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Патент USA US2405135

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Aug. 6, 1946.
Filed ‘July 5, 1940.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
1%- 7
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Orville K. Butzbach, South Bend, Ind, assignor
to The Studebaker Corporation, South Bend,
Ind., a corporation of Delaware
Application July 5, 1940, Serial No. 343,938
.6 Claims. (Cl. 60—-54)
sponsive valve which functions to control the ?ow
of fluid passing into the reservoir from the unit
This invention relates to transmissions and
more particularly is directed to control means for
increasing the e?iciency of a fluid coupling or
and thus in turn controls the delivery from the
reservoir into the unit by the pump.
Other objects and advantages of the present
invention will appear more fully from the follow
torque converter used in conjunction with a gear
box for transmitting power from the engine into
the gear box to drive a, vehicle such as an auto
ing detailed description which, taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanying drawings, will dis
close to those skilled in the art the particular
converters and ?uid couplings heretofore used
that considerable di?iculty is encountered in the ll) construction and operation of preferred forms of
the present invention.
operation of such members due to the fact that
In the drawings:
the ?uid used under some conditions of operation
Figure l is a somewhat diagrammatic eleva
heats up to a suf?cient extent to, in effect, burn
tional view of a power unit assembly embodying
out the member and render it practically inop
erative. This is especially true in connection with 16 the present invention;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view through
devices using a. closed circuit which, when high
a torque converter unit showing the thermostatic
torque is imposed through the member, produce
means for controlling operation of the liquid cir
heating of the ?uid to an extent such that it
culating system;
loses its viscosity and consequently its torque
mobile, truck or the like.
It has been found in connection with torque
transmitting ability.
Even in devices of the type in which an open
circuit is employed the rate of ?ow of the ?uid is
Figure 3 is an enlarged detailed view of the
thermally responsive valve in the impeller of the
torque converter;
Figure 4 is a transverse section taken on line
sometimes insu?icient to eiiect the desired cooling
4-4 of Figure 2;
and still maintain the desired pressure within
Figure 5 is an elevational view of a modi?ed
the unit.
form of valve construction;
The present invention has for one of its primary
Figure 6 is a plan View of the valve shown in
objects the provision of a ?uid coupling or torque
Figure 5;
converter unit which is so designed as to provide
for automatic discharge of the fluid from the unit
Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view through a
when the temperature of the ?uid reaches a pre- '
determined point and simultaneously therewith
provides for introduction into the unit, under
pressure, of cooled ?uid at a substantially greater
rate than in normal operation to compensate for
the faster rate of withdrawal required because of
the increase in temperature of the ?uid within
the unit.
?uid coupling including a thermally controlled
valve mechanism in the impeller;
Figure 8 is an enlarged sectional view through
the valve mechanism shown in Figure '7;
Figure 9 is a sectional view taken on line 8-9
of Figure 8;
Figure 10 is a sectional view of a modi?ed form
of a thermally responsive valve;
Figure 11 is a sectional view of the electrically
controlled valve in the ?uid return line;
In this invention I preferably provide thermo
static means in the housing of the unit responsive
Figure 12 is an elevational view of the valve
to a predetermined temperature therein for open 40
gate shown in Figure 11; and
ing a valve in the fluid line to provide an increased
Figure 13 is a partial sectional view of a fur
withdrawal of liquid from the unit and an in
ther form of the invention.
creased volume of liquid to pass to the unit from
Referring now in detail to the embodiment of
the ?uid reservoir and cooler. In addition, ther
mally responsive means within the unit itself is ' the invention shown in Figures 1 to 4, inclusive,
provided which operates when the liquid within
the unit reaches a predetermined temperature to
open a valve effective for dumping the heated
liquid out of the unit at a much greater rate than
normal leakage therethrough.
Still another feature of the present invention
is the provision of a fluid reservoir arranged to
function also as a cooler to insure cooling of the
liquid withdrawn from the unit with the provi
sion of an electrically controlled thermally re
the main engine or power source is indicated at
5 and may be an internal combustion engine or
Diesel engine of conventional design provided
with a pulley {3 carried by the crank shaft and
50 adapted to drive, through the fan belt l3, the fan
pulley l secured to the fan shaft carrying the fan
8. A suitable supporting bracket 9 is mounted
at one side of the engine block for carrying a
rotatable shaft Ill which at one end is provided
65 with a pulley l2 driven by the fan belt l3 and at
the opposite end is connected to a ?uid pump l4
the packing 59 carried within the nut Bil. The
having an inlet connection 15 and an outlet con
nection I6.
which has one terminal of the coil thereof con
Mounted rearwardly of the engine 5 and se
cured to the flywheel housing thereof is a housing
nected to ground through the conductor 63 and
the opposite terminal thereof connected through
stem 53 is adapted to extend into a solenoid 62
member il' adapted to enclose a ?uid torque con
the conduit 64 to the thermally sensitive member
and through the switch 66 to the battery 67.
