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Патент USA US2405159

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Aug. .6, 194%.!
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Emw,
LLER‘
METHOD AND MAC a E
FINISHING THE TEETH
OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LI
Filed May 15, 1941
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$946,359
METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH ’
OF‘ GEAR SHAV'ING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE
Filed May 15. 1941
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PZIETHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH
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QF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE
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MILLER
METHOD AND MACHINE
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THE-TEETH
,OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE
Filed May 15, 1941
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METHOD AND MACHINE FORYFINISHING THE TEETH
OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE
Filed May 15 1941
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Aug. 6, i946.
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E . W . NIILLER
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0F GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE
‘Filed May 15, 1,941
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METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH
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2,405,159
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
UNITED STATE s
PATENT OFFICE
2,405,159
METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE
TEETH OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND
THE LIKE
Edward W. Miller, Spring?eld, Vt., assignor to
The Fellows Gear Shaper Company, Spring
?eld, Vt., a corporation of Vermont
'
Application May 15, 1941, Serial No. 393,554
18 Claims. (Cl. 90—8)
1
2 .
Fig. 8 is a vertical section of the machine taken
on line 8-8 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view taken on line
The subject of this invention is concerned with
means for performing a ?nishing operation, by
cutting action, on the teeth of shaving cutters
and other tools and machine elements having
features characteristic of gears. The speci?c em
bodiment of the invention here presented for 11
lustration is designed to cut grooves or slots in
the tooth faces of gear shaving cutters. Such
cutters are well known in the art.
rapidly than heretofore, and Without need of per
forming a depth feed in order to extend the cut
ting e?ect to a prescribed depth in the work, and
to accomplish other useful results which are ex
plained in the following description.
The principles of the invention are hereinafter
explained with reference to drawings of a ma
chine illustrating the preferred embodiment of
_
Fig. 1 of the drawings is in part a front eleva
tion, and in part a vertical section of the machine
-
Fig. 10 is a sectional view taken on line Ill-I0
of Figs. 4 and 8, looking from front to rear;
Fig. 11 is a rear elevation of the machine;
Fig. 12 is an elevation of a detail of the indexing
mechanism;
They are like ‘
gears in having teeth conjugate to the gears
which they are designed to ?nish, but differ from
ordinary machine gears in that they are made
of a steel composition, or other alloy, sufficiently
hard to provide metal-cutting edges, and are pro
vided with a multiplicity of such edges, in the
sides of their teeth, in tandemarrangement be
tween the ends of, the teeth.
However, the invention is not limited to means
for performing the speci?c slotting or grooving
operation above referred to but may, as will later
appear, be used for otherwise ?nishing gear teeth
and the surfaces of other elements similar or
analogous to gears.
The particular objects of the invention are to
accomplish the result of so ?nishing teeth in ‘an
improved manner, to perform the operation more
these principles.
9-9 of Fig. 8;
10
Fig. 13 is a plan view of the parts shown in
Fig. 12‘; '
Fig. 14 is a horizontal section taken on line
lid-I74 of Figs. 1 and 4;
Fig. 15 is an axial section of a clutching device
15 which appears in elevation, and on a smaller
scale, in Fig. 14;
Figs. 16, 17 and 18 are diagrammatic views
illustrating the progress of the cutting action on
a single tooth of, the work piece.
Like reference characters designate the same
20
parts wherever they occur in all the ?gures.
Referring to Fig. 5, there is shown in plan view
a tooth t of a conventional gear ?nishing tool.
Such tool is made of metal or alloy of a character
25 suitable for metal cutting tools; it has teeth sim
ilar to gear teeth, which may be either straight
or helical, and are conjugate to the teeth of the \
gears which it is designed to shave; and a num
ber of slots or grooves g are cut in the sides of
each tooth, extending from the crest toward the
root, the intersections of which slots with the
side faces of the teeth form cutting edges e. Such
slots are produced by the operation of this ma
chine with the aid of a- cutter C, shown in detail
in Fig. 6, which is provided with ribs r of the
width prescribed for the slots g, separated by
spaces 8. The bounding edges a of the ribs at the
extremity of the cutter perform the cutting ac
tion. Ordinarily the spaces 8 are deeper than
referred to, the plane of section being indicated
by the line l-i of Figs. 4 and 8;
40 the slots to be cut in the work piece, whereby they
Fig. 2 is a sectional View of a detail of the ma
leave‘ untouched lands on the side faces of the
chine taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
work piece teeth t, the widths of which are de
Fig. 3 is a section on line 3—3 of Fig. 2;
termined by the widths of the spaces s. But the
Fig. 4 is a vertical section on a front to ‘rear
inner boundaries of such spaces at the end of
plane on line 4—4 of Figs. 1, 10 and 11;
45 the cutter may likewise be disposed and serve as
Fig. 5 is a detail view of one of the teeth of
cutting edges, as when it is desired to shape the
a shaving tool showing the results of the ?nishing
lands of the work piece teeth with cutting clear
operation performed by the machine here illus-<
ance between the corresponding edges e of ad
jacent grooves.
trated;
'
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the operating
The slotting operation is performed by recipro
tool with which the machine is equipped to cut
cating the cutter C rapidly endwise while the gear
the slots illustrated in Fig. 5;
V
shaving cutter or tool, which will hereinafter gen
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view illustrating an
erally be referred to as the work and is designated
adjustment of the tool for operating on helical
teeth;
'
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.
