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Патент USA US2405072

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July 30, 1946.
Filed Deo. 7, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet l
Jui? 30, 1946-
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Juìy 30, 1946.
Filed Dec. '7, 1944
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Patented July 30, 1946
David M. Trilling, Merion, and George H. Rich.,
Philadelphia, Pa., assignors to David M. Trill
ing, Merion, and Harry Montague, Philadel
phia, Pa., a partnership
Application December 7, 1944, Serial No. 567,032
4 Claims.
(c1. E19-38)
This invention relates generally to space heat
ers and more particularly to an improved con
struction of cabinet type heater which is so de
signed and constructed as to provide for maxi
er constructed in accordance with and embodying
mum utilization and distribution of the heat de
rived from a primary source.
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken
the principles of the present invention;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on
the line 2--2 of Figure 1;
on the line 3_3 of Figure 2; " Y
Among the principal and important objects of
Figure 4 is a perspective view of the internal
the present invention is to provide a space heater
flue-forming unit, one panel thereof being broken
which is so internally provided with a plurality
away to show the heating elements supported by
of nues in communication with each other and lL) said unit;
with atmosphere as to prevent the entrapment of
Figure 5 is a Vertical sectional view taken on
heated air within the interior of the cabinet to
the line 5-5 of Figure 4;
such extent that it might build up to a dangerous
Figure 6 is a detail view showing a preferred
degree of temperature, the filles within the cab
method of securing the support for the heating
inet being so arranged in relation to each other
as to insure the release of heated air from within
the interior of the cabinet during all possible con
Figure 7 is a partial sectional View further il
lustrating the constructional detail of Figure 6 as
ditions of use of the cabinet.
taken along the line 'l-l of Figure 6;
element within the internal flue-forming unit;
A further important object of the present in
vention is to provide a space heater which is in- .
ternally provided with several flue-forming ele
ments so arranged in relation to each other and
Figure 8 is an elevational view of the lowerpor
tion of one end of the external cabinet showing
the means for removably supporting in position
the bottom panel of the heater cabinet;
to surrounding parts of the heating cabinet that
Figure 9 is a sectional view taken on the line
all said parts mutually reenforce each other to
9-9 of Figure 8;
provide a. rigid and rugged construction of cab
Figure l0 is a perspective View similar to Figure
inet heater at the same time that they provide
4 showing a somewhat modified construction of
the cabinet with iiues which serve not only to most
the internal flue-forming unit; ì
eiiiciently direct the heated air outwardly of the
Figure 11 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
heater cabinet, but also to maintain the external
cabinet heater of the present invention as taken
side surfaces thereof relatively cool.
30 along'the line II-II of Figure 1 employing the
A further object of the present invention is to
modified internal unit of Figure 10J said Figure ll
provide a cabinet heater which is designed to
being taken substantially on the line II-II of
Figure l; and
create a self-activated movement of the heated
air through the heater cabinet and so insure pos
Figure 12 is a horizontal sectional view taken
itive circulation and distribution of the heated air on Ul 0n the line IZ-I 2 of Figure l1.
without necessitating the employment of auxil
Referring now to the drawings and more par
iary air circulating devices, such as a fan~
ticularly to Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, it will be ob
Still another object of the present invention is
served that the space heater of the present in
to provide a cabinet construction of space heater
vention essentially consists of an external cab
which is exceedingly simple and pleasing in de 40 inet or housing designated generally by the ref
sign, rugged and durable in construction, eco
erence numeral I0, an interna1 Hue-forming unit
nomical of manufacture, and eiiìcient and safe
designated generally by the reference numeral
in use.
II, and one or more primary sources of heat,
Other objects and advantages of the present in
preferably in the form of coiled electrical resist
vention will appear more fully hereinafter, it be 45 ance elements designated generally by the ref
_ing understood that the present invention con
erence numeral I2.
sists substantially in the combination, construc
The cabinet I0 is formed throughout of suit
tion, location and relative arrangement of parts,
ably perforated sheet metal panels suitably se
_al1 as described in more or less detail hereinafter,
cured together, preferably by Welding, to provide
as shown in the accompanying drawings, and as 50 the cabinet With a perforated top panel I3, per
ñnally pointed out in the appended claims.
