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Aug. .6, 194%.! ' Emw, LLER‘ METHOD AND MAC a E FINISHING THE TEETH OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LI Filed May 15, 1941 m/ w- 0 ‘ 2A0§§§§9 Sheets-Sheet l 6, 1946. , E. w. MILLER ' $946,359 METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH ’ OF‘ GEAR SHAV'ING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE Filed May 15. 1941 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 M2 Avg 9 3%.. E. . MILLER \ > PZIETHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH g???? ‘ QF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE Filed my 1.5, 1941 - 6 Shasta-sheaf, 3 mg° 6, 1946. I MILLER METHOD AND MACHINE E. w.FOR FINISHING v THE-TEETH ,OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE Filed May 15, 1941 2,4 > . 6 Sh'eeté-Sheet 4 A, E. W. MILLER . 2,45 1 9 METHOD AND MACHINE FORYFINISHING THE TEETH OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE Filed May 15 1941 . 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 I ' Aug. 6, i946. - ' -. » E . W . NIILLER ' - 0F GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE ‘Filed May 15, 1,941 '5 I . [1/] z 5 , / l I l I / I i I ' , /Z/ m1 M 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 v7 /ZZ-a ‘ 2,495,359 METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH / 745;V J ’ I” 5% W q; ,' r” w ' ,5, M I ‘M i If “I. 4, ,£ I 4 ° ' _ "if ' Immunigumm .1 . 2,405,159 Patented Aug. 6, 1946 UNITED STATE s PATENT OFFICE 2,405,159 METHOD AND MACHINE FOR FINISHING THE TEETH OF GEAR SHAVING CUTTERS AND THE LIKE Edward W. Miller, Spring?eld, Vt., assignor to The Fellows Gear Shaper Company, Spring ?eld, Vt., a corporation of Vermont ' Application May 15, 1941, Serial No. 393,554 18 Claims. (Cl. 90—8) 1 2 . Fig. 8 is a vertical section of the machine taken on line 8-8 of Fig. 1; Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view taken on line The subject of this invention is concerned with means for performing a ?nishing operation, by cutting action, on the teeth of shaving cutters and other tools and machine elements having features characteristic of gears. The speci?c em bodiment of the invention here presented for 11 lustration is designed to cut grooves or slots in the tooth faces of gear shaving cutters. Such cutters are well known in the art. rapidly than heretofore, and Without need of per forming a depth feed in order to extend the cut ting e?ect to a prescribed depth in the work, and to accomplish other useful results which are ex plained in the following description. The principles of the invention are hereinafter explained with reference to drawings of a ma chine illustrating the preferred embodiment of _ Fig. 1 of the drawings is in part a front eleva tion, and in part a vertical section of the machine - Fig. 10 is a sectional view taken on line Ill-I0 of Figs. 4 and 8, looking from front to rear; Fig. 11 is a rear elevation of the machine; Fig. 12 is an elevation of a detail of the indexing mechanism; They are like ‘ gears in having teeth conjugate to the gears which they are designed to ?nish, but differ from ordinary machine gears in that they are made of a steel composition, or other alloy, sufficiently hard to provide metal-cutting edges, and are pro vided with a multiplicity of such edges, in the sides of their teeth, in tandemarrangement be tween the ends of, the teeth. However, the invention is not limited to means for performing the speci?c slotting or grooving operation above referred to but may, as will later appear, be used for otherwise ?nishing gear teeth and the surfaces of other elements similar or analogous to gears. The particular objects of the invention are to accomplish the result of so ?nishing teeth in ‘an improved manner, to perform the operation more these principles. 9-9 of Fig. 8; 10 Fig. 13 is a plan view of the parts shown in Fig. 12‘; ' Fig. 14 is a horizontal section taken on line lid-I74 of Figs. 1 and 4; Fig. 15 is an axial section of a clutching device 15 which appears in elevation, and on a smaller scale, in Fig. 14; Figs. 16, 17 and 18 are diagrammatic views illustrating the progress of the cutting action on a single tooth of, the work piece. Like reference characters designate the same 20 parts wherever they occur in all the ?gures. Referring to Fig. 5, there is shown in plan view a tooth t of a conventional gear ?nishing tool. Such tool is made of metal or alloy of a character 25 suitable for metal cutting tools; it has teeth sim ilar to gear teeth, which may be either straight or helical, and are conjugate to the teeth of the \ gears which it is designed to shave; and a num ber of slots or grooves g are cut in the sides of each tooth, extending from the crest toward the root, the intersections of which slots with the side faces of the teeth form cutting edges e. Such slots are produced by the operation of this ma chine with the aid of a- cutter C, shown in detail in Fig. 6, which is provided with ribs r of the width prescribed for the slots g, separated by spaces 8. The bounding edges a of the ribs at the extremity of the cutter perform the cutting ac tion. Ordinarily the spaces 8 are deeper than referred to, the plane of section being indicated by the line l-i of Figs. 4 and 8; 40 the slots to be cut in the work piece, whereby they Fig. 2 is a sectional View of a detail of the ma leave‘ untouched lands on the side faces of the chine taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1; work piece teeth t, the widths of which are de Fig. 3 is a section on line 3—3 of Fig. 2; termined by the widths of the