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in the drawings by the reference character W, is
55 slowly rolled past it.v Cutter .0 is mounted on the
2,405,159
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4
upper end of a ram or cutter carrier 1, which re
ciprocates endwise in guides 2 and 3, suitably
mounted in the machine base 4. The ram is thus
reciprocated by a main shaft 5, rotated by an elec
tric motor 6 through a belt 1 and pulley 8, the
shaft having a crank pin 9 coupled by a connect
ing rod ID with a lever ll pivoted at 42. A gear
segment I3 is carried by lever l I and meshes with
encircling rack teeth M on the ram.
The con
ram is of cylindrical form, at least as to those
portions which occuply the guide 2 and which
contain the teeth 14; and the guide 3 is rotatable
in a stationary sleeve bearing 4| and on a thrust
supporting clamp ring 42 mounted in the base; the
ram and guide 3 being provided with suitable
means 43 (Fig. 14), in the nature of splines, to
prevent independent rotation of one relatively to
the other. Guide 3 is provided with a ?ange hav
necting rod H1 is made of telescopic construction, 10 ing worm gear teeth 44 meshing with a worm 45
extensible in length, the crank pin 9 is adjust
ona shaft 46 which protrudes from the forward
able radially of the main shaft 5, and the pivot 15
side of the machine base and is adapted to be
by which the connecting rod is coupled to lever
turned by a wrench or crank mounted on its
ll may be placed in either of two holes IS in the
squared end 47. A clamp screw 48 (Fig, 8) having
lever, whereby a wide range of adjustment is made
an operating handle 139 locks the ram in its ad
possible, affecting both the length of the cutter
justments by forcing ring 42 toward the toothed
stroke and the location of its path, to accom
flange of the ram guide 3 and thereby clamping
modate larger or smaller work pieces.
said ?ange against a stationary shoulder 50.
Provision is made for relieving the cutter so
Thus the ram may be turned through any angle,
that it will not rub on the work during its re 20 the extent of which may be measured by a scale,
tracting strokes. This is accomplished by mount
not here shown. The cutter C is preferably ar
ing the cutter head I‘! (which is provided with
ranged with the edged portion of its cutting end
jaws l8 and i9, between which the shank of the
intersecting the axis of the ram.
cutter is clamped by a screw 20)‘, pivotally on the
The work piece W is secured to one end of a
ram and swinging it about its pivot in time with 25 spindle 5i mounted rotatably in a rolling head
the reciprocations of the rain. 'The pivotal con
52, which is in turn rotatably supported by a car
nection is made by a pin 2| secured in the cutter
riage 53. The carriage is mounted for recipro
head and extending at opposite ends into alined
cating travel on guideways 54, the latter being
bearings in the ram, as shown in Fig. 8. This
supported on the machine base at one side of the
pivot is perpendicular to the path of the ram and
upper end of the ram and preferably in a plane
parallel to the width dimension of the cutter.
inclined to the strokes of the ram and cutter.
An arm 22, forming part of the cutter head, de
As appears from the drawings, the spindle 5i
pends in the hollow interior of the ram and has a
and rolling head 52 are coaxial, and their com
cam surface 23 in a plane parallel to pivot 2| and
mon axis is parallel to the plane above referred
inclined to the path of-the ram. A wedge block
to and extends in a direction transverse both to
24 is ?tted to a guideway in the‘ ram, so‘ that it
the direction of carriage travel and to the path
may move lengthwise of the latter, andhas a
of the cutter. In one point in the travel of the
cam surface complemental to the before men
carriage, this axis intersects and is perpendicular
tioned cam surface 23, against which the latter is
to the directions in which the cutter moves in its
held in engagement by a spring pressed plunger 40 path, and in the other positions it is parallel to
25. The wedge block is coupled by a rod 26 with
a line intersecting and perpendicular to said path.
a piston 27 ?tted to a cylinder 28 in the lower
One end of the spindle protrudes from the rolling
end of the ram.
head and carriage, and is provided with work
clamping means so located as to secure work
Piston 2'5 is moved in opposite directions pneu
matically under control of the main shaft 5. 45 pieces within the operating range of the cutter.