In the said accompanying drawings, which are
illustrative of certain preferred constructions em
bodying the principles of the present invention:
Figure 1 is a. perspective view of a cabinet heat
forated end panels I4---I4, and perforated side
panels I5----I5. The cabinet is provided with
vertically extending corner posts I6, each of
which is of generally right-angular cross-sec
55 tion, the flanges of which overlap and are spot
welded to the vertical edges of the side and end
panels of the cabinet. These corner posts serve
not only to rigidify the external cabinet, but
also as the supporting legs therefor. The top
panel i3 of the cabinet is fitted within a mar~
ginal frame E7 which in turn snugly ñts over
and is welded to the upper edges of the side and
end walls of the cabinet.
As most clearly ap
pears in Figures l and 2, these side and end walls
of the cabinet terminate a substantial distance
above the floor line of the cabinet so as to pro
vide for adequate circulation of air from the sur
rounding atmosphere into the interior of the
cabinet by way of the bottom thereof.
Removably secured within the cabinet is a bot
tom panel i8 which is also formed of perforated
sheet metal, this bottom panel i3» beingl provid-ed
along its opposite longitudinal edges with down
wardly turned iianges lS-IQ to rigidity the same.
In order to support this bottom panel i5 in po
sition within the cabinet, the opposite side walls
with the top panel I9 of the cabinet Il), while the
lowermost edges of said internal unit rest upon
the bottom panel i8 of the external cabinet.
Thus, the internal unit Il is secured against all
possibility of movement within the external cab
inet, yet it may be readily removed therefrom,
should that be necessary, by the simple expedient
of removing the bottom panel i8v of the main
‘It will be noted that when the internal unit is
' properly positioned within the external cabinet,
it forms in conjunction therewith a plurality of
air ducts or-ilues which are freely open to atmos
phere' at theY topand bottom ends of each. The
internal' unit' ii, being of hollow form, in itself
constitutes a main central flue within which are
disposed the primary heating elements i2. The
auxiliary side ílues are respectively formed be
tween each of the side panels 2li-_2li of the cen
tral unit and the side panels IE5-_i5 of the ex
ternal cabinet, and between each of the end panels
‘z5-‘25 of the central unit and the- endV panels
i5-l5 thereof are each provided with a pair of
iii-ifi of the external cabinet. Thus, the main
longitudinally extending angle members _E9-29
central flue of the space heater of the presentl
respectively spot welded to the inner faces of said
invention is surrounded upon each of its four
side panels, the freely extending flanges of these
sides by an auxiliary flue of substantial propo-r
angle members Ztl-29 serving as stops or seats
against which the bottom panel i8 may be up
ït will be noted that each of the side panels
wardly pressed (see Figure 2), the said bottom
of the central unit are vertically ofi-set
panel I8 being held against the members 2&_29
vby a plurality of bendable clips 2l respectively 30 with respect to the end panels 25-25 thereof so
as to provide in effect a pair of opposed notches
secured to each of the end panels tit-lll in the
of substantial width at the top and bottom of
'immediate region of each corner of the cabinet.
the central unit. One pair of these notches, des
These clips 2i are shown most clearly in Figures
ignated Zl-Zl, is provided at the upper edges
2, 8 and 9 and consist simply of metal tabs each
of the end panels 2E-25, while the other pair,
folded upon itself to provide a portion 22 which
designated 28, is provided at the bottom side
is welded to the end panel and a freely extending
panels 2li-2d. In addition, the end-panels'Zä-'lâ
tab 23 which is adapted to bebent out of the
are each notched, as at 29, in their bottom edges,
full line position sho-wn in Figure 9 into the dot
the panels Zd-Zél are each notched, as> at
ted line position shown therein. In securing the
3c, in their upper edges'. The provision of these
botto-m panel i8 in place within the cabinet lil, 40 notches
or spaces in the regions of the opposite
the tab portions 23 of the supporting clips 2|
are initially bent or pressed into their full line
position, as shown in Figure 9, to thereby permit
the bottom panel I3 to be freely seated against
the longitudinally extending stops or seats 29,
the tabs 23 being thereupon bent or sprung into
the dotted line position shown in Figure 9 to en
gage the lower surface of the bottom panel i8
in the region of each corner thereof to hold the
panel against the said longitudinally extending
stops >or seats Ztl-2li. In order to remove the
bottom panel, should it be necessary to do so for
servicing the heater, it is only necessary to spring
the tabs 23 back into their initial full line po
sition shown in Figure 9, thereby permitting the 55
bottom panel to be freely slipped out of its` re
tained position.