a rearward extension l8 within which is located
The switch 55 may be a conventional ignition
the gearing of the transmission and out of which
switch or the like and the thermally sensitive
extends the output shaft is provided with the 10 member 55 as shown in Figure 7 may be pro
companion ?ange 2:’) of a universal joint adapted
vided with a pair of contact members 68 and 63
to be connected to the propeller shaft of the
extending into the interior of the housing ll and
formed of suitable bimetal or the like so as to
warp into contact in response to a predetermined
The housing i ‘l, as shown more in detail in
Figure 2, is provided internally with the stator 15 temperature within the housing, This closes the
blades 22 preferably cast integrally therewith.
circuit between the battery 6'5 and the solenoid
verter or the like, the housing member ll having
Cooperating therewith is the rotatable impeller
energizing the solenoid and thereby exerting
23 secured in the ?anged end 24 of the shaft 25
of the engine by means of circumferentially
an upward lifting force on the valve stem 53. The
valve member 5?, as shown clearly in Figure 12,
spaced bolts 22%.
referably, the impeller mem 20 has a slotted or bifurcated end portion defining
ber 23 is provided with a starter gear 27 whereby
the opening
and also provided with an aper
suitable starting mechanism can be geared there~
ture 72,
to for turning over the engine for starting, J our
The aperture ‘l2 in normal position of the valve
naled in the recessed end 28 of the crank shaft
disposed in the valve passageway 23% as to
25 is a driven shaft 29 having a splined portion 36 25 provide for metered ?ow of fluid from the conduit 45 to the conduit 4-7, Upon energizing of
upon which is mounted the hub 32 of the turbine
the solenoid the valve is raised against the pres
or rotor 33. This shaft 29 extends rearwardly
through a suitably journaled portion 34 formed
in the housing ll and thence into the transmis
sion portion 13 of the housing. The operation.
passageway to provide a full open port between
of the torque converter in and of itself is more
the conduits 45 and 4i, thereby allowing the
or less conventional and therefore no detailed de
pump to withdraw the maximum amount of ?uid
from the sump 43 in the housing ll.
scription of its construction or operation is be
lieved necessary, since the present invention is
sure of the spring "93 encircling the valve stem,
thereby moving the slotted portion ‘it into the
Considering now in detail the valve members
carried by the impeller 23, of which three or four
may be provided about the periphery of the im
peller, each valve member comprises a valve body
portion ‘l5 secured to the interior of the radially
sageway 35 connected through the nipple 36 to a
outer periphery of the impeller by means of cap
?uid input line 31 connected at Hi to the outlet
side of the pump l4. From the passageway 35 40 bolts 76. It is to be understood that the valves
may be arranged adjacent the hub of the im
?uid under pressure is introduced through the
peller, as shown in Figure 13. The valve body
port 38 into the chamber 39 and thence ?nds its
‘55 is provided with a radially extending port or
way through the passageway 40 into the interior
passageway ‘H which is counterbored as indi
of the torque converter. Obviously, if the torque
equally applicable to all standard types of torque
The housing I‘! is provided with an inlet pas
converter rotates to .drive the shaft 29 a certain
cated at '33 to receive a ball check valve '19 nor~
portion of this ?uid is discharged centrifugally
through the outlet indicated generally at 42 and
mally held closed by the spring (it. Disposed
radially inwardly of the ball check valve '19 is a
thence runs downwardly into the sump or recess
rotatable valve plug 82 which projects laterally
of the valve body 75 and has its projecting end
83 connected to a coiled thermally responsive
element ‘M. The element 84 is adapted to ex
the sump 43 and ?uid is conducted through the
pand and contract in response to temperature
conduit 45 to the inlet side of a valve generally
changes thereby exerting a rotative force upon
indicated at 46. From the valve 46 a suitable
the end 3-3 of the plug 82, thus rotating the valve
conduit 47 conducts the ?uid into the upper end
of a ?uid reservoir 48 mounted in any suitable 55 plug from a position in which the passageway 85
thereof is disposed crossways of the valve pas
manner on the side of the engine block. The
sageway 7‘! into the position shown in Figure 3
reservoir 48 has a drain plug 59 for withdrawing
in which the valve port is open. Opening of
sediment therefrom, and is also provided with an
this valve port when the impeller is rotating at
outlet connection 50 extending through a conduit
52 to the inlet connection |~5 on the pump M. 60 relatively high speed results in oil passing radi
ally outwardly through the passageway '.'l and,
The reservoir 48 is preferably provided with radi_
ally extending ?ns 53 which act as heat dissipat
due to the centrifugal force, the ball check valve
'19 is displaced radially outwardly from its seat
ing means for maintaining the ?uid within the
against the pressure of the spring allowing dis—
reservoir relatively cool. Similarly, the entire
charge of ?uid from the interior of the torque
piping for the unit enclosed within the housing
converter radially outwardly through the valve
!'l is disposed at the side of the engine block
and consequently into the sump 43.
where it will be subjected to air passing over the
engine and consequently maintained cool.