spaces s. But the Fig. 4 is a vertical section on a front to ‘rear inner boundaries of such spaces at the end of plane on line 4—4 of Figs. 1, 10 and 11; 45 the cutter may likewise be disposed and serve as Fig. 5 is a detail view of one of the teeth of cutting edges, as when it is desired to shape the a shaving tool showing the results of the ?nishing lands of the work piece teeth with cutting clear operation performed by the machine here illus-< ance between the corresponding edges e of ad jacent grooves. trated; ' Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the operating The slotting operation is performed by recipro tool with which the machine is equipped to cut cating the cutter C rapidly endwise while the gear the slots illustrated in Fig. 5; V shaving cutter or tool, which will hereinafter gen Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view illustrating an erally be referred to as the work and is designated adjustment of the tool for operating on helical teeth; ' - . - in the drawings by the reference character W, is 55 slowly rolled past it.v Cutter .0 is mounted on the 2,405,159 3 4 upper end of a ram or cutter carrier 1, which re ciprocates endwise in guides 2 and 3, suitably mounted in the machine base 4. The ram is thus reciprocated by a main shaft 5, rotated by an elec tric motor 6 through a belt 1 and pulley 8, the shaft having a crank pin 9 coupled by a connect ing rod ID with a lever ll pivoted at 42. A gear segment I3 is carried by lever l I and meshes with encircling rack teeth M on the ram. The con ram is of cylindrical form, at least as to those portions which occuply the guide 2 and which contain the teeth 14; and the guide 3 is rotatable in a stationary sleeve bearing 4| and on a thrust supporting clamp ring 42 mounted in the base; the ram and guide 3 being provided with suitable means 43 (Fig. 14), in the nature of splines, to prevent independent rotation of one relatively to the other. Guide 3 is provided with a ?ange hav necting rod H1 is made of telescopic construction, 10 ing worm gear teeth 44 meshing with a worm 45 extensible in length, the crank pin 9 is adjust ona shaft 46 which protrudes from the forward able radially of the main shaft 5, and the pivot 15 side of the machine base and is adapted to be by which the connecting rod is coupled to lever turned by a wrench or crank mounted on its ll may be placed in either of two holes IS in the squared end 47. A clamp screw 48 (Fig, 8) having lever, whereby a wide range of adjustment is made an operating handle 139 locks the ram in its ad possible, affecting both the length of the cutter justments by forcing ring 42 toward the toothed stroke and the location of its path, to accom flange of the ram guide 3 and thereby clamping modate larger or smaller work pieces. said ?ange against a stationary shoulder 50. Provision is made for relieving the cutter so Thus the ram may be turned through any angle, that it will not rub on the work during its re 20 the extent of which may be measured by a scale, tracting strokes. This is accomplished by mount not here shown. The cutter C is preferably ar ing the cutter head I‘! (which is provided with ranged with the edged portion of its cutting end jaws l8 and i9, between which the shank of the intersecting the axis of the ram. cutter is clamped by a screw 20)‘, pivotally on the The work piece W is secured to one end of a ram and swinging it about its pivot in time with 25 spindle 5i mounted rotatably in a rolling head the reciprocations of the rain. 'The pivotal con 52, which is in turn rotatably supported by a car nection is made by a pin 2| secured in the cutter riage 53. The carriage is mounted for recipro head and extending at opposite ends into alined cating travel on guideways 54, the latter being bearings in the ram, as shown in Fig. 8. This supported on the machine base at one side of the pivot is perpendicular to the path of the ram and upper end of the ram and preferably in a plane parallel to the width dimension of the cutter. inclined to the strokes of the ram and cutter. An arm 22, forming part of the cutter head, de As appears from the drawings, the spindle 5i pends in the hollow interior of the ram and has a and rolling head 52 are coaxial, and their com cam surface 23 in a plane parallel to pivot 2| and mon axis is parallel to the plane above referred inclined to the path of-the ram. A wedge block to and extends in a direction transverse both to 24 is ?tted to a guideway in the‘ ram, so‘ that it the direction of carriage travel and to the path may move lengthwise of the latter, andhas a of the cutter. In one point in the travel of the cam surface complemental to the before men carriage, this axis intersects and is perpendicular tioned cam surface 23, against which the latter is to the directions in which the cutter moves in its held in engagement by a spring pressed plunger 40 path, and in the other positions it is parallel to 25. The wedge block is coupled by a rod 26 with a line intersecting and perpendicular to said path. a piston 27 ?tted to a cylinder 28 in the lower One end of the spindle protrudes from the rolling end of the ram. head and carriage, and is provided with work clamping means so located as to secure work Piston 2'5 is moved in opposite directions pneu matically under control of the main shaft 5. 