Ports opening into opposite ends of the cylinder
Rolling movement, compounded of rotation about
are connected by ?exible tubes 29 and 3D, respec
tively, with a valve casing 3! mounted in the ma
its axis and translation of its axis in a plane
parallel to the guideways 54, is transmitted to the
chine base. A rotary valve 32 in the valve casing
work from the rolling head. The rotary com
is geared to the main shaft by gears 33 and 34 to 50 pcnent of this movement is produced by force ap
rotate once with each rotation of the shaft.
plied to the rolling head through an arm 5'! (Fig.
Passageways 35 and 36 are provided in the ro
tating valve and other passageways 31 and 38 are
10) keyed to the rolling head, (whereby the lat
ter is turned in its bearings in the carriage 53),
provided in the casing, substantially as shown in
and is transmitted to the work piece by a re
Figs. 2 and 3, suitably arranged so as to connect 55 tractable locking pin 55 carried by an arm 56
the tubes 29 and 3t] alternately with an air sup
on the rolling head and projecting between ad
ply pipe 39 and an exhaust pipe“. These pas
jacent teeth of the work piece; while the transla
sages are likewise arranged to maintain air pres
sure on the upper end of piston 21 during the up
displacement of the carriage on the guideways 54,
tive component is produced in one direction by
ward or working stroke of the cutter carrier and 60 effected by a cam or former 58 carried by the roll
to maintain pressure on the lower end-of the pis
ing head actingagainst a stationary abutment 59.
ton, relieving the pressure from its upper end,
A spring 68, compressed between an abutment 6|
during the down strokes of the cutter. Down
ward force exerted by the piston 21 on wedge block
on the guideway structure and 3. lug 62 on the
carriage, cooperates with the former 58 in dis
2llcauses the arm 22 to be displaced by cam ac 65 placing the ‘carriage in the opposite direction.
tion against an abutment surface in the ram,
By virtue of the arrangement thus shown and
thereby placing and holding the extremity of the
described, the reciprocations of the cutter occur
cutter in its cutting path; while upward move
in directions crosswise of the work piece teeth,
ment of the wedge allows the spring of plunger
that is, transversely the length thereof or in the
25 to displace the cutter far enough to avoid rub 70 crest-to-root direction and vice versa.
bing on the work during its retracting strokes.
Various means may be employed for moving
The ram i may be rotated about its longitu
arm 51 to obtain the desired effect, That here
dinal axisfor adjusting the cutter to work pieces
illustrated consists of the following mechanism.
having spur teeth and to those having helical
A worm 63 on the main or drive shaft 5 meshes
teeth of any degree of helix angle. Hence the 75 with a worm gear 64 on a short shaft 65, from
2,405,159
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5'
which power is transmitted to a shaft 66 through
a' pair of changeable gears 61, 68. A worm 69
on shaft 65 meshes with a worm gear (not shown)
on a cam shaft ‘Hi, to which a cam ‘H is made
fast. Cam ‘ll acts on one arm of a lever 12, piv
oted on a supporting shaft 73; and the other arm
of lever 12 is connected by a pivot 14 with an ex
with involutes of all base circles within- a wide
range to be ?nished on the same machine.
It is not essential in slotting or grooving in
volute teeth that the bottoms of the grooves be
of uniform depth or, in other words, that they be
involute curves of the same base circle as the tooth
faces. But it is desirable that‘their curvature
be approximately the same as that of thetooth .
tensible and contractable connecting rod 15
faces‘and be displaced uniformly from such faces.
which, in turn, is coupled to arm 51 by a pivot
16 adjustably mounted in a radial slot'll in the‘ 10 The provisions here made and above described for
controlling the rolling motion of the work enable
this effect to be secured. They also enable gears
In the arrangement as shown in Figs. 1 and 10,
and the like to be ?nished with accurate involute
upward movement of the lever arm which bears
arm.
.
on ‘cam ll turns the rolling head 52 in clockwise
faces when a cutter is used having a continuous
rotation, causing the carriage to be moved from 15 straight cutting edge without the interruptions or
offsets of such edge caused by the spaces 8 herein
left toright and bringing a tooth of the work
into operative relation with the cutter, gradually
from its crest to its root. The amplitude of roll
ing movement thus imparted, which may be ap
shown.
~
Due to the speed reduction occasioned by the
reducing gears 61, 68 and ‘ the two worm and
propriately varied by adjustment of the radial po 20 wheel couples in the transmission train between
the crank shaft 5 and the cam shaft 10, the cut
sition of pivot 16 and the length of connecting
ter is caused to make a great many strokes dur
rod 15, is such as to roll the work wholly clear of
ing the rolling traverse of a single tooth of the
the cutter when the carriage is displaced in the
work. Such number of strokes may be in the
opposite direction. The form of cam ‘H is such
as to cause the advancing movement of the work 25 order of several hundreds or thousands, and may
be widely varied by substitutions of different gear
in rolling toward'thev cutter to continue during
pairs for the change gears 61 and 53. This rapid
a. major proportion of the rotation of the cam,
stroking of the cutter enables the work to be cut
and the movement away from the cutter to be
to the full predetermined depth in one traverse
completed during a minor proportion of that
30 and without successive depth feeding steps, thus
rotation.
completing the operation more rapidly than in
The relation between the work and the cutter
cases where a succession of cuts, with inter
is similar to that between a gear and the face of
mediate depth feeding steps, .‘is taken. The
a rack tooth lying in the plane in which the cut
progress of the cutting action is illustrated by
ting edge of the cutter moves; or near that plane.
