing |08, ’enclosing disk |01, is
ing, a'gyroscope universally mounted in the cas
free to rotate on shaft 42V andis ñlled with oil
or other` liquid. The housing |08 has a bossV |09 55 ing, a motor mounted onV the casing and con
trolled by relative angular movement between the
on one' side (see<1=‘ig.;v 9) carryinga‘pin _|'|V0~to
casing and the gyroscope about the predetermined
which is connected-one end of a link> .|||, the
axis, a connection between the motor and the
other end of which is connected to a pin ||2 o
device vto impart angular movement to the cas
an arm ||3 extending vfromìring22,
,
which rate corresponds to _the rate of movement
of the casingjand sight relativeto the ?gun._ ' The
drag device lûâ’isgactuated byfthede?lection mov
claims..
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The drag -device ' |06 consists of a a .dragV disk 60 ing relative to the device, means actuated' by the
||4 integral with shaft | I5 which- passes through Y
the cross strap |5 and isA secured in ring |1,
thereby forming the lower pivot for‘ring Il. The
disk H4 is enclosed in a housing ||6which ro
tates on shaft ||5l and is filled'with oil or other 65
liquidi.V 'I‘he housing H6 carries a gear | Il meshg
ing; with a gear ||8 on shaft 5| which is driven
by- elevation motor3l.
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V`rI'he effect of the drag devices ofy this modi
ficationvon-the operation ofthe sightis to cause
the gyron and sight tobe moved in space in the
motor for developing a force proportional to the
angular rotation of the motor, and means for
applying the force so developed as a precessional
force to the gyroscope.>
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Y Y
2. Directing means comprising almanipulatable
support, a sight mounted on said support for uni
versal pivotal movement, a gyroscope universally
mounted on said support,A an energy storing de
vice operable to apply’a precessional force to the
gyroscope, a motor controlledY by relative angular
movement betweenv the sight and the gyroscope
vdirection of the changev of rate as determined by
and rotative in proportion to -thegangular dis
the follow-up contact-.sand the motors.A Forex
ample» if the Pilot is. following _a targetfsothat
placement between the gyroscope and the support, means operated by the motor to impart en
the 'firing plane isçturnjma to the` right andV tht 75 ergy into ‘the energyvstoring device proportional
2,405,068
10
to the rotative position of the motor, and opera
tive means between the motor and sight to ad
just the angular position of the sight relative to
the support proportional to the rate of angular
movement of the support.
3. Directing means comprising a manipulatable
support, a sight mounted on said support for un'.
versal pivotal movement, a gyroscope universally
mounted on said support, an energy storing> de
casing and the vertical axis of the frame when
the gyroscope is in its neutral position relative
to the casing, power means mounted in the cas
ing, means »actuated by relative angular move
ment between the gyroscope and the-casing for
controlling the power means, means connecting
the power means to the base for rotating the
Yframe and `the casing about the vertical axis,
and means connecting the power means to the
vice operable to apply a precessional force to `the 10 ,gyroscope-for applying forces to the gyroscope
gyroscope, a motor controlled by relative angular
to precess it about its vertical axis at a rate
movement between the sight and the gyroscope
proportional to the rate o-f- angular movement
and rotative in proportion to the angular dis
of the’airplane about its vertical axis including
placement between the gyroscope and the sup
means settable in accordance with the range of
‘
port, means operated by the motor to impart 15 the target.
energy into the energy storing device proportional
'7. A sight mechanism for a gun ñxedly mount
ned on an airplane firing at a target, comprising
to the rotative position of the motor, operative
means between the motor and sight to adjust
a basemounted on the airplane with its vertical
the angular position of the sight relative to the
axis parallel to the vertical axis of the airplane,
support proportional to the rate of angular move 20 a frame mounted on the base for rotary move
ment of the support, and means for modifying
ment about a vertical axis parallel to the verti
the proportion between the rotative position of
cal axis of the base, a casing pivotally mounted
the motor and the energy imparted to the energy
on the frame for rotation about a transverse
storing device by the motor.~
horizontal axis, a sight mounted on the casing
4. A sight mechanism for a gun ñxedly mount 25 with its optical axis parallel to a centerline of the
ed on an airplane, comprising a` casing mounted
casing, a gyroscope universally mounted -in the
on the airplane for angular adjustment about two
casing with its spin axis and its vertical mount
axes, a sight carried by the casing, a gyroscope
ing axis parallel respectively to the centerline of
in the casing mounted for freedom of movement
the casing and the vertical axis of the frame
about two axes substantially parallel to those 30 when the gyroscope is in its neutral position rela
of the casing, two motors connected to adjust
tive to the casing, power means mounted in the
the angular position of the casing about the re
casing, means actuated byrelative angular move
spective axes, control means for the motors oper
ment between the gvroscope> and the casing for
ative in response to relative angular movement
controlling the power means, means connecting
between the casing and the gyroscope about the
the power means to the frame for rotating the
respective axes, means actuated by each motor
casing about its transverse horizontal axis, and
for developing a force proportional to the angular
means connecting the power means to the gyro
adjustments of the casing relative to the gun
scope for: applying forces to the gyroscope to
about the respective axes, and means Vfor apply
precess it about its horizontal axis at a rate pro
ing the forces so developed as precessional forces 40 portional to the` rate of angular movement of the
to the gyroscope to cause precession of the gyro
airplane about its horizontal transverse axis in
scope about the respective axes.