45 pieces within the operating range of the cutter. Ports opening into opposite ends of the cylinder Rolling movement, compounded of rotation about are connected by ?exible tubes 29 and 3D, respec tively, with a valve casing 3! mounted in the ma its axis and translation of its axis in a plane parallel to the guideways 54, is transmitted to the chine base. A rotary valve 32 in the valve casing work from the rolling head. The rotary com is geared to the main shaft by gears 33 and 34 to 50 pcnent of this movement is produced by force ap rotate once with each rotation of the shaft. plied to the rolling head through an arm 5'! (Fig. Passageways 35 and 36 are provided in the ro tating valve and other passageways 31 and 38 are 10) keyed to the rolling head, (whereby the lat ter is turned in its bearings in the carriage 53), provided in the casing, substantially as shown in and is transmitted to the work piece by a re Figs. 2 and 3, suitably arranged so as to connect 55 tractable locking pin 55 carried by an arm 56 the tubes 29 and 3t] alternately with an air sup on the rolling head and projecting between ad ply pipe 39 and an exhaust pipe“. These pas jacent teeth of the work piece; while the transla sages are likewise arranged to maintain air pres sure on the upper end of piston 21 during the up displacement of the carriage on the guideways 54, tive component is produced in one direction by ward or working stroke of the cutter carrier and 60 effected by a cam or former 58 carried by the roll to maintain pressure on the lower end-of the pis ing head actingagainst a stationary abutment 59. ton, relieving the pressure from its upper end, A spring 68, compressed between an abutment 6| during the down strokes of the cutter. Down ward force exerted by the piston 21 on wedge block on the guideway structure and 3. lug 62 on the carriage, cooperates with the former 58 in dis 2llcauses the arm 22 to be displaced by cam ac 65 placing the ‘carriage in the opposite direction. tion against an abutment surface in the ram, By virtue of the arrangement thus shown and thereby placing and holding the extremity of the described, the reciprocations of the cutter occur cutter in its cutting path; while upward move in directions crosswise of the work piece teeth, ment of the wedge allows the spring of plunger that is, transversely the length thereof or in the 25 to displace the cutter far enough to avoid rub 70 crest-to-root direction and vice versa. bing on the work during its retracting strokes. Various means may be employed for moving The ram i may be rotated about its longitu arm 51 to obtain the desired effect, That here dinal axisfor adjusting the cutter to work pieces illustrated consists of the following mechanism. having spur teeth and to those having helical A worm 63 on the main or drive shaft 5 meshes teeth of any degree of helix angle. Hence the 75 with a worm gear 64 on a short shaft 65, from 2,405,159 , . , 6 5' which power is transmitted to a shaft 66 through a' pair of changeable gears 61, 68. A worm 69 on shaft 65 meshes with a worm gear (not shown) on a cam shaft ‘Hi, to which a cam ‘H is made fast. Cam ‘ll acts on one arm of a lever 12, piv oted on a supporting shaft 73; and the other arm of lever 12 is connected by a pivot 14 with an ex with involutes of all base circles within- a wide range to be ?nished on the same machine. It is not essential in slotting or grooving in volute teeth that the bottoms of the grooves be of uniform depth or, in other words, that they be involute curves of the same base circle as the tooth faces. But it is desirable that‘their curvature be approximately the same as that of thetooth . tensible and contractable connecting rod 15 faces‘and be displaced uniformly from such faces. which, in turn, is coupled to arm 51 by a pivot 16 adjustably mounted in a radial slot'll in the‘ 10 The provisions here made and above described for controlling the rolling motion of the work enable this effect to be secured. They also enable gears In the arrangement as shown in Figs. 1 and 10, and the like to be ?nished with accurate involute upward movement of the lever arm which bears arm. . on ‘cam ll turns the rolling head 52 in clockwise faces when a cutter is used having a continuous rotation, causing the carriage to be moved from 15 straight cutting edge without the interruptions or offsets of such edge caused by the spaces 8 herein left toright and bringing a tooth of the work into operative relation with the cutter, gradually from its crest to its root. The amplitude of roll ing movement thus imparted, which may be ap shown. ~ Due to the speed reduction occasioned by the reducing gears 61, 68 and ‘ the two worm and propriately varied by adjustment of the radial po 20 wheel couples in the transmission train between the crank shaft 5 and the cam shaft 10, the cut sition of pivot 16 and the length of connecting ter is caused to make a great many strokes dur rod 15, is such as to roll the work wholly clear of ing the rolling traverse of a single tooth of the the cutter when the carriage is displaced in the work. Such number of strokes may be in the opposite direction. The form of cam ‘H is such as to cause the advancing movement of the work 25 order of several hundreds or thousands, and may be widely varied by substitutions of different gear in rolling toward'thev cutter to continue during pairs for the change gears 61 and 53. This rapid a. major proportion of the rotation of the cam, stroking of the cutter enables the work to be cut and the movement away from the cutter to be to the full predetermined depth in one traverse completed during a minor proportion of that 30 and without successive depth feeding steps, thus rotation. completing the operation more rapidly than in The relation between the work and the cutter cases where a succession of cuts, with inter is similar to that between a gear and the face of mediate depth feeding steps, .