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Патент USA US2405080

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July 30, 1946.
A. R. VAN C. WARRINGTON
RELAY PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENT
2,405,080
Filed Oct. 6, 1944
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2,405,080
Patented July 30, ‘1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,080
RELAY PROTECTIVE ARRANGEMENT
Albert R. van 0. Warrington, Wallingford, Pa.,
assignor to General Electric Company, a cor
poration of New York
1
Application October ~6, 1944, Serial No. 557,428
16 Claims. (Cl. 175-294)
2
My invention relates to relay protective ar
rangements and particularly to such relay ar
of the capacitor CAP and a portion CD repre
senting the impedance of the circuit from the
point C to the point D. From Fig. 2, it is evident
rangements for use on alternating current cir
cuits having a series connected capacitor.
In order to increase the amount of load that
can be transmitted over a transmission line, a
that overcurrent or distance relays of the prior art
When connected at the point A in Fig. 1 are not
applicable as fault responsive relays because the
capacitor is sometimes connected in series there
fault current, impedance and reactance measured
with. Such a series connected capacitor, how
by such relays are not a reliable indication of the
ever, changes the impedance of the line in such
location of the fault. For example, the imped
a manner that a fault on the circuit at a point 10 ance between the point A and a fault at the point
between the supply end of the circuit and the
capacitor may cause less fault current to flow
than when the fault occurs at a point on the far
side of the capacitor so that the latter fault ap
pears to a distance relay as being nearer to the 15
relay than the ?rst mentioned fault. Therefore,
distance relay arrangements of the type used
heretofore are not applicable to such an alternat
ing current circuit having a series connected ca
pacitor because of the change in the line im
.pedance effected by the capacitor.
One object of my invention is to provide a dis
tance relay arrangement for an alternating cur
rent circuit having a series connected capacitor
F in Fig. 1 is less than the impedance between
the point A and a fault at the point E, and there
fore the fault at point E would appear to be near
er to a distance relay of the impedance or react
ance type located at point A than a fault at
point E.
In order to distinguish between a fault that oc
curs between the points A and B of the circuit
shown in Fig. 1 and a fault that occurs between
20 the points C and D, I provide, in accordance with
my invention, a distance relay having such an
impedance characteristic that on a resistance
reactance polar diagram for the circuit the im
pedance characteristic of the distance relay cross
which distinguishes between faults occurring on 25 es the portion BC of the fault impedance char
opposite sides of the point where the capacitor is
acteristic of the circuit so that the portion AB
connected in the circuit.
of the fault impedance characteristic is on one
Another object of my invention is to provide
side of the relay impedance characteristic and the
an improved distance relay arrangement for an
portion CD of the fault impedance characteristic
alternating current circuit having a series con 30 is on the other side of the relay impedance char
nected capacitor which gives instantaneous pro
acteristic. As shown in Fig. 2, the straight line
tection for the entire circuit between the points
00’ represents the impedance characteristic of a
where the relay and capacitor are respectively
well-known type of ohm relay which is so located
connected to the circuit.
that it bisects the portion B0 of the fault imped
My invention will be better understood from 35 ance characteristic of the circuit and is substan
the following description when taken in connec
tially parallel to the other two portions AB and
tion with the accompanying drawing, and its
CD. With such a relay characteristic, it is evi
scope will be pointed out in the appended claims.
dent that a fault anywhere between the point A
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a single
and capacitor CAP, indicated as zone I in Fig. 1
line diagram of an electric circuit to which my 40 effects the operation of the ohm relay. but a fault
improved relay arrangement may be connected;
between the points C and D. indicated as zone 2,
Fig. 2 is an explanatory vector diagram; Fig. 3 is
does not effect the operation of the ohm relay.
a circuit breaker control arrangement embody
In order to prevent the ohm relay from effect
ing my improved relay arrangement; Fig. 4 is a
ing a desired control operation when it is oper
modi?cation of the embodiment of my invention 45 ated by a fault which occurs to the left of the
shown in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is an explanatory single
point A and to the right of point D in Fig. 1, other
line diagram of an electric circuit; and Fig. 6 is
suitable fault responsive means such as a distance
an explanatory vector diagram.