Preferably the system is so designed that the
Considering now Figures 11 and 12, the valve
thermally sensitive element 65 will energize the
46’ includes a valve body formed into cooperating
circuit to the solenoid 62 to open the valve 6%
halves 54 and 55 which are suitably closed by
either simultaneously with or slightly prior to
means of screws 56. Within the valve body there
movement of the valve plug 82 into open posi
is mounted a sliding valve member or gate 57,
tion. As the valve plug moves to open position
shown more in detail in Figure 12, having a valve
and the ?uid is discharged from the torque con
stem or guide 58 extending outwardly through " verter into the conduit 45 the pump will be capa
43 formed at the lower end of the housing IT.
A suitable outlet connection 44 is provided for ’
ble of withdrawing an increased volume of ?uid,
43'. A suitable spring I20 is provided to normally
cooling the same in the reservoir 48 and then
forcing this increased volume of ?uid back to the
torque converter through the passageway 35 and
port 38.
In the valve construction shown in Figures 5
and 6 the impeller 23 is provided with a series
of circumferentially spaced radial ports 90 com
municating with the interior thereof. The ports
90 are adapted to be normally closed by means
of rotatable valve member 92 which valve member
is provided with port openings 93 adapted, when
rotated about the pin 94, to aline with the open
ings 90 providing discharge of ?uid from the in
terior of the torque converter through the alined
openings 90 and 93 into the sump 43.
To produce this rotation the valve member 92
is provided with means for receiving the end 95
of a coiled thermally responsive element which
at its opposite end is anchored to the pin 94, 20
this pin being secured in the impeller 23 with the
valve member 92 being rotatable with respect
thereto. Upon heating of the ?uid within the
impeller the element 96 tends to expand thereby
tending to wrap itself in a clockwise direction 25
about the pin 94. As a result, the end 95 imposes
a rotating thrust on the valve body 92 moving
its openings 93 into alinement with the ports 90
in the impeller thereby providing for discharge
of the ?uid from within the torque converter.
It is apparent that either of the valve mech
anisms shown in Figures 3 and 4, or 5 and 6 can
be provided in the torque converter shown in
Figure 2.
In Figures 7 to 9 I have disclosed a ?uid cou
pling arrangement embodying the present in
vention. In this form the housing I'I' encloses
the impeller I00 and the rotor I02 forming the
component parts of the ?uid coupling. The im
peller I00 is bolted or otherwise secured to the
?anged end of the crankshaft I03 of the engine
while the rotor I02 is splined, as indicated at
I04, to the driven shaft I05 journaled at its for
ward end in a recessed portion of the crankshaft
I03 and at its opposite end 20’ in the Web I06
of the housing IT’ to extend into the transmis
sion. Fluid from the outlet side of the pump is
conducted through the conduit 31 and ?tting 36
into the coupling through the passageway 35'
and ports 38' in the rotor. At its lower end the 50
housing I1’ is provided with a sump 43' con
nected to the ?tting 44 of the conduit 45.
The impeller I00 is provided adjacent its
radial periphery with a series of boss portions I01
in each of which is formed a valve passageway 55
I08, as shown in detail in Figure 8, this passage
way being normally closed by a ball check valve
I09 held in position by the spring I I0. Disposed
maintain the bushing or collar I22 on the valve
stem H3 in position, blocking the passage I I8 but
this spring is insu?icient to resist the biasing
force of the thermally responsive element IIG
when the predetermined temperature has been
reached. It is to be understood, of course, that
centrifugal force will move the ball check valve
I09 away from its seat to open the passageway
I08 to the interior of the coupling.
In Figure 10 I have shown a modi?ed form of
valve which is disposed at a slight angle with re
spect to the axis of the impeller I00. In this
form of the invention a suitable valve seat I25
is disposed in a bored out portion I26 located be
tween the valve passageways I21 and I28. A suit
ably headed valve member I29 carried in the
bushing I30 for sliding movement engages the
valve seat I25 to normally close communication
between passageways I21 and I28. However, the
outer end of the valve member I29 indicated at
I32 is connected to the bimetallic thermally re
sponsive element I33 anchored by the screws I34
to the impeller. Upon warping of the element
I33 in response to a predetermined temperature
the Valve I29 is moved away from the seat I25
and allows discharge of ?uid from the interior
of the impeller through the passageways I21 and
I28 to the ball check valve I35. The check Valve
I35 is spring pressed into closed position but cen
trifugal force will displace it from its seat and
allow the discharge of ?uid outwardly through
the passageway I36 to the sump 43’,
In Figure 13 I have provided a structure which
may be embodied in the impeller adjacent its hub
portion in place of the peripheral portion. One
of the advantages of such a location is the fact
that no check valve is necessary to counteract the
centrifugal force. It is to be understood that
while the valve structure in all of the forms of
the invention is disclosed as being located on
the impeller it may be located on either the rotor
or stator, if so desired.
