Патент USA US2405182код для вставки
Amigo @9 WMO Ja H. BQLLMAN ULTRA-SONIC RANGIEQ? ÍGÉVÍGE VAC0POITNE8FMROAL ÜOIIDENSER C/O CHARGING 0F ZAÜÈQEÈE J; H. EQLLMAN äfâßßäîßä ULTRA-SONIC HANGING BEVICE me@ Dec. 1o, :.942 2 sham-shame 2 7'2 / É . , ..RO UNA? PÑÚJÉÈCTÜR É . U QM; v2 SOUND RECEIVER ' A7' TORNE'V 2,405,182 Patented Aug. 6, 1946 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE 2,405,182 ULTRASONIC RANG-ING DEVICE .lohn H. Bollman, Rutherford, N. J., assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Y Application December 1o, 1942,7seria1No. 468,532 4 Claims. (C1. 177-386) l 2 This invention relates to detecting and locating devices, and particularly to ultra-sonic echo Timing circuits are provided, comprising gen erally relaxation oscillators whose rate of opera ranging equipment. tion is controlled by a variable resistance and a In devices of this character distances may be measured by projecting a pulse of a frequency within or above the sound range and `measuring condenser in a charging circuit, By Varying the resistance element in the said charging circuit the rate of charging may be varied and hence the periodicity of the operation of the circuit. A the time of its travel from the time at which it _ iirst timing circuit is provided to place an ultra is transmitted to the time it travels to an object sonic signal generator into operation. The opera to 4be located, is reflected therefrom and returns as an echo. The rate of travel being known, the 10 tion of this circuit at the same time starts a sec ond and a third timing circuit into operation, the distance to the object may be readily calculated. second being employed for generating a compari Such devices may be used to locate objects in the son signal and the third being employed for gen air or under water. For purposes controlled by erating a stop signal. The comparison signal various factors the ultra-sonic range is commonly used which generally means a range of frequen 15 when its circuit is adjusted to make it coincide cies between 15,000 and 40,000 cycles per second. By way of example, and in a preferred embodi ment of the present invention a frequency of 25 kilocycles will be described in connection with a device for locating objects under the surface of 20 the sea where it is known that sound of this fre quency travels at the rate of 1,600 yards per second. An object of the invention is to provide a com pact, comparatively light-weight and economical 25 equipment unit requiring a small amount of power for use on small boats, Accordingly, an electronic tube device is pro vided having a combination of three timing cir cuits for starting and stopping the transmission 30 of an ultra-sonic signal and for timing another signal used for comparison with the echo of the said supersonic signal. By vthe use of these timing circuits power which has been stored at a low rate for a comparatively long period may be delivered 35 as a heavy surge for a comparatively short period to the generator of the ultra-sonic signal whereby strong signals may be transmitted for short inter vals periodically. LA feature of the invention is an energy reser 40 voir by which a large amount of power for a short interval is made available by the storage of power at a low rate over a comparatively long period. In the speciñc embodiment of the invention here in described a condenser is used as a storage 45 means and which releases a comparatively great amount of power after being charged at a com paratively low rate. By such means the use of bulky and expensive primary sources of power is avoided. Where, by way of example, a surge of power of about two-tenths of a second duration once every six seconds is employed, the power may be derived from an economical source and the size and Weight of the apparatus can be con siderably reduced. with the beginning ofV the ultra-sonic echo will indicate that the reading of a calibrated scale indicator on the comparison signal adjusting means is properly set and hence such reading will give the correct distance of the target. The stop signal will reverse the condition established by the ñrst or start timing circuit and thus termi nate the transmission of the supersonic signal. The rate of operation of the stop signal timing circuit thus determines the length of the trans mitted ultra-sonic signal. The start signal circuit operates periodically and independently cf the other circuits and thus determines the periodicity of the echo ranging operation. The stop signal circuit and the com parison signal circuit, however, are dependent on the start signal circuit and both start their opera tion in response to the start signal. The period of the stop signal is the shortest of the three periods measured, varying by way of example from eight-hundredths to three-tenths of a second, The -time interval measured by the comparison signal is next in length, being much greater than the stop signal interval but only slightly shorter than the start signal timing. The three controls may be separately manipulated so that in the handsof an expert operator the dif ferent conditions may be adjusted to a íine degree and great accuracy inthe determination of the distance sought can be attained. As an alternative arrangement at the discretion of the operator and as illustrated herein as a pre ierred embodiment of the invention, the Vthree controls may be manipulated simultaneously by a single dial. Thus as the interval of the com parison signal is changed the intervals of the start‘and stop signals will be changed accord ingly', though the relative lengths of the various intervals will not be altered. Another feature of the invention is, therefore, 55 2,405,182. 