relay having an impedance characteristic M’ in
When a capacitor is connected in series in an
Fig. 2 may be used so that the desired control
alternating current circuit, as shown in'the single 50 operation can be effected only when the imped
line diagram in Fig. l, the fault impedance char
ance vector of the fault falls to the left of the im
acteristic of the circuit comprises, as shown in
pedance characteristic 00’ and also within the
Fig. 2. a portion AB representing the impedance
of the circuit from the point A to the point B inv
Fig. 1, a portion BC representing the reactance
impedance characteristic M’. It will be obvious
to those skilled in the art that the circle M’ shown
in Fig. 2 is the impedance characteristic of a mho
2,405,080
3
4
type of distance relay connected to the circuit at
point A and having a reach extending to the point
D in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 3, I have shown a relay arrangement
particularly adapted for use in controlling a cir=~
cuit interrupter in one of a plurality of parallel
connected circuits, which in turn are connected
in a series circuit containing a series capacitor.
Such a series circuit is shown in Fig. 5 in which
embodying my invention for controlling a circuit
the points A and B of the series circuit are in
interrupter which may be connected in the cir
terconnected by two parallel line sections S! and
cuit at the point A in Fig. 1. In this Fig. 3, i
S2, the points B and C are connected together
represents a circuit interrupter of the latched
by a series connected capacitor CAP, and the
closed type having a trip coil 2 which, when ener
gized, releases a latch 3 to effect the opening of 10 points C and D are interconnected by two par
allel line sections S3 and S4.
the circuit interrupter I. The energization of
When my improved relay arrangement is used
the trip coil 2 is controlled by a voltage restrained
to control the circuit interrupter at point A in
directional relay M of the type now well. known in
the. line section Si, it is necessary to design the
the art as a mho relay. This re'lay'M is connected
' mho. relay M so that its zone l reach is less than
in a manner well known in the art to the circuit
the distance between the points A and B in order
at the point where the circuit interrupter l is lo
to prevent the mho relay from being operated
cated so that in Fig. l the reach of the relay
by a. fault on the parallel line section S2 near the
would extend from the point A to the point D
point B. Furthermore, it is evident from the re
and would have the impedance characteristic M’
shown in Fig. 2. Since the construction of such 20 sistance-reactance polar diagram shown in Fig.
6 that‘ when the reach of the mho relay M is de
a mho- relay M is well known in the art and con
creased in this manner to a point such as H on
stitutes no vpart of my present invention, I have
the line section SI, no protection is provided for
represented this relay by a rectangle containing
faults on the line section Si between the points
a set of contacts ii in order to simplify the dis
25 E and B nor for faults on the line sections S3 and
closure.
S4 near the remote point D, Therefore, in order
The energizatlon of the trip coil 2 is also con
to provide suitable protection against such faults,
trolled by an ohm relay 0 of the well-known re
actance-at-an~angle type, which is connected in
I employ another mho relay Ml, which is con
a manner well known in the art to the circuit so
nected to the series circuit at the same‘ point the
mho relay M is connected and. which has an im
pedance characteristic M""which is the same as
the impedance characteristic M’ of the mho re
lay M in Fig. 3, namely a reach extending from
the point A to the point D in Fig. 5. The mho re
lay Ml has contacts l0 which are closed in re
that when used at point A in Fig. 1 the relay
would have the impedance characteristic Ml’
shown in Fig. 2. Since the construction of such
an ohm relayvis well known in the art and con
stitutes no part of my present invention I have
represented this relay by a rectangle containing
the contacts 5 and 6.
Under normal operating conditions, the con
tacts 5 of the relay (8 are closed and the contacts
6 are open, but when a fault occurs between the
points A and B in Fig. 1, the relay 0 operates to
close its contacts 6 and open its contacts 5. The
contacts 4 of the relay M and the contacts 6 of
the ohm relay 0 are connected in series in an
energizing circuit for the trip coil 2 through the
auxiliary contacts 1 on the circuit interrupter I
so that whenever a fault occurs between the
sponse to a fault which occurs within the reach
of the relay and which are connected in series
with the contacts ll of the ohm relay 0 so as to
complete an energizing circuit for the time relay
8 when both the mho relay MI and the distance
relay 0 are operated by a fault. The contacts
10 of the mho relay MI are also connected in
series with the contacts l2 of the ohm relay (3
so as to complete an energizing circuit for a time
' relay l3 when the mho relay MI is operated by
a fault but the ohm relay 0 is notv The time re
circuit for a time relay 8, which in turn by clos
ing its contacts 9 completes an energizing cir
lay l3 has a longer time delay than the time re~
lay 8, and, when it closes its contacts M, it com
pletes an energizing circuit for the trip coil 2
of the circuit interrupter l.