Considering Figure 13 in detail, the impeller
I00 is bolted to the crank shaft I03, as previously
described. Adjacent this connection the im
peller is provided with a bore I38 having a tu
bular seat portion I39 and a valve passageway
I4I leading to the outside of the unit. Disposed
over the bore is a circular disk I40 formed of
a bimetal material which is provided with several
apertures I42 for permitting oil or ?uid to pass
therethrough into the bore I38. The disk I40
may -be brazed or otherwise secured to the inner
wall of the impeller and is provided with the ex
tending valve stem I43 normally adapted to have
seating engagement at the free end thereof on
the valve seat I39. The bimetallic disk I40,
when subjected to a predetermined temperature,
in a position normal to the passageway I08 is a
recessed portion I I2 in which is mounted a valve 60 snaps from the position shown into a concave
position indicated by dotted lines, thus opening
stem member II3 having a collar or piston II4
the valve bore I4I allowing the discharge of ?uid
slidably supported in the passageway H2. The
from the unit therethrough. Such disks are well
opposite end of the valve stem H3 is provided
known and are sold under the trade name of
with a slotted opening II5 within which is dis
posed the central portion of an arcuate bimetal 65 “Klixon” and can be designed to snap from one
position to the other at any desired temper
lic thermally responsive member H6 which at a
ature. With such a construction the snap ac
predetermined temperature is adapted to warp
tion of the valve eliminates any possibility of
in the opposite direction thereby moving the
chattering or the like and at all times that the
valve stem II3 to the left as viewed in Figure 8,
causing the reduced portion II‘I thereof to move 70 temperature within the unit is below the pre
determined point the tension in the disk I40 will
into alinement with the reduced passageway H8
serve to press the valve ?rmly against its seat.
leading from the valve port I98 and providing for
It is therefore believed apparent that I have
discharge of ?uid from the passageway I08 into
provided a novel thermally responsive control
the recess II2. From the recess II2 the ?uid is
discharged through the port II9 into the sump 75 for insuring the maintenance of the proper tem
perature of the oil within the torque converter
or ?uid coupling thereby maintaining the same
e?icient regardless of torque and heat produced
I am aware that various changes may be made
in certain details of the present invention and
I therefore do not intend to be limited except
as de?ned by the scope and spirit of the ap
second valve in said passageway normally closing
the same, and a thermally responsive element for
opening said second valve, said second valve
being disposed anterior to said check valve in
said passageway.
4. In a unit having ?uid connected driving
and driven members, a valve passageway in the
periphery of one of said members, a centrifugally
controlled check valve in said passageway, a
pended claims.
10 second valve in said passageway normally clos
ing the same, and a thermally responsive ele
1. In combination, an engine, a ?uid torque
ment for opening said second valve, said second
transmitting unit driven from said engine, a
valve being located on the outlet side of said
?uid circuit for said unit including a cooling
check valve.
reservoir and a pump, a valve in said circuit
5. In a unit having ?uid connected driving
externally of said unit having means for vary
and driven members, a valve passageway in the
ing the ?ow of ?uid therethrough, electrically
periphery of one of said members, a centrifugally
operable means for actuating said valve, ther
controlled check valve in said passageway, a
mally responsive means in said unit for ener
second valve in said passageway normally clos
gizing said actuating means, and secondary
thermally responsive valve means in said unit 20 ing the same, and a thermally responsive element
connected to rotate said second valve to open
for increasing the rate of discharge of ?uid from
position under predetermined temperatures in
said unit upon a predetermined rise in temper
said unit.
ature of said ?uid.
6. In a unit having fluid connected driving
2. In a unit having ?uid connected driving
and driven members, a valve passageway in the 25 and driven members, a valve passageway in the
periphery of one of said members, a centrifugally
periphery of one of said members, a centrifugally
controlled check valve in said passageway, a
controlled check valve in said passageway, a
second valve in said passageway normally clos
second valve in said passageway normally closing
ing the same, and a thermally responsive ele
the same, and a thermally responsive element for
opening said second valve.
30 ment connected to shift said second valve
axially to valve-open position upon said ?uid
3. In a unit having ?uid connected driving
reaching a predetermined temperature.
and driven members, a valve passageway in the
periphery of one of said members, a centrifugally
controlled check valve in said passageway, a
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