v
cluding means settable in accordance with the
5. A sight mechanism for a gun ñxedly mount
range of the target..
ed on an airplane, comprising a casing mounted
8. A sight mechanism for a gun ñxedly mount
on the airplane for angular adjustment about 45 ed on’ an `airplane firing at a target, comprising
two axes, a sight carried by the casing, a gyro
scope in the casing mounted for freedom of
movement about two axes substantially parallel
to those of the casing, two motors connected to
a base mounted on the airplane with _its vertical
axis parallel to the vertical axis of the airplane,
a frame mounted on the base for rotary move
ment about a vertical axis parallel to the verti
adjust the angular position of the ycasing about` 50 cal axis .of the base, a casing pivotally mounted
the respective axes, control means for the motors
operative in response to relative angular move
on the frame for rotation about a transverse
horizontal axis, a sight mounted on the casing
ment between the casing and the gyroscope about
with its optical axis parallel to a centerline of
the respective axes, means actuated by each mo
the casing, a gyro universally mounted in the
tor for developing a force proportional to the 55 casing with its spin axis and its vertical mount
angular adjustment of the casing relative to the
ing axis parallel respectively to the centerline of
gun about the respective axes, means for apply
the casing and the vertical axis of the frame
ing the forces so developed as precessional forces
when the gyro is in its neutral position relative
to the gyroscope to cause precession of the gyro
to the casing, power means mounted in the can
scope about the respective axes, and means for 60 ing, means actuated by relative angular move
modifying the proportion between the adjust
ment between the gyro and the casing for con
ment of the casing and the forces developed.
trolling the rotation of the power means in ac
6. A sight mechanism for a gun rlxedly mount
cordance with the angular position of the spin
ed on an airplane ñring at a target, comprising
a ibase mounted on the airplane with its vertical 65 axis of the gyro relative to the gun, transmission
means connecting the- power means to the base
axis parallel to the vertical axis of the airplane,
and to the frame for rotating the frame and the
a frame mounted on the base for rotary move
casing about their vertical and transverse hori
ment about a vertical axis parallel to the verti
zontal axes respectively, and transmission means
cal axis of the base, a casing pivotally mounted
on the frame for rotation about a transverse hori 70 connecting the power means to the gyro to ap
ply forces to the gyro to cause precessio-n about
zontal axis, a sight mounted on the casing with
its vertical and its horizontal axes at rates pro
its optical axis parallel to a centerline of the cas
portional to the rates of angular movement of
ing, a gyroscope universally mounted in the cas
the airplane about its vertical and horizontal
ing with its spin axis and its vertical mounting
axis parallel respectively to the centerline of the 75 transverse axes, respectively, the connecting
"2Q-105,068
11
with the'range of the target.
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12
f 12. A sighting mechanism for an angularly
movable gun, comprising a sight mounted for
angular adjustment relativeto the gun about two
mutually normal axes, a gyroscope mounted for
angular _movement about two axes normally
means includinggmeans settable in accordance
l
9; A sight mechanism for a gun ñxedly mount
ed on an airplane firing at a target, comprising
a base mounted on the airplane with its vertical
axis parallel to the vertical axis of the airplane,
a framey mounted on the base for rotary move
ment about a vertical axis parallel to the vertical
axis’ of the base, a casing pivotally mounted on
the frame for rotation'about a' transverse hori
parallel> to those of the sight, two motors con- `
nected to adjust the angular position >of the
sight relative to the gun about the respective axes,
means actuated by the respective motors for devel
foping forces _proportional to the angular adjust
ment and the rateY of 'angular movement of the
sight relative to said >gun about the respective
zontal axis, a sight mounted on the casing with
itsf_optical axis parallel to a centerline ofthe
axes; means for applying the forces to the gyro
scope _to cause precession of the gyroscope about
the respective axes, and control means for each
of the motors 'actuated by angular movement of
the gyroscope relative to the sight about the
casing`,`a gyro universally mounted in the- cas
ing with its spin’axis and its vertical mounting
axis parallel respectively to the centerline of the
casing and the vertical axis of the >frame when
thev gyro is in its neutral position relative to the
casing, train and elevation power means mount
ed in the casing, means actuated by relative an
gular movement between the gyro and the casing
for controlling the rotation of the power means
-respective axes.