The operation of the control arrangement
shown in Fig. 4 will be obvious from the above
description and the Vector diagram shown in
cuit for the trip coil 2. Therefore, when a fault
Fig. 6.
occurs between the points C and D in Fig. 1 so '
SI in zone I of Fig. 5, namely between the points
A and H, the mho relay M and the ohm relay ii
points A and B, the energizing circuit for the trip
coil 2 is immediately completed to e?ect the open
ing of the circuit interrupter I, The contacts 4
of the relay M and the contacts 5 of the ohm
relay' 0 are connected in series in an energizing
When a fault occurs on the line section
that the relay M is operated but the relay Bis not
are ‘both operated so that an energizing circuit
operated, the time relay 8 is energized and after
is immediately completed for the trip coil 2
being energized for a predetermined time inter
through the contacts 4 of the mho relay M and
val closes its contacts 9 in complete the energiz
ing circuitrof the trip coil 2 so as to effect the 60 the contacts 6 of the ohm relay 0 to e?ect the
opening of the circuit interrupter I.
opening of the circuit interrupter I.
When a fault occurs between the points C and
It will be observed that the improved relay
D at a point within the reach of the mho relay
arrangement shown in Fig. 3 instantaneous pro
M, namely within zone .2, an energizing circuit
tection is obtained whenever a fault occurs any
is completed for the time relay 8 through the
where on the protected line section AB of the
contacts 4’of the mho relay M and the contacts
electric circuit shown in Fig. 1.
5 of the ohm relay 0. After a predetermined time
While‘ I‘ have shown only one mho relay M and
one ohm relay in a single phase circuit in order
interval, the time relay 8 closes its contacts 9
and completes an energizing circuit for the trip
to simplify the disclosure, it will be obvious to
coil 2 of the circuit interrupter I.
those skilled in the art that when my improved
When a fault occurs on the line section S2 at
relay arrangement is used in connection with a
a point which is beyond the reach of the mho re
polyphase circuit, a similar set of relays will be
provided for each phase of the circuit.
lay M but within the reach of the mho relay
Ml, namely within zone 2,_ another circuit is
In Fig. 4, I have shown a modi?cation of the
control arrangement shown in Fig. 3 which is
completed for the time relay 8 through the‘con
2,405,080
5
6
tacts H] of the mho relay MI and the contacts ll
of the distance relay 0.
.
ternating current circuit having a series con
7
nected capacitor comprising a distance relay re
sponsive 'to faults on said circuit between the
When a fault occurs on either the line section
S3 or S4 at a point within the reach of the mho
point where said relay is connected to said cir
relay Ml but beyond the reach of the mho relay
cuit and a point on said circuit nearer said ca-'
M, namely within zone 3, the circuit of the time
pacitor, and an ohm relay having on a resist
relay [3 is completed through the contacts I!) of
ance-reactance polar diagram for said circuit an
the mho relay MI and the contacts 12 of the
impedance characteristic which crosses the por
ohm relay 0, and if the fault is not cleared be
tion of the fault impedance characteristic of said‘
fore the time relay t3 completes its timing op 10 circuit; representing the impedance of said ca
eration, an energizing circuit is completed for
pacitor and which is located on one side of the
the trip coil 2 when the relay l3 closes its con
portion of said fault impedance characteristic
tacts 14.
representing the impedance of the portion of
Therefore, it will be seen that the arrange
said circuit between said points.
ment shown in Fig. 4 provides three different 15
5. A relay protective arrangement for an ‘al
time zones, namely an instantaneous time zone
ternating current circuit having a series con
for faults which e?ect the operation of both the
nected capacitor comprising a distance relay re;
mho relay M and the ohm relay 0, a second time
sponsive to ‘faults on said circuit between the
zone for faults which effect the operation of the
point where said relay is connected to said cir_
mho relay M but do not effect the operation of 20 cuit and a point on said circuit nearer said ca
the ohm relay 0 and for faults which eifect the
pacitor, and an ohm relay having on a resist
operation of the mho relay MI and the ohm relay
ance-reactance polar diagram for said circuit‘
0 but not the operation of the mho relay M, and
an impedance characteristic which crosses the
a third zone for faults which effect only the
portion of the fault impedance characteristic of
operation of the mho relay M l.