Figs. 16,17 and 18, in which three different posi
And the relation between the cam or former 58
tions of a tooth t of the Work piece are shown.
and the abutment 59 is similar to that between a
Starting from a'position clear of the cutter, the
gear tooth and the relatively opposite side of a
corner between the outside circumference and
rack tooth. Where the teeth of the work piece
the advancing face‘ of the tooth ?rst crosses the
are involute curves, which is the ‘usual condition,
path of the cutter and is immediately incised by
the active face of former 5B is likewise an involute
the cutter. Successive cutting strokes follow be
curve, the base circle of which may be the same
fore the work has advanced more than the dis
as that of the work piece teeth, or may differ
tance of the feasible depth of a single cut; and
therefrom within a certain range; and the re
the speed ratio of such advance is regulated in
active face of the abutment is a plane surface.
accordance with the quality of the material of
Provision is made for substitution of different
which the work piece is made so as to obtain the
formers to correspond with work pieces of differ
most ei?cient rate of cutting feed.
ent diameters having teeth generated from dif
The length of the cutting strokes is indicated
ferent base circles outside the ranges permitted
with
accuracy by the distance be
by the latter-mentioned adjustment of the abut 60 tweensubstantial
the full line and broken line positions of
ment; the former being detachably- secured by
the cutter in Figs. 16, 1'? and 13. In these ?gures
bolts 18 to a hub ‘l9 keyed on the rolling head, as
the inclined straight dot-and-dash line L repre
shown in Figs. 4 and 8. These bolts pass through
sents the pitch line of the imaginary rack with
slots 80 in the contiguous part of hub 19, curved
respect to which the path of the cutting edge and
coaxially with the rolling head, whereby the for 55 the
reactive face of the abutment 59 have the
mer may be adjusted around the same axis. The
relation of tooth faces, and the arc PC represents
abutment also is adjustable angularly, its ad
the pitch circle of the work piece which rolls in
justment being such ‘as to alter the inclination
tangent non-slip relation to line L.
As there
of its reactive face with the path in which the
shown, all strokes of the cutter are longer than
carriage travels. Thereby the pressure angle and 60 the tangential extent of the part of any tooth of
effective pitch circle of the gear action between
the work piece that overlaps the cutter path at
the former and abutment are controlled. A
any instant. They are also preferably always of
pivot stud 8| mounted on the stationary guide
the same length, with limits at the same points
way structure supports the abutment in contact
at respectively opposite sides of the pitch line L
with the former, and two set screws, 82 and 83, 65 and so located that the cutting edge, on each
mounted in a stationary supporting block 84,
withdrawing stroke, is retracted clear of the work
bear on the abutment at respectively opposite
piece tooth on which it is operating. Thus the
sides of the pivot 8| so that, as either is advanced
cutter is caused to remove. in the course of each
and the other is retracted, the abutment is tilted
cutting stroke, all of the stock of the work piece
more or less. The degree of its inclination to the 70 lying across its path; and, in the course of a series
'guideways' is measured by an index 85 and scale
of strokes, as a single tooth of the work rolls past,
86. This latter adjustment enables involutes of
its cutting action progresses gradually along the
a variety of different base circles to be controlled
side of the tooth face toward the root of the tooth
by the same former and, in combination with a
until the entire face has been ?nished. Clearance
series of different formers, enables work pieces 75 spaces are left between the roots of adjacent teeth
2,405,159
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7
of suiiicient depth to permit chip removal and to‘
avoid blocking of the cutter.