13. A sighting mechanism for an angularly
'movable gun, comprising a sight mounted for
angular displacement relative to the gun, a gyro
in accordance with the angular position of the
scope mounted for angular displacement relative
spin axis of the gyro relative to the gun, anpair
to the gun, power means operable in response to
of mechanical dividingmeans settableY in accord
diiïerences in the angular Idisplacements of the
sight and the gyroscope relative to the gun to
adjust the angular displacement of the sight rela„
tive to the gun, means actuated by the motor for
developing a force proportional to the angular
displacement of the sight from the gun, and means
ance with the range of the target,> means fori con’
necting the Vrespectivepower means-to the respec
tive divldingmeans, and »means for connecting
the outputY of thev respective dividing means vto
the gyro for applying forces" to the gyro,Y where
by the ’gyro is precessedabout'its vertical axis 30 for applying the force to the gyroscope to cause
precession of thel gyroscope inthe direction of
and its _horizontal axis at rates 'proportional to
the angularposition of the spin axis of the gyro
movement- of the gun and at a rate proportional
relative' to the gun and inversely proportional
to the Vforce'. g’
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V14. A sightingfmechanism for an angularly
to thefrange of'th'c‘ta'rget; '
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10. 1n combination 'with an angularly movable
movable gun, comprising a -sight mounted for
gungsig‘hting means comprising av casing pivoted
for angular adjustment relative tothe gun,`a sight
carriedV by Ythe casing, a gyroscope; universally
angular displacement relative tothe gun, power
means operable to angularly displace the sight
relative to the gun, a gyroscope mounted forv angu
lar displacement relative to the gun,'means actu
monntèd »in the casing, a ‘motor connected to ad
just _the angular position of thecasing relative to
the gun, means actuated'by the motor for develop
40
ing a force 'proportional to the angular adjust
ment of the casing relative to the gun,v means for
ated by the power means for developing ya force '
proportional to the angular displacement of the
sight from the gun, means for applying the force
‘to the gyroscope to cause precession _of the gyro
applyingthe-force so developed to the gyroscope
Vscope in the direction of movement of _the gun at
`_as_»a»precess'_ing force, and'control meansV for the
45 a rate proportional to the force', and control
means for> said power means actuated byrelative
Y motcir‘Y actuated'ïn'byangular *movement of the
gyroscope relative to the casing', said ’control
ydisplacement between the sight and the gyro
meansV including` 'a part’ displaceable in accord
scope, whereby the sightV and the gyroscope are
ance- with the speed of the motorandïoperable
to delay the action of the motorfin adjusting
theïangular position'of the casing relative tothe
gun.
displaced from the gun proportionally to the rate
50 of movement of the gun, said control means in
cluding means to delay the operation of the power
means in proportion to the rate of movement of
Y
11._A sighting mechanism for. an angularly
the power means.
movable gun, comprising a casing mounted for
15. A sighting mechanism for an angularly
angular adjustment relative to the gun about two 55 movable gun, _comprising a sight mounted "for
mutually normal axes, a sightv carried by the cas
ing, a gyroscope mounted in the casing for angu
angular displacement relative to the gun, a gyro
>scope mounted for angular displacement relative
lar movement about two axes normally‘parallel
to those ofthe casing, two motorsy connected to
to the gun, power means operable to maintain the
sight parallel to the spin axis of the gyroscope,
adjust the angular position of the casing relative 60 means actuated by the power means for develop
to the gun about the respective axes, meansactu
ing a force proportional to the angular displace
ated by the respective motors for developing
ment of the sight and the gyroscope from the gun,
forces proportional to the angular adjustment of „ lmeans for applying the force to the gyroscope to
the casing relative to said gun about each of the
cause precession of the gyroscope in the direc
axes, means for applying the forces to the gyro 65 tion of movement of thegun and at a Tate propor
scope to causeprecession of the gyroscope about
tional tothe force, means for developing a force
' proportional to the rate of change of displacement
the respective axes, control means for each of the
motors actuated by angular movement ofv the
of the sight and the gyroscope relative to the gun,
gyroscope relative to the casing Vaboutthe re
and means for modifying the effect of the first
spective axes, each -'of saidcontrol means includ
Ving a part displaceable by and in accordance» with
the speed lof the controlled motor and operating
to'delay the actionof the motor in adjusting the
angular position of the casing relative -'to the
gun about the respective axes.
70 mentioned force on thel gyroscope by an amount
proportional to the last mentioned force during
changes of displacement of the sight and gyro
scope relative to the gun.
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75
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JAMES D. TEAR.`
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ELLIO'I'I‘ÍP. ROSS?V
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