'
said circuit representing the impedance of said
While I have, in accordance with the patent
capacitor and which is substantially parallel to
statutes, shown and described my invention as
the portion of said ‘fault impedance character
applied to a particular system and as embodying
istic representing the impedance of the portion of
various
devices
diagrammatically
indicated,
changes and modi?cations will be obvious to 30'
those skilled in the art, and I therefore aim in
the appended claims to cover all such changes
and modi?cations as fall within the true spirit
and scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
said circuit between said points.
a
6. A relay protective arrangement for an alter
nating current circuit having a series connected
capacitor comprising a distance relay responsive
to faults on said circuit between the point where
said relay is connected to said circuit and a pre
determined point on said circuit beyond said
Letters Patent of the United States, is:
l. A relay protective arrangement for an al
ternating current circuit having a series con
sistance-reactance polar diagram for said circuit
nected capacitor comprising an ohm relay con
nected to said circuit and having on a resist
portion of the fault impedance characteristic of
said circuit representing the impedance of ‘said
ance-reactance polar diagram for said circuit an
impedance characteristic which crosses the por
capacitor.
tion of the fault impedance characteristic of said
circuit representing the impedance of said ca
of a circuit interrupter in an alternating cur
capacitor, and an' ohm relay having on a re
an impedance characteristic which crosses the
"7. An arrangement for effecting the opening
pacitor and which does not cross the portion of
said fault impedance characteristic representing
the impedance of the portion of said circuit be
tween the points where said relay and capacitor,
rent circuit having a series ‘connected capacitor
comprising a distance relay responsive to faults
on said circuit between said interrupter and a
predetermined point on said circuit beyond said
capacitor, an ohm relay having on a resistance
reactance polar diagram for said circuit an im
2. A relay protective arrangement for an al- . . 'pedance characteristic which crosses the portion
are connected.
ternating current circuit having a series con
of the fault impedance characteristic of said cir
nected capacitor comprising an ohm relay con
cuit within the operating range of said distance
nected to said circuit and having on a resistance
relay only at a point within‘the portion repre
reactance polar diagram for said circuit an im
senting the impedance of said capacitor, means
pedance characteristic which crosses the portion F controlled by said relays for effecting an imme
of the fault impedance characteristic of said cir
diate opening of said circuit interrupter when
cuit representing the impedance of said capacitor
both of ‘said relays are operated in response to
and which is substantially parallel to thepor
a fault on said circuit,‘ and means controlled by
tion of said fault impedance characteristic rep
said relays for effecting a time delayed opening
resenting the impedance of the portion of said
vof said circuit interrupter when only said dis
circuit between the points where said relay and
tance relay is operated in response to a fault on
said capacitor are respectively connected.
said circuit.
' ‘
3. A relay protective arrangement for an al
8. An arrangement for effecting the opening
ternating current circuit having a series con
of a circuit interrupter in an alternating current
nected capacitor comprising a distance relay re
\ circuit having a series connected capacitor com
sponsive to faults on said circuit between the
prising a distance relay responsive to faults on
point where said relay is connected to said cir
said circuit between said interrupter and a point
cuit and a point on said circuit nearer said ca-I
pacitor, and an ohm relay having on a resist
ance-reactance polar diagram for said circuit an
impedance characteristic which crosses the por
tion of the fault impedance characteristic of said
circuit representing the impedance of said ca
pacitor.