‘is taken. The a rack tooth lying in the plane in which the cut progress of the cutting action is illustrated by ting edge of the cutter moves; or near that plane. Figs. 16,17 and 18, in which three different posi And the relation between the cam or former 58 tions of a tooth t of the Work piece are shown. and the abutment 59 is similar to that between a Starting from a'position clear of the cutter, the gear tooth and the relatively opposite side of a corner between the outside circumference and rack tooth. Where the teeth of the work piece the advancing face‘ of the tooth ?rst crosses the are involute curves, which is the ‘usual condition, path of the cutter and is immediately incised by the active face of former 5B is likewise an involute the cutter. Successive cutting strokes follow be curve, the base circle of which may be the same fore the work has advanced more than the dis as that of the work piece teeth, or may differ tance of the feasible depth of a single cut; and therefrom within a certain range; and the re the speed ratio of such advance is regulated in active face of the abutment is a plane surface. accordance with the quality of the material of Provision is made for substitution of different which the work piece is made so as to obtain the formers to correspond with work pieces of differ most ei?cient rate of cutting feed. ent diameters having teeth generated from dif The length of the cutting strokes is indicated ferent base circles outside the ranges permitted with accuracy by the distance be by the latter-mentioned adjustment of the abut 60 tweensubstantial the full line and broken line positions of ment; the former being detachably- secured by the cutter in Figs. 16, 1'? and 13. In these ?gures bolts 18 to a hub ‘l9 keyed on the rolling head, as the inclined straight dot-and-dash line L repre shown in Figs. 4 and 8. These bolts pass through sents the pitch line of the imaginary rack with slots 80 in the contiguous part of hub 19, curved respect to which the path of the cutting edge and coaxially with the rolling head, whereby the for 55 the reactive face of the abutment 59 have the mer may be adjusted around the same axis. The relation of tooth faces, and the arc PC represents abutment also is adjustable angularly, its ad the pitch circle of the work piece which rolls in justment being such ‘as to alter the inclination tangent non-slip relation to line L. As there of its reactive face with the path in which the shown, all strokes of the cutter are longer than carriage travels. Thereby the pressure angle and 60 the tangential extent of the part of any tooth of effective pitch circle of the gear action between the work piece that overlaps the cutter path at the former and abutment are controlled. A any instant. They are also preferably always of pivot stud 8| mounted on the stationary guide the same length, with limits at the same points way structure supports the abutment in contact at respectively opposite sides of the pitch line L with the former, and two set screws, 82 and 83, 65 and so located that the cutting edge, on each mounted in a stationary supporting block 84, withdrawing stroke, is retracted clear of the work bear on the abutment at respectively opposite piece tooth on which it is operating. Thus the sides of the pivot 8| so that, as either is advanced cutter is caused to remove. in the course of each and the other is retracted, the abutment is tilted cutting stroke, all of the stock of the work piece more or less. The degree of its inclination to the 70 lying across its path; and, in the course of a series 'guideways' is measured by an index 85 and scale of strokes, as a single tooth of the work rolls past, 86. This latter adjustment enables involutes of its cutting action progresses gradually along the a variety of different base circles to be controlled side of the tooth face toward the root of the tooth by the same former and, in combination with a until the entire face has been ?nished. Clearance series of different formers, enables work pieces 75 spaces are left between the roots of adjacent teeth 2,405,159 ' 8 7 of suiiicient depth to permit chip removal and to‘ avoid blocking of the cutter. 7 I Independent manual operation of the :work carriage is made possible to facilitate adjustments and for other purposes. Hence the shaft 65 in the carriage driving train is coupled with gear 66 by means of a clutch, here'shown as a disk clutch , 81 of known character, adapted to be relaxed by vThe cam dog I I8 is adjustably mounted by bolts I26 passing through a slot in the dog, and which can be set in different ones'of holes I21 in the plate II9; said holes being equidistant from the Work spindle and spaced apart at suitable dis tances to permit placement of the dog in any position between the extreme limits of adjust ment. The bracket I08 has a rib on its rear side ?tted to an arcuate slot I20~in the rolling head a clutchshifter arm 88 (Fig. 11) acting through arm 55, and is secured by bolts I28I projecting a link 89, arm 80, rock shaft 9I (Fig. 4), arm 92 through slots I29 in the bracket, said slots being and sleeves 03 and 94. Arm 92 carries a pin pro coaxial with the work spindle. Stop screws I30 jecting into a groove in the outer surface of serve'to adjust the bracket and secure it in dif Sleeve v03; whereby it is able to shift said sleeve ferent positions in order to locate the work piece endwise. The sleeve 93 slides on sleeve 94, which teeth in exact relation to the cutter.' By this is pinned to the shaft, and carries a pin 