edges of the several panels forming the central
unit is quite important because they provide for
free circulation of heated air‘i'rom within the cen
tral flue of the inner unit outwardly of the cabinet
by way of one or more of the surrounding auxil
iary air ducts or‘rlues.
It has been iound that in the operation of a
space heater constructed with the several'> com
municating ñues as just described, a m‘ostl eilie
cient circulation and distributionv of heated air
into the space surrounding the heater is obtained,
all without excessive or undue heating ofl the ex
ternal Walls of the cabinet. This isundoubtedly
due- to the provision and design of the several flue
passages, all of which cooperate not only to- pro
duce a most eirective circulation of heated air
through and upwardly out of the` cabinet, but
also provide for the circulation or relatively cool
ures 4 and 5) is disposed internally of the cab
inet and is supported therein as shown in Figures Gil air upwardly about all sides ofthe main central
line whereby to maintain the sideA externalY sur
2 and- 3 by means of the bottom panel it. This
i'aces of the cabinet relatively cool. In this con
internal flue-ÍOI‘miIlg unit is essentially formed
nection, it will be noted that the space which is
of a plurality of sheet metal panels secured to
formed immediately above the upper end of the
gether to provide a hollow unit having the side
central flue is in' direct communication with the
walls 24-24 and the end Walls 25-25. The end
several flues which surround the main central flue
panels ‘i5-25 of this hollow unit are each formed
in which is located the primary source of heat.
along their vertical edges with diverging wing
Also, these surrounding ñues are each in com-_
like flanges 26, the vertical edges of which are
munication with the surrounding atmosphere by
respectively adapted to more or less snugly nt
70 way of the perforations in their side enclosing
within the interior vertical corners of the ex
external panels at the saine time that they are
ternal cabinet Iû. These wing-like flanges 25 of
in direct communication by wayl of the notches
the inner unit thus serve to center the said unit
2l, 28, 29A and 33 aforesaid withY the interior of
within the external housing or cabinet iti, as is
the main central flue.
shown most clearly lin Figure 3, the uppermost
As the» heated air rises- out of the`~ central?lue
edges of the internal unit being in engagement 75
The flue-forming unit il (see particularly Fig
and thence outwardly through the perforated top
I3 of the heater, it tends to draw cool air up
wardly through all of the several auxiliary flue
passages, and inasmuch as the air which is so
drawn upwardly through these outer flues is rel
Yatively cool, there is no danger of overheating
the exposed sides of the heater cabinet. Also, by
reason of the fact that the cabinet is so provided
with the several fiue passages as described, all
of which are in direct communication with each
other and with the surrounding atmosphere by
Way of the perforated top, end and side panels of
internal nue-forming unit I I .» The remaining ter-f
minal extremities of the series connected resist
ance coils are then respectively ‘connected to the
terminal pins V33 which are suitably secured to and
insulated from the opposite side panel 24 of the
inner unit II.