'
‘
4Q A relay protective arrangement for an al
on said circuit nearer said capacitor, an ohm
relay having on a resistance-reactance polar dia
gram for said circuit an impedance characteristic
which crosses the portion of the fault impedance
characteristic of said circuit within the‘ oper
ating range of said distance relay only at a point
within the portion representing the impedance
75 of said capacitor, a timing device for e?ecting
2,405,080
7
the opening of said interrupter, contacts con
trolled by said relays and arranged to effect the
opening of ‘said interrupter independently of said
timing device when both of said relays are oper
ated in response to a fault on said circuit, and
contacts controlled by said relays and arranged
to effect the operation of said timing device when
only said distance relay is operated in response
to a fault on said circuit.
an opening of said circuit interrupter after a
predetermined time delay which is longer than
said ?rst mentioned time delay when said second
mho relay is operated but said ?rst mentioned
mho and ohm relays are not operated in response
to a fault on said circuit.
-
13. An arrangement for effecting the opening
of a circuit interrupter in an alternating current
circuit having a series connected capacitor com
9. A relay protective arrangement for an alter 10, prising a mho relay having from a predeter
mined Point on said circuit a predetermined reach
nating current circuit having a series connected
along said circuit in the direction of said capaci
capacitor comprising a mho relay having a pre
tor, a second mho relay having a longer reach
determined reach along said circuit in the direc
along said circuit from said point in the direc
tion of said capacitor and an ohm relay having
on a resistance-reactance polar diagram for said 1b tion of said capacitor than said ?rst mentioned
mho relay, an ohm relay having on a resistance
circuit an impedance characteristic which is lo
reactance polar diagram for said circuit an im
cated on one side of the portion of the fault
pedance characteristic which is located on one
impedance characteristic of said circuit repre
side of the portion of the fault impedance char
senting the impedance of said circuit between
the points thereof where said relays and capaci 20 acteristic of said circuit representing the imn
tor are connected and which crosses the portion
thereof representing the impedance of said capac
itor.
10. A relay protective arrangement for an al
ternating current circuit having a series con
pedance between said point and said capacitor
and which crosses the portion thereof represent
ing the impedance of said capacitor, and means
controlled by said relays for e?ecting an im
25 mediate opening of said circuit interrupter when
said ?rst mentioned mho relay and said ohm re
lay are both operated in response to a. fault on
a reach including all of the portion of said cir
said circuit and an opening of said circuit inter
cuit between the points where said relay and
rupter after a predetermined time delay when said
said capacitor are connected, and an ohm relay
having on a resistance-reactance polar diagram 30 ?rst mentioned mho relay is operated but said
ohm relay is not operated in response to a fault
for said circuit an impedance characteristic
on said circuit and also when said second mho
which is located on one side of the portion of
relay and said ohm relay are both operated but
the fault impedance characteristic of said cir
said ?rst mentioned mho relay is not operated
cuit representing the impedance between said
points and which crosses the portion thereof rep 35 in response to a fault on said circuit and an open
ing of said circuit interrupter after a predeter
resenting the impedance of said capacitor.
mined time delay which is longer than said ?rst
11. A relay protective arrangement for an al
mentioned time delay when said second mho re
ternating current circuit having a series con
lay is operated but said ?rst mentioned mho and
nected capacitor comprising a mho relay having
a reach extending from the point where said 40 ohm relays are not operated in response to a
fault on said circuit.