7
I
Independent manual operation of the :work
carriage is made possible to facilitate adjustments
and for other purposes. Hence the shaft 65 in the
carriage driving train is coupled with gear 66 by
means of a clutch, here'shown as a disk clutch
, 81 of known character, adapted to be relaxed by
vThe cam dog I I8 is adjustably mounted by bolts
I26 passing through a slot in the dog, and which
can be set in different ones'of holes I21 in the
plate II9; said holes being equidistant from the
Work spindle and spaced apart at suitable dis
tances to permit placement of the dog in any
position between the extreme limits of adjust
ment. The bracket I08 has a rib on its rear side
?tted to an arcuate slot I20~in the rolling head
a clutchshifter arm 88 (Fig. 11) acting through
arm 55, and is secured by bolts I28I projecting
a link 89, arm 80, rock shaft 9I (Fig. 4), arm 92
through slots I29 in the bracket, said slots being
and sleeves 03 and 94. Arm 92 carries a pin pro
coaxial with the work spindle. Stop screws I30
jecting into a groove in the outer surface of
serve'to adjust the bracket and secure it in dif
Sleeve v03; whereby it is able to shift said sleeve
ferent positions in order to locate the work piece
endwise. The sleeve 93 slides on sleeve 94, which
teeth in exact relation to the cutter.' By this
is pinned to the shaft, and carries a pin 95 in
means the work may be set to regulate'the depth
position to bear, with cam e?ect, on the long arm
of cutting, and also to accommodate pieces hav
of a bell crank lever 95, pivoted at El to sleeve 94,
ing different numbers of teeth and different
the short arm 90 of which bears on the cover disk
pitches and tooth widths. Furthermore, the
99 of the clutch. A shaft I00, which projects
from the front of the machine and is rotatable :20 sleeve I05 is adjustable endwise in its guide I01
and carries rack teeth I3I meshing with a pinion
by a crank arm or wrench, carries a pinion IOI
I32 connected with an adjusting knob I33; By
arranged to mesh with a face gear I02 onthe
extremity of shaft 56. Normally the pinion IOI
these various adjustments the locking pin 55, and
is held clear of gear I02 by a spring I03.
Indexing of the work to present successive
the time of indexing action, may be accom
.. modated to__work pieces of all diameters and
teeth to the cutter is accomplished automatically
by withdrawal of the locking pin 55 and by giving
a small increment of rotation to the work spindle
5I, every time the work rolls clear of the cutter
with movement of the carriage 53 to the left (with
respect to Fig. 1). The locking pin is carried by a
pitches.
The operation and e?ect hereinbefore described
are the same whether the work piece has spur
teeth or helical teeth. All that di?ers is the
angular setting of the cutter, one position of
which, to operate on a helical work piece W’, is
shown in Fig. '7. The locking pin 55, when of
plunger I00 which is slidable in a sleeve I05 car
chisel ended formation as here shown, may be
ried by the arm 56, and is pressed toward the
work by a spring I06 (Fig. 9). Sleeve I05 in turn
accommodated to helical gear teeth by partial
is mounted in a guideway I01 forming part of a ' 1 rotation in the plunger I04. It is in screwed con
bracket I 08 secured adjustably to the rolling head
nection with theshank I09; and the screw may
be tightened to grip an intermediate portion‘of
arm 56. A shank I09, secured to the locking pin,
plunger 104 between a shoulder I34 on the look
protrudes from the sleeve I05 and carries lock
ing pin and a shoulder I35 on the shank,
nuts IIO, one of which provides abutments for a
The fundamental aspects of the invention,
forked arm III pivoted to the bracket I08 by'a 40
which involve methods and means for carrying
pivot pin H2 (see also Figs. 12 and 13). Rise of
out a ?nishing operation on teeth of gear shaving
arm IIl retracts the locking pin clear of the
cutters, gears, and other forms of greater or less
similarity to gear teeth, by repeated reciproca
A pawl element H3 is carried by arm III on a
tions of a cutter in a path from the crest toward
pivot I I4 and biased by a spring I I5 so that a pin theroot of the curved form, while a relative
’ I I6 which it carries is held against a shoulder I I7
rolling movement is carried out progressively, are
on arm I I I. A cam dog I I3 is mounted on a plate
not limited to the speci?c means and construc
I I8, which forms part of the carriage, and is
tions herein presented for illustration. Different
located in the path of pawl H3 to be engaged by
the latter near the end of the rolling movement ‘5 forms of cutter may be used having a greater ‘or
less number of ribs, with ya greater or less width,
and after the work has rolled clear of the cutter.
spacing and depth’ than those shown, or having
The inclined cam face of dog IIO raises pawl H3,
no ribs at all, but a continuous straight or curved
thereby raising arm I I I, and withdraws the lock
edge adapted to ?nish the work piece by shaving
ing pin from the work. Immediately thereafter,
the pawl passes the high point I20 of the cam 55 the whole, or any desired proportion, of the width
of its face. The term “?nishing” therefore is
dog and drops into an open space just beyond,
used in the following claims as designating
allowing the locking pin to re-engage the work
generically the effect produced on the work,
piece. When rolling in the opposite direction, the
whether that e?ect is in cutting slots only, or both
pawl yields in passing the cam shoulder I 20.