By virtueof the means employed for mounting
the electrical heating elements I2-I2 in posi
tion within the inner unit II, undesired pocket
ing of th heat interiorly of the refractory tube 3I
is entirely eliminated, thereby not only prolong
ing the useful life of the heating element, but also
the cabinet, as well as by way of the perforated
making available for heating purposes the heat
bottom panel of thel cabinet, the hazard of heat
which is developed interiorly of the tube. This
being built »up within the interior of the cabinet
mounting means is Amost clearly disclosed in Fig
to a dangerous degree is entirely eliminated. In
ures 4 to 7, inclusive, wherein it will be observed
this connection, it has been found that when the
that each element I2 is supported in vertical po
cabinet is subjected to the severest smothering
sition between a pair of vertically spaced oppo
test, as by blanketing the top and practically all
sitely facing cup-like members 35-35. Each of
of the perforated side Walls thereof, the heated 20 these cup-like members 35 is centrally apertured,
air developed within the cabinet is free to escape
as at 36, to provide an opening which is in regis
to the surrounding atmosphere by way of some
try with the bore bf the refractory tube 3|, the
of the uncovered openings in one or the other of
supporting members 35-35 for each tube being
the side walls of the cabinet, »while if all sides of
respectively secured, as by welding or otherwise,
the cabinet are completely smothered, the air is 25 to a pair of transversely extending supporting
still free to escape to the surrounding atmosphere
bars 31-31. These bars 31 are of a length suffi
by way of the bottom openings of the several flue
cient to extend across the full width of the inner
passages, all of which are in connection with at
nue-forming unit II, the opposite ends of each
mosphere by Way of the perforated bottom panel
bar being provided with depending tabs 38 which
I8 of the cabinet. Consequently, the internal 30 are adapted to be inserted within suitable sockets
temperature or' the cabinet is at all times main
39 therefor provided upon the inner faces 24--24
tained at a safe limit. The provision of the sev
of the unit II. These socket members 39 are ar
eral connecting internal nues and the passages
ranged in pairs so vertically spaced from one an
in all sides of the cabinet assures an adequate
other that When the tab ends of the supporting
avenue of escape for the heat developed in the 35 bars 31 are inserted therein, each pair of opposite- cabinet no matter in what position the cabinetly facing cupped members 35-35 are spaced apart
may be placed, as for example, should it be in
a distance just sufficient to snugly receive therebe
advertently turned upon one of its sides or ends
tween one of the’ resistance heating units I2. As
or even inverted top for bottom. In the fore
most clearly appears in Figure 4, the transversely
going respects, the principles of operation of the 40 extending supporting bars 31, to which are se
space heater of the present invention are the
cured the cupped members 35, are of relatively
same as those set forth in our copending appli
narrow width as compared with the diameter of
the central opening 36 of each member 35 to
cation Serial No. 528,032, filed March 25, 1944,
and to which reference is specifically made herein.
thereby insure the free passage of heated air up
While the space heater of the present in
wardly through and out of the bore of the re
vention, including its external cabinet and its
fractory tube 3l. In order to lock the trans
internal flue-forming unit, is adapted for use
versely extending bars 31 in position, the depend
primary heat, it is preferred to employ as
such source
or more
electrical ’
resistance units such as the element I2 shown
in the drawings.
These electrical resistance
units are each preferably in the form of a
ing tabs 38 respectively provided at their outer
extremities are formed of sufficient length that
when the same are inserted in their sockets 39,
the lower ends thereof may be clinched over, as
at 40 (see Figure 7), to prevent unintentional or
accidental displacement of the bars, should the
hollow refractory tube 3| (see Figure 7) upon
heater be inadvertently turned upon its side or in
the external surface of which is suitably Wound 55 verted top for bottom.
a coil of resistance wire 32. Preferably, this re
Figures 10 and 11 show a modified construction
sistance wire 32 is wound upon the tube in doubled
of heater wherein the inner unit is formed of a
plurality of panels having co-planar top and bot
form, the bight end of the loop of wire being
suitably secured, as at 32a, within an aperture
tom edges. The opposite side panels 24e-24a are
formed in the Wall of the tube adjacent the
each provided adjacent the upper and lower edges
upper end thereof. By so doubling the resistance
thereof with a pair of elongated slots or openings
Wire upon itself and then spirally winding the wire
4I---4I, while the end panels 25a-«25a are each
similarly provided adjacent the top and bottom
about the tube with each convolution oi' the wire
edges thereof with an elongated slot or opening
retained in its own spiral groove formed in the
external surface of the tube, the terminal ends 65 42. These slots 4I and 42 serve the same func
tion as the notches or spaces 21, 28, 29 and 33
of the resistance coil may be located at the rela
formed in the inner unit of the construction
tively cool bottom end of the refractory tube for
shown in Figure 4, the space heater of Figures 10
respective securement to the terminal pins 33 of
and 11 being in all other material respects similar
the space heater. Where two such resistance
units are employed, as illustrated in the drawings, 70 to that hereinbefore described.