95 in means the work may be set to regulate'the depth position to bear, with cam e?ect, on the long arm of cutting, and also to accommodate pieces hav of a bell crank lever 95, pivoted at El to sleeve 94, ing different numbers of teeth and different the short arm 90 of which bears on the cover disk pitches and tooth widths. Furthermore, the 99 of the clutch. A shaft I00, which projects from the front of the machine and is rotatable :20 sleeve I05 is adjustable endwise in its guide I01 and carries rack teeth I3I meshing with a pinion by a crank arm or wrench, carries a pinion IOI I32 connected with an adjusting knob I33; By arranged to mesh with a face gear I02 onthe extremity of shaft 56. Normally the pinion IOI these various adjustments the locking pin 55, and is held clear of gear I02 by a spring I03. Indexing of the work to present successive the time of indexing action, may be accom .. modated to__work pieces of all diameters and teeth to the cutter is accomplished automatically by withdrawal of the locking pin 55 and by giving a small increment of rotation to the work spindle 5I, every time the work rolls clear of the cutter with movement of the carriage 53 to the left (with respect to Fig. 1). The locking pin is carried by a pitches. The operation and e?ect hereinbefore described are the same whether the work piece has spur teeth or helical teeth. All that di?ers is the angular setting of the cutter, one position of which, to operate on a helical work piece W’, is shown in Fig. '7. The locking pin 55, when of plunger I00 which is slidable in a sleeve I05 car chisel ended formation as here shown, may be ried by the arm 56, and is pressed toward the work by a spring I06 (Fig. 9). Sleeve I05 in turn accommodated to helical gear teeth by partial is mounted in a guideway I01 forming part of a ' 1 rotation in the plunger I04. It is in screwed con bracket I 08 secured adjustably to the rolling head nection with theshank I09; and the screw may be tightened to grip an intermediate portion‘of arm 56. A shank I09, secured to the locking pin, plunger 104 between a shoulder I34 on the look protrudes from the sleeve I05 and carries lock ing pin and a shoulder I35 on the shank, nuts IIO, one of which provides abutments for a The fundamental aspects of the invention, forked arm III pivoted to the bracket I08 by'a 40 which involve methods and means for carrying pivot pin H2 (see also Figs. 12 and 13). Rise of out a ?nishing operation on teeth of gear shaving arm IIl retracts the locking pin clear of the cutters, gears, and other forms of greater or less similarity to gear teeth, by repeated reciproca A pawl element H3 is carried by arm III on a tions of a cutter in a path from the crest toward pivot I I4 and biased by a spring I I5 so that a pin theroot of the curved form, while a relative ’ I I6 which it carries is held against a shoulder I I7 rolling movement is carried out progressively, are on arm I I I. A cam dog I I3 is mounted on a plate not limited to the speci?c means and construc I I8, which forms part of the carriage, and is tions herein presented for illustration. Different located in the path of pawl H3 to be engaged by the latter near the end of the rolling movement ‘5 forms of cutter may be used having a greater ‘or less number of ribs, with ya greater or less width, and after the work has rolled clear of the cutter. spacing and depth’ than those shown, or having The inclined cam face of dog IIO raises pawl H3, no ribs at all, but a continuous straight or curved thereby raising arm I I I, and withdraws the lock edge adapted to ?nish the work piece by shaving ing pin from the work. Immediately thereafter, the pawl passes the high point I20 of the cam 55 the whole, or any desired proportion, of the width of its face. The term “?nishing” therefore is dog and drops into an open space just beyond, used in the following claims as designating allowing the locking pin to re-engage the work generically the effect produced on the work, piece. When rolling in the opposite direction, the whether that e?ect is in cutting slots only, or both pawl yields in passing the cam shoulder I 20. During-the brief time while the locking pin is 60 cutting slots and shaving the lands between the slots, or simply shaving the'surface of the work thus Withdrawn, the work spindle is advanced by piece without slotting it. And various different a drive consisting of a pulley IZI on cam shaft mechanisms may be employed for imparting the 70, a belt E22 and a pulley I23 on the work spindle. prescribed movements to the various instru Pulley I2I constantly rotates while the machine is operating, and the belt slips except when the 65 mentalities; including, for instance, Wholly mechanical means in substitution for the ?uid locking pin 55 is withdrawn. A belt tightener I24, operated means for relieving the cutter on its pivoted on the pivot shaft ‘I3 andv acted on by a return strokes; while the inclination of the cam . springlli? applies su?icient tension to the belt faces and timing of the movements by which re for applying constant traction to pulley i23. The belt tightener is likewise arranged, as shown in 70 lief is effected may be the reverse of those shown and described. Moreover, the invention is not Fig. 11, to offset the belt, so that a considerable limited to the ?nishing of involute curves only portion of its length is approximately perpendicu for, by appropriate modi?cations of either the lar to the path in which the Work carriagetravels, former or‘ the abutment, or both, curves depart thereby compensating for the back and forth movement of the work carriage. 