During-the brief time while the locking pin is 60 cutting slots and shaving the lands between the
slots, or simply shaving the'surface of the work
thus Withdrawn, the work spindle is advanced by
piece without slotting it. And various different
a drive consisting of a pulley IZI on cam shaft
mechanisms may be employed for imparting the
70, a belt E22 and a pulley I23 on the work spindle.
prescribed movements to the various instru
Pulley I2I constantly rotates while the machine
is operating, and the belt slips except when the 65 mentalities; including, for instance, Wholly
mechanical means in substitution for the ?uid
locking pin 55 is withdrawn. A belt tightener I24,
operated means for relieving the cutter on its
pivoted on the pivot shaft ‘I3 andv acted on by a
return strokes; while the inclination of the cam
. springlli? applies su?icient tension to the belt
faces and timing of the movements by which re
for applying constant traction to pulley i23. The
belt tightener is likewise arranged, as shown in 70 lief is effected may be the reverse of those shown
and described. Moreover, the invention is not
Fig. 11, to offset the belt, so that a considerable
limited to the ?nishing of involute curves only
portion of its length is approximately perpendicu
for, by appropriate modi?cations of either the
lar to the path in which the Work carriagetravels,
former or‘ the abutment, or both, curves depart
thereby compensating for the back and forth
movement of the work carriage.
75 ing more or less widely from true involutes may
work.
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2,405,159
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,
and to be withdrawn clear of the work during its
be generated in essentially the manner described.
However, I make; claim to all novel features of
the speci?c embodiment of the invention here
, vnon cutting strokes.
5. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting _
operation on machine elements having spur teeth
in shown.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting
operation on the faces of gear teeth and similar
or helical teeth comprising a carriage, a Work
spindlemounted in the carriage adapted to hold
a work piece, means for imparting movements of
' translation to the carriage and rotation to the
spindle so as to give the work piece on the spindle
a rolling movement equivalent to running in mesh
with a stationary rack, a ram mounted to recipro
cate, and a cutter carried by said ram in position
to travel across and in cuttingrelationship with
a face of a tooth of the work piece, said ram being
angularly adjustable about an axis lying in the
objects, comprising a reciprocably mounted cut
ter having a cutting edge transverse to the direc
tion of its reciprocating movement, means for
supporting and rolling a work gear across the
plane in which the path of said cutting edge lies
with the axis of rolling movement transverse to
the direction of cutting movement when crossing
said plane, means for reciprocating the cutter a
plurality of times during the rolling advance of
a single tooth of the work, and means for shifting
the cutter away from the work after completion
path of reciprocation of the cutter, whereby to
adjust the cutter to work piece teeth of spur'or
helical formation respectively.
6. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting
of each cutting stroke, and into its cutting path 20
_ operation on gear teeth and similar objects, com
prising means for rolling a Work piece in the
prior to making its cutting strokes, whereby to
manner of a gear rolling in mesh with an
avoid rubbing contact with the work during non
imaginary rack, a cutter holder mounted with
cutting strokes.
provisions for reciprocation toward and away
2. In a machine as and for the purpose set
25
from
the path in which the work piece is rolled,
forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro
a cutter having a cutting edge secured to said
cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on said
holder in position to act on the face of a tooth
ram to swing about an axis transverse to the path
of the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter head
having a cutting edge displaced from said pivot,
means for reciprocating the ram, an arm con
of said Work piece, and means for reciprocating
the cutter holder a number of times in the course '
30 of the action of the cutter on a single tooth; said
cutter holder being .angularly adjustable about
nected to the cutter head extending into the
a line extending in the-directions of said recipro- .
cation, whereby to accommodate the cutter. to '
ram, and means carried by the ram operably as
sociated with said arm for swinging said cutter
head about its pivot to hold said cutting edge in
operating position during its cutting strokes and
35
in a position clear of the work during its non
cutting strokes.
e
3. In a machine as and for the purpose set
work piece teeth of either spur or helical forma
tion.
'
a
7. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting
action on gear teeth and the like, comprising a
reciprocably mounted cutter having a cutting
edge on one end, means for reciprocating said
forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro 40 cutter endwise in a ?xed path, a work carriage,
cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on
a rolling head mounted rotatably on said car
said ram to swing about an axis transverse to the
riage, a work spindle" mounted rotatably in said
path of/the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter
rolling head adapted to carry a work piece so that
head having a cutting edge displaced from said
a tooth thereof rolls relatively to the path of the
pivot, means for reciprocating the ram, an arm 45 cutter edge in a manner similar to the rolling of
connected with the cutter head having a cam sur
a gear tooth with respect to a rack toothface,
face inclined to the path in which the said cutting
edge is carried, a wedge member mounted on the
ram engaging said cam surface, and means for
a former carried by the rolling head, a stationary
abutment, means for rotating said rolling head in
moving said wedge member back and forth in 50
time with the reciprocations of the ram to hold
the cutting edge in its operative position during
the cutting strokes and to hold it clear of the‘
work during its non cutting strokes.
carriage by reaction of the former against said
abutment, a locking member carried by the rolling
head engaging the Work piece to transmit the
rotational movement of the rolling head thereto,
ment of the cutter back and forth when the
wedge member is moved in opposite directions
in its prescribed path, a ?uid operated piston con
nected to said wedge member and mounted mov-~ 70
forth, a work spindle rotatably mounted on the
rolling head, potentially active motive means
a manner to cause translative movement of the
a retractor for said locking member, means for
4. In a machine as and for the purpose set 55 causing said retractor to withdraw the locking
forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro
member from the Work piece, and a potentially
cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on
active spindle rotating means organized to turn
said ram to swing about an axis transverse to the - the spindle ‘independently of the rolling head
path of the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter
when the locking member is so retracted.