relay is connected to said circuit to a predeter
14. An arrangement for effecting the opening
mined point beyond said capacitor and an ohm
of a circuit interrupter at one end of one of a
relay having on a resistance-reactance polar dia
plurality of parallel connecting alternating cur
gram for said circuit an impedance character
istic which is located on one side of the portion 45 rent circuits which in turn are connected in a
series circuit containing a series capacitor, com
of the fault impedance characteristic of said cir
prising a distance relay having a predetermined
cuit representing the impedance between said
reach along said series circuit from said circuit
capacitor and the point where the distance relay
interrupter in the direction of said capacitor, a
is connected and which crosses the portion there
of representing the impedance of said capacitor. 50 second distance relay having a longer reach along
said series circuit from said circuit interrupter
12. An. arrangement for effecting the opening
in said direction than said ?rst mentioned dis
of a circuit interrupter in an alternating current
tance relay, an ohm relay having on a resistance
circuit having a series connected capacitor com
reactance polar diagram for said series circuit an
prising a mho relay having from a predetermined
point on said circuit a predetermined reach along 55 impedance characteristic which is located on one
side of the portion of the fault impedance char
said circuit in the direction of said capacitor, a
acteristic of said series circuit representing the
second mho relay having from said point a longer
impedance between said circuit interrupter and
reach along said circuit in the direction of said
said capacitor and which crosses the portion
capacitor than said ?rst mentioned mho relay, an
ohm relay having on a resistance-reactance polar 60 thereof representing the impedance of said ca
pacitor, and means controlled by said relays for
diagram for said circuit an impedance charac
effecting an immediate opening of said circuit
teristic which is located on one side of the por
interrupter when said ?rst mentioned distance
tion of the fault impedance characteristic of
and said ohm relays are both operated in re
said circuit representing the impedance between
said point and said capacitor and which crosses 65 sponse to a fault on said series circuit and an
opening of said circuit interrupter after a pre
the portion thereof representing the impedance
determined time delay when said ?rst mentioned
of said capacitor, and means controlled by said
distance relay is operated but said ohm relay
relays for effecting an immediate opening of said
is not operated in response to a fault on said
circuit interrupter when said ?rst mentioned
mho relay and said ohm relay are both operated 70 series circuit and also when said second distance
and said ohm relays are both operated but said
in response to a fault on said circuit and an
?rst mentioned distance relay is not operated in
opening of said circuit interrupter after a pre
response to a fault on said series circuit.
determined time delay when said ?rst mentioned
15. An arrangement for effecting the opening
vmho relay is operated but said ohm relay is not
operated in response to a fault on said circuit and 75 of a circuit interrupter at one end of one of a
nected capacitor comprising a mho relay having
2,405,080
9
10
plurality of parallel connected alternating cur
mentioned distance relay is operated in response
rent circuits which in turn are connected in a
series circuit containing a series capacitor, com
to a fault on said series circuit.
prising a distance relay having a predetermined
reach along said series circuit from said circuit
interrupter in the direction of said capacitor, a
second distance relay having a longer reach along
said series circuit from said circuit interrupter
in said direction than said ?rst mentioned dis
of a circuit interrupter in an alternating current
circuit having a series connected capacitor com
tance relay, an ohm relay having on a resistance
reactance polar diagram for said series circuit
16. An arrangement for effecting the opening
prising a distance relay having from a predeter
mined point on said circuit a predeterminedareach
along said circuit in the direction of said ca
pacitor, a second distance relay having from said
10 point a longer reach along said circuit in said
direction than said ?rst mentioned distance re
an impedance characteristic which is located on
one side of the portion of the fault impedance
lay, an ohm relay having on a resistance-re
actance polar diagram for said circuit an im
characteristic of said series circuit representing
pedance characteristic which is located on one
the impedance between said circuit interrupter 15 side of the portion of the fault impedance char
and said capacitor and which crosses the portion
acteristic of said circuit representing the imped
thereof representing the impedance of said ca
ance between said point and said capacitor and
pacitor, and means controlled by said relays for
which crosses the portion thereof representing
effecting an immediate opening of said circuit
the impedance of said capacitor, and means con
interrupter when said ?rst mentioned distance 20 trolled by said relays for effecting an immediate
and said ohm relays are both operated in re
opening of said circuit interrupter when said
sponse to a fault on said series circuit and an
?rst mentioned distance and said ohm relays are
opening of said circuit interrupter after a pre
both operated in response to a fault on said cir
determined time delay when said ?rst mentioned
cuit and an opening of said circuit interrupter
distance relay is operated but said ohm relay is 25 after a predetermined time delay when said ?rst
mentioned distance relay is operated but said ohm
not operated in response to a fault on said series
circuit and also when said second distance and
said ohm relays are both operated but said ?rst
mentioned distance relay is not operated in re
relay is not operated in response to a fault on
said circuit and an opening of said circuit inter
rupter after a predetermined time delay which
sponse to a fault on said series circuit and an 30 is longer than said ?rst mentioned time delay
opening of said circuit interrupter after a pre
when only said second mentioned distance relay
determined time delay which is longer than said
?rst mentioned time delay when only said second
is operated in response to a fault on said circuit.
ALBERT R. VAN C. WARRINGTON.
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