It will be noted that in the cabinet type space
they are connected in series, one terminal end of
one coil being connected to another terminal end
heater of the present invention, the coiled resist
of the other coil by means of a common electrical
ance heating units are electrically connected to
connecting element or post 34, which is insulat
the terminal pins 33 which are mounted in the
ingly secured to one of the side panels 24 of the 75 side panel of the inner unit. These terminal pins
are~ adapted to receiveA the connector 0f a con
ventiona-l; electric cord set,` and, to. thisV end',l the»
external cabinetÁ is> provided; ign- its corresponding
sidewall Withanlopening 4-3 through whichaccess.
isprovidedto-the terminal pins- 33‘. By so mount
ing the terminal pins upon the sidelpanel» of the
inner unit, they: are protected against likelihood
open to the flow of air therethrough from and to
theH atmosphere;i and. any outer casing having its
side, top-and bottom walls perforated over a ma
jor portion thereof, said assembly being disposed
within and supported by said outer casing to form
main inner and auxiliary outer air stream> ílues,_
all of which latten» as well as the air passage
through said heating, unit,_ being freely open to
atmosphere by Way of their opposite ends and
cabinet is free of> any externally projecting ele
arranged t@ provide a plurality of parallel
for the, unidirectional ñow of air up~
The: cabinet construction .of thetpresent inl/er1
wardly through the space heater.
tion, providingçras. it; does maximum utilization
2. In. a space heater of the character deiined
andA circulation ofk theß heated air,A makes it pos
in claim 14 wherein said top and bottom Walls of
sible> to employ low: temperature> heating coils.
the;A outer casing~ serve conjointly to supportsaid
That is tol say;v the electrical resistance elements
inner- casing against vertical displacement within
I2 are so designed that they operate in “black”
said outer casingL said bottom Wall of the Vouter
rather v than in the, incandescent red heat. range
casingY being removable therefrom to afford acf
f of temperature, This, of course, is effected by
cessv to; said assembly disposed within` said outer
utilizing; resistance wire of such gauge and of
such number ofconvolutions as to insure the gen
3».K In a space heater of the character defined
eration» of adequate heat for a given wattage
in claim l wherein> said inner casingA is provided
without any incanclescence` of the resistance wire.
with perimetrally spaced externally- projecting
The multiple-flue cabinet construction of the
wing-like elements the free edges of Whichengage
present invention, in creating a self-activated
movement of they heated air through the cabinet, ‘_ the embracing walls of the outer casing to main
tain said inner and outer casings in spaced rela
insures; rapid and positiveI distribution of_ theheat
generated by the heating coils.
of _ damage While at the vsame- time the external
Of course, it will ber understood that the pres
ent invention is, susceptible of various changes
and modiñcations which may be made from time
to time without departing from the general prin_
clples or real spirit thereof, and accordingly, it
is intended to claim the inventionhroadly, as Well
as specifically, as indicated by the appended
What is claimed as new and useful is:
1. In a space heater of the character described,
in combination, an assembly comprising an open
ended inner casing, an electrical heating unit dis
posed Within said casing, said heating unit being
of hollow construction to provide a through air
passage extending4 vertically therethrough from
ll. In a space heater of the character defined in
claim 1V wherein said electrical heating unit in
cludes a tubular core of' insulating material hav
ing an electrical resistance element Wound there
on, and wherein said means for supporting the
electrical lheating unit within the inner casing
comprises a pair of vertically spaced bars respec
tively extendíng transversely of the inner casing
with the opposite ends of each bar secured re
spectively to opposite walls of said inner casing,
each of said bars being provided intermediate its
length with a centrally apertured flanged' disc
adapted to embrace a corresponding end of the
tubular core of the heating unit with the aper
tures of the discs in registry with the air passage
extending vertically through the heating unit.
end to endvparallel to the axis of the casing, and
means. for supporting said heating unit within
said casing with the opposite ends of said unit
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