head having a cutting edge displaced from said 60
3. In a machine of the character described, a
pivot, means for reciprocating the ram, an arm
carriage, an oscillative rolling head mounted on
connected with'the cutter head, a wedge mem
the carriage, a cam or former secured to said
ber mounted on the ram with provisions for"
rolling head, a stationary abutment engaged with
movement back and forth in a de?nite path, said
said former, means for oscillating said rolling
arm and wedge member having cooperating inter- '
head, whereby the former by reaction With the
engaging cam portions whereby to cause move
abutment causes the carriage to move back and
tending constantly to turn said spindle relatively
said piston at such times, in the reciprocations
to the rolling head, a locking member carried by
the rolling head adapted to engage a work piece
secured to the work spindle to cause oscillating
movement thereof in unison with that of the
of the ram, as to cause said cutting edge to oc
rolling head, a retractor for said locking‘ member,
ably in a pressure chamber in the ram, and means
for exerting ?uid pressure on opposite ends‘of
cupy its operative position during cutting strokes ' ' 'a pawl carried by said retractor, a stationary cam
i 2,405,159
‘111
.mountedon the carriage in ‘position-‘to be engaged
by said pawl and cause actuation of the retractor.
.‘9. A machine for performing a‘?nish cutting
.iaction on gear teeth .andtheflike, comprising a
cutting tool, means actuating said tool to ‘perform
its cutting. function, a workcarriage, a'rolling
headmounted rotatably on said carriage, a work
carrier mounted coaxially with said rolling head
and being rotatable relatively thereto for index
ing, .means for turning said rolling head and
simultaneously shifting the carriage so as to roll
a‘ work piece supported by ‘said carrier across the
operating locationof the cutting tool,,a locking
member carried by the rolling head forvengaging
such a workpiece to transmit the rotational
movement of the rolling head thereto, and means
side face of a .racktocth, work supporting means
' adapted ‘to hold a gearlike work piece with a
toothlike projection thereof in relation‘ to said
path similar to the relation of a gear tooth ‘face
with a mating rack tooth face, means ‘for effect
ing relative movement between the work sup
porting means and the work piece carried there
‘ by, on the one hand, and the cutter and cutter
reciprocating means, on the other hand, analo
gous to the relative rolling movement between a
tooth of a gear rolling in mesh with a rack of
which one face of a tooth coincides with said
path, and means for correlating the cutter re
ciprocating means with the means by which said
relative movement is effected so that the‘cutter
is reciprocated a multiplicity of times during a
for angularly adjusting said locking member
single rolling traverse of the work piece, between
around the axis of the rolling head.
limits located at respectively opposite sidesof the
10. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting
rolling pitch line of such a rack.
operation onzthe-sides of gear teeth and‘ analogous 20 .13. A machine for performing .a finish cutting
curved forms, which comprises a. supporting struc- '
action on gear tooth faces and analogous curved
ture, a carriage mounted on said supporting
structure for guided movement in a prescribed
path, a work spindle rotatably mounted on said
forms, comprising a supporting structure, a cut
carriage adapted to hold a work piece having a
projection .of gear tooth character, means for
ter
carrying
ram . mounted
for reciprocating
movement in a ?xed path on said supporting
;_ structure, a cutter protrudingfrom said. ram hav
ing a cutting edge on its extremity extending
simultaneously shifting the carriage and rotating
‘ transversely of the path of movement of the ram,
the'spindle at relative speeds such that a pro
jection of gear ‘tooth character .ona work piece
secured ‘to the spindle is caused to roll in the
work holding means adapted to carry a gearlike
workpiece, means for shifting said work holding
means in a manner to e?ect rolling traverse of
manner of a gear tooth rolling in mesh with a
the work piece past the cutter in the manner of
stationary rack, a tool carrying ram supported
by said supporting structure for a guided move
ment in a path transverse to the pitch line of an
imaginary rack disposed in tangent relation to the
a gear rolling in mesh with a rack when a tooth
pitch circle on which the work piece projection
rolls‘, a cutting tool protruding from said ram
having a cutting edge on its extremity located
to reciprocate across said pitch line when the
ram is .reciprocated, and means for reciprocating
said ram organized to displace said cutting edge
back and forthacross said line a multiplicity of
times in the ‘length of time consumedby the work
of thegear meshes with a rack tooth face which
approximately coincides with the path of the
cutting edge, while a portion of a side face of
one of the work piece teeth intersects such
path, said ramand work holding means being
relatively disposed so that the reciprocations of
the ‘ram are transverse to the axis of the angular
component of said rolling traverse, and means
for reciprocating said ram and cutter a plurality
of times during such rolling traverse of the work
piece through distances such that the cutting
edge is carried on each stroke beyond the ex
piece projection in rolling into and out of mesh
with an ‘imaginary rack tooth coinciding with the 45 tremities of the before-mentioned portion of the
work piece tooth which intersects the cutter path.
path :of the cutting edge.