4` 3 tion with a unitary controlling means for oper denser C|`5 being charged at this time will now` discharge over resistance R20. The voltage` across condenser CI5 is shown by the graph ofi Fig. 4 and win be seen to follow the graph of' Fig. 2 in its time elements. The complete action ating said controls, the arrangement being such that the relative lengths of the various time in of Fig. 5 which represents the potential 0f the tervals measured remain substantially unaltered control anode of tube V8. Therefore it will be the use of a plurality of timing circuits all co operating in a single circuit operation, each of which measures a diiferent time interval and each having an interval varying control, in combina of the circuit of Fig. 3 is depicted in the graph throughout the range of said unitary controlling seen that in a very short time after tube V6 fires V10 and extinguishes tube V8 by reducing the poten means. Other features will appear hereinafter. The drawings consist of two sheets having eight figures, as follows: Fig. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram showing a typical relaxation Oscillator` for timing` the op 15 tial on the point between resistances R20 and RZI, a condenser, CIG, charges and causes the firing of tube V8. This tube therefore becomes conducting again very shortly after it is extin guished and remains in this condition until con denser C5 charges to the firing point of V6, rep resented by the dotted line in Fig. 5. The com paratively long horizontal part of the graph of operational interval t; _ Fig. 5 represents the control anode potential of Fig. 3 is another schematic circuit diagram 20 tube V8 while it is conducting. showing the combination of two relaxation oscil The time tf between the firing of tube V6 lators, the one shown in Fig. 1 and another for and the ñring of tube V8 represents the time timing the interval over which a ranging signal is during which the outgoing signal is transmitted transmitted during an interval t1; and the time t-t’ as represented by the hori Fig. 4 is a graph showing the poten-tial varia zontal portion of the graph of Fig. 5 represents erational interval of the device; ' Fig. 2 is a graph of the potential on theanode of the tube in the circuit of Fig, 1 showing the tion across a condenser which acts to discharge the tube which controls the length of the time interval t1; Fig. 5 is a graph of the potential on the anode of the tube which controls the time interval t1; 30 Fig. 6 is another schematic circuit diagram showing the combination of two relaxation oscil lators, the one shown in Fig. 1 and another for timing the compariso-n signal transmitted at the the time over which energy is being stored at a low rate for dissipation in a short interval (t’) signal at a high rate. The ñringof tube V6 rep resents a start signal and the firing of tube V8 representsastop signal. . , . ' It will be noted that a resistance R25 and con-. denser Cl? control the time interval t’. Figs. 6 and 7 are similar to Figs. 3 and 5, re-L spectively, and show the generation ofthe com end of an interval t2; Y . 35 parison signal >generated-by the firing of tube Fig. 7 is a graph ofthe potential on the anode V1. The time interval [t2 Vbetween the firing of’ of the `tube which controls the time interval t2; tube V6 andthe firing of. tube' Vl is thus the in-` terval which it takes for a signal to be transmit and . ~ , Fig.` 8 is av detailed circuit diagram of the con ted and its echo received, when the proper ad-V nections ofthe device. of the present invention. 40 justment is made so that Ithe _comparison signal The operation of the circuit may be .under coincides with the reception »of Vthe said echo. stood by the following description. Fig. 2 Vrepre The time interval t2 is controlled by resistance sents the fundamental operation of the timing R24 and condenser C6. I Y Y circuit for controlling the rate of operation there It will be noted that the time intervalt is com of or the frequency of the Astarting signal. The 45 paratively long,V that the time interval t2 is also tube V6 as shown in Fig. 1 is' included in a re long but somewhat shorter than t, and that the ` laxation oscillation circuit. When such a cir time interval t’ is comparatively short.V Y cuit is established the Ycondenser ’C5 charging The variable resistances R23, R24 and R25 may through resistance R23 varies the potential be-individually adjusted or they may be 'operated across the tube V6 in accordance with the graph