75 ing more or less widely from true involutes may work. - . 2,405,159 9 10 , and to be withdrawn clear of the work during its be generated in essentially the manner described. However, I make; claim to all novel features of the speci?c embodiment of the invention here , vnon cutting strokes. 5. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting _ operation on machine elements having spur teeth in shown. What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting operation on the faces of gear teeth and similar or helical teeth comprising a carriage, a Work spindlemounted in the carriage adapted to hold a work piece, means for imparting movements of ' translation to the carriage and rotation to the spindle so as to give the work piece on the spindle a rolling movement equivalent to running in mesh with a stationary rack, a ram mounted to recipro cate, and a cutter carried by said ram in position to travel across and in cuttingrelationship with a face of a tooth of the work piece, said ram being angularly adjustable about an axis lying in the objects, comprising a reciprocably mounted cut ter having a cutting edge transverse to the direc tion of its reciprocating movement, means for supporting and rolling a work gear across the plane in which the path of said cutting edge lies with the axis of rolling movement transverse to the direction of cutting movement when crossing said plane, means for reciprocating the cutter a plurality of times during the rolling advance of a single tooth of the work, and means for shifting the cutter away from the work after completion path of reciprocation of the cutter, whereby to adjust the cutter to work piece teeth of spur'or helical formation respectively. 6. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting of each cutting stroke, and into its cutting path 20 _ operation on gear teeth and similar objects, com prising means for rolling a Work piece in the prior to making its cutting strokes, whereby to manner of a gear rolling in mesh with an avoid rubbing contact with the work during non imaginary rack, a cutter holder mounted with cutting strokes. provisions for reciprocation toward and away 2. In a machine as and for the purpose set 25 from the path in which the work piece is rolled, forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro a cutter having a cutting edge secured to said cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on said holder in position to act on the face of a tooth ram to swing about an axis transverse to the path of the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter head having a cutting edge displaced from said pivot, means for reciprocating the ram, an arm con of said Work piece, and means for reciprocating the cutter holder a number of times in the course ' 30 of the action of the cutter on a single tooth; said cutter holder being .angularly adjustable about nected to the cutter head extending into the a line extending in the-directions of said recipro- . cation, whereby to accommodate the cutter. to ' ram, and means carried by the ram operably as sociated with said arm for swinging said cutter head about its pivot to hold said cutting edge in operating position during its cutting strokes and 35 in a position clear of the work during its non cutting strokes. e 3. In a machine as and for the purpose set work piece teeth of either spur or helical forma tion. ' a 7. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting action on gear teeth and the like, comprising a reciprocably mounted cutter having a cutting edge on one end, means for reciprocating said forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro 40 cutter endwise in a ?xed path, a work carriage, cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on a rolling head mounted rotatably on said car said ram to swing about an axis transverse to the riage, a work spindle" mounted rotatably in said path of/the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter rolling head adapted to carry a work piece so that head having a cutting edge displaced from said a tooth thereof rolls relatively to the path of the pivot, means for reciprocating the ram, an arm 45 cutter edge in a manner similar to the rolling of connected with the cutter head having a cam sur a gear tooth with respect to a rack toothface, face inclined to the path in which the said cutting edge is carried, a wedge member mounted on the ram engaging said cam surface, and means for a former carried by the rolling head, a stationary abutment, means for rotating said rolling head in moving said wedge member back and forth in 50 time with the reciprocations of the ram to hold the cutting edge in its operative position during the cutting strokes and to hold it clear of the‘ work during its non cutting strokes. carriage by reaction of the former against said abutment, a locking member carried by the rolling head engaging the Work piece to transmit the rotational movement of the rolling head thereto, ment of the cutter back and forth when the wedge member is moved in opposite directions in its prescribed path, a ?uid operated piston con nected to said wedge member and mounted mov-~ 70 forth, a work spindle rotatably mounted on the rolling head, potentially active motive means a manner to cause translative movement of the a retractor for said locking member, means for 4. In a machine as and for the purpose set 55 causing said retractor to withdraw the locking forth, a cutter carrying ram mounted to recipro member from the Work piece, and a potentially cate in a given path, a cutter head