‘
14. The method of ?nishing a curved surface
of a Work piece which occupies a relation vto such
‘work piece corresponding to that of the side face
adapted to carry work pieces having projections 50 of a gear tooth to the body of the gear, which
comprises imparting a rolling movement to the
of gear tooth character, means for imparting
work piece like that of a gear rolling in mesh
combined movements of translation and rotation
with a rack, reciprocating ‘an edged cutter in a
‘to said work holding means such that a tooth
direction transverse to the length of its cutting
like projection of the work piece is moved in the
same manner as though rolling. in mesh with a 55 edge and to the translative component of said
11. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting
operation on the sidesof gear teeth and analogous
curved forms, comprising work holding means
stationary rack tooth, a cutter having a cutting
rolling movement and in the crest-to-root direc
edge, means for reciprocating the cutter in a
tion of the curved surface of the work piece in
a path which intersects said curved surface and
the limits of which are outside of the points of
path which is transverse to the .axis of rotational
movement'and ‘intersects a side of such tooth-like
projection so as to perform a, planing action 60 intersection of the path with said curved surface,
and causing a multiplicity of reciprocations of
thereon, and through a distance greater than the
the cutter to be performed during a single rolling
length of that portion of the; work piece projec
traverse of said surface past such path.
tion which intersects said path when in position
15. The method of ?nishing gear tooth faces
to be operated on by the cutter, and means for
correlating the rate of cutter reciprocation with 65 and analogous curved forms, which comprises
effecting a rolling movement of a gear-like work
the speed of rolling movement of the work hold
piece like that of a gear rolling in mesh with a
ing means so that a ‘multiplicity of cutter strokes
are performed while the work piece projection is
rack and reciprocating an edged cutter trans
versely to the translative component of such roll
rolled over the cutter path.
12. A-machine for ?nishing gear tooth faces 70 ing movement, and so that the’ edge thereof
and analogous curved forms, comprising a cutter
travels in a path which intersects a side face of
having :a de?nite cutting edge, means for recip
a tooth of the work piece, and the direction of
rocating said cutter in directions transverse to
reciprocation is in the crest-to-root dimension of
its cutting edge so that the path of the cutting
the tooth, and the edge of the cutter is carried
edge in space corresponds substantially to one 75 at each reciprocation beyond the limits of that
2,405,159
13
portion of the work piece tooth which intersects
the path.
16. The method of ?nishing gear tooth faces
and the like, which consists in rolling a gearlike
work piece in the manner of a gear rolling in
mesh with a rack, reciprocating a cutter, having
a cutting edge on its extremity, repeatedly during
the time required for a tooth of the work piece
to roll into and out of mesh with a conjugate rack
14
of such rolling movement, and causing the direc
tion of cutting traverse of the slotting tool to lie
in the crest-to-root dimension of the work piece
tooth and the limits of travel of the cutting edge
to be outside of the points of intersection of the
side face of said tooth with the path of the cut
ting edge.
tooth, and causing the path of the cutting edge
18. A machine for ?nishing gear tooth faces
and analogous curved forms, comprising a cutter
having a cutting edge, a work support, means for
to intersect a side face of a tooth of the work
piece to a depth suitable for the cutting of a
chip in the course of a single uninterrupted stroke
of the cutter, and causing the direction of cutting
of translation and rotation between the cutter
and a work piece carried by said work support in
a manner corresponding to the rolling action
eifecting relative rolling movement compounded
movement of the cutter to extend in the crest 15 between a gear and a rack tooth when a tooth of
the gear is in mesh with such rack tooth, the
to-root direction of the work piece tooth and the
cutter being reciprocable in a direction transverse
limits of each stroke to be outside of the inter
both to the translative component of such rolling
section points of the side of such tooth with the
movement and to the axis of the angular com
cutter path.
17. The method of cutting slots in the side faces 20 ponent thereof, means for so reciprocating the
cutter a plurality of times during said relative
of the teeth of a gear shaving tool or the like,
rolling movement, and means for e?ecting a rela
which consists in rolling a work piece in the man
tive displacement between the cutter and work
ner of a gear rolling in mesh with a rack, recip
piece in time with such relative reciprocations so
rocating a slottingv tool, which has a cutting por
tion on its extremity, in such manner that said 25 as to prevent rubbing contact between the cutter
and work during the non cutting strokes.
cutting portion is carried in a path which inter
sects a side face of one of the work piece teeth
and is transverse to the translative component
EDWARD W. MILLER.
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