pivoted on active spindle rotating means organized to turn said ram to swing about an axis transverse to the - the spindle ‘independently of the rolling head path of the ram, a cutter secured to said cutter when the locking member is so retracted. head having a cutting edge displaced from said 60 3. In a machine of the character described, a pivot, means for reciprocating the ram, an arm carriage, an oscillative rolling head mounted on connected with'the cutter head, a wedge mem the carriage, a cam or former secured to said ber mounted on the ram with provisions for" rolling head, a stationary abutment engaged with movement back and forth in a de?nite path, said said former, means for oscillating said rolling arm and wedge member having cooperating inter- ' head, whereby the former by reaction With the engaging cam portions whereby to cause move abutment causes the carriage to move back and tending constantly to turn said spindle relatively said piston at such times, in the reciprocations to the rolling head, a locking member carried by the rolling head adapted to engage a work piece secured to the work spindle to cause oscillating movement thereof in unison with that of the of the ram, as to cause said cutting edge to oc rolling head, a retractor for said locking‘ member, ably in a pressure chamber in the ram, and means for exerting ?uid pressure on opposite ends‘of cupy its operative position during cutting strokes ' ' 'a pawl carried by said retractor, a stationary cam i 2,405,159 ‘111 .mountedon the carriage in ‘position-‘to be engaged by said pawl and cause actuation of the retractor. .‘9. A machine for performing a‘?nish cutting .iaction on gear teeth .andtheflike, comprising a cutting tool, means actuating said tool to ‘perform its cutting. function, a workcarriage, a'rolling headmounted rotatably on said carriage, a work carrier mounted coaxially with said rolling head and being rotatable relatively thereto for index ing, .means for turning said rolling head and simultaneously shifting the carriage so as to roll a‘ work piece supported by ‘said carrier across the operating locationof the cutting tool,,a locking member carried by the rolling head forvengaging such a workpiece to transmit the rotational movement of the rolling head thereto, and means side face of a .racktocth, work supporting means ' adapted ‘to hold a gearlike work piece with a toothlike projection thereof in relation‘ to said path similar to the relation of a gear tooth ‘face with a mating rack tooth face, means ‘for effect ing relative movement between the work sup porting means and the work piece carried there ‘ by, on the one hand, and the cutter and cutter reciprocating means, on the other hand, analo gous to the relative rolling movement between a tooth of a gear rolling in mesh with a rack of which one face of a tooth coincides with said path, and means for correlating the cutter re ciprocating means with the means by which said relative movement is effected so that the‘cutter is reciprocated a multiplicity of times during a for angularly adjusting said locking member single rolling traverse of the work piece, between around the axis of the rolling head. limits located at respectively opposite sidesof the 10. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting rolling pitch line of such a rack. operation onzthe-sides of gear teeth and‘ analogous 20 .13. A machine for performing .a finish cutting curved forms, which comprises a. supporting struc- ' action on gear tooth faces and analogous curved ture, a carriage mounted on said supporting structure for guided movement in a prescribed path, a work spindle rotatably mounted on said forms, comprising a supporting structure, a cut carriage adapted to hold a work piece having a projection .of gear tooth character, means for ter carrying ram . mounted for reciprocating movement in a ?xed path on said supporting ;_ structure, a cutter protrudingfrom said. ram hav ing a cutting edge on its extremity extending simultaneously shifting the carriage and rotating ‘ transversely of the path of movement of the ram, the'spindle at relative speeds such that a pro jection of gear ‘tooth character .ona work piece secured ‘to the spindle is caused to roll in the work holding means adapted to carry a gearlike workpiece, means for shifting said work holding means in a manner to e?ect rolling traverse of manner of a gear tooth rolling in mesh with a the work piece past the cutter in the manner of stationary rack, a tool carrying ram supported by said supporting structure for a guided move ment in a path transverse to the pitch line of an imaginary rack disposed in tangent relation to the a gear rolling in mesh with a rack when a tooth pitch circle on which the work piece projection rolls‘, a cutting tool protruding from said ram having a cutting edge on its extremity located to reciprocate across said pitch line when the ram is .reciprocated, and means for reciprocating said ram organized to displace said cutting edge back and forthacross said line a multiplicity of times in the ‘length of time consumedby the work of thegear meshes with a rack tooth face which approximately coincides with the path of the cutting edge, while a portion of a side face of one of the work piece teeth intersects such path, said ramand work holding means being relatively disposed so that the reciprocations of the ‘ram are transverse to the axis of the angular component of said rolling traverse, and means for reciprocating said ram and cutter a plurality of times during such rolling traverse of the work piece through distances such that the cutting edge is carried on each stroke beyond the ex piece projection in rolling into and out of mesh with an ‘imaginary rack tooth coinciding with the 45 tremities of the before-mentioned portion of the work piece tooth which intersects the cutter path. path :of the cutting edge. ‘ 14. The method of ?nishing a curved surface of a Work piece which occupies a relation vto such ‘work piece corresponding to that of the side face adapted to carry work pieces having projections 50 of a gear tooth to the body of the gear, which comprises imparting a rolling movement to the of gear tooth character, means for imparting work piece like that of a gear rolling in mesh combined movements of translation and rotation with a rack, reciprocating ‘an edged cutter in a ‘to said work holding means such that a tooth direction transverse to the length of its cutting like projection of the work piece is moved in the same manner as though rolling. in mesh with a 55 edge and to the translative component of said 11. A machine for performing a ?nish cutting operation on the sidesof gear teeth and analogous curved forms, comprising work holding means stationary rack tooth, a cutter having a cutting rolling movement and in the crest-to-root direc edge, means for reciprocating the cutter in a tion of the curved surface of the work piece in a path which intersects said curved surface and the limits of which are outside of the points of path which is transverse to the .axis of rotational movement'and ‘intersects a side of such tooth-like projection so as to perform a, planing action 60 intersection of the path with said curved surface, and causing a multiplicity of reciprocations of thereon, and through a distance greater than the the cutter to be performed during a single rolling length of that portion of the; work piece projec traverse of said surface past such path. tion which intersects said path when in position 15. The method of ?nishing gear tooth faces to be operated on by the cutter, and means for correlating the rate of cutter reciprocation with 65 and analogous curved forms, which comprises effecting a rolling movement of a gear-like work the speed of rolling movement of the work hold piece like that of a gear rolling in mesh with a ing means so that a ‘multiplicity of cutter strokes are performed while the work piece projection is rack and reciprocating an edged cutter trans versely to the translative component of such roll rolled over the cutter path. 12. A-machine for ?nishing gear tooth faces 70 ing movement, and so that the’ edge thereof and analogous curved forms, comprising a cutter travels in a path which intersects a side face of having :a de?nite cutting edge, means for recip a tooth of the work piece, and the direction of rocating said cutter in directions transverse to reciprocation is in the crest-to-root dimension of its cutting edge so that the path of the cutting the tooth, and the edge of the cutter is carried edge in space corresponds substantially to one 75 at each reciprocation beyond the limits of that 2,405,159 13 portion of the work piece tooth which intersects the path. 16. The method of ?nishing gear tooth faces and the like, which consists in rolling a gearlike work piece in the manner of a gear rolling in mesh with a rack, reciprocating a cutter, having a cutting edge on its extremity, repeatedly during the time required for a tooth of the work piece to roll into and out of mesh with a conjugate rack 14 of such rolling movement, and causing the direc tion of cutting traverse of the slotting tool to lie in the crest-to-root dimension of the work piece tooth and the limits of travel of the cutting edge to be outside of the points of intersection of the side face of said tooth with the path of the cut ting edge. tooth, and causing the path of the cutting edge 18. A machine for ?nishing gear tooth faces and analogous curved forms, comprising a cutter having a cutting edge, a work support, means for to intersect a side face of a tooth of the work piece to a depth suitable for the cutting of a chip in the course of a single uninterrupted stroke of the cutter, and causing the direction of cutting of translation and rotation between the cutter and a work piece carried by said work support in a manner corresponding to the rolling action eifecting relative rolling movement compounded movement of the cutter to extend in the crest 15 between a gear and a rack tooth when a tooth of the gear is in mesh with such rack tooth, the to-root direction of the work piece tooth and the cutter being reciprocable in a direction transverse limits of each stroke to be outside of the inter both to the translative component of such rolling section points of the side of such tooth with the movement and to the axis of the angular com cutter path. 17. The method of cutting slots in the side faces 20 ponent thereof, means for so reciprocating the cutter a plurality of times during said relative of the teeth of a gear shaving tool or the like, rolling movement, and means for e?ecting a rela which consists in rolling a work piece in the man tive displacement between the cutter and work ner of a gear rolling in mesh with a rack, recip piece in time with such relative reciprocations so rocating a slottingv tool, which has a cutting por tion on its extremity, in such manner that said 25 as to prevent rubbing contact between the cutter and work during the non cutting strokes. cutting portion is carried in a path which inter sects a side face of one of the work piece teeth and is transverse to the translative component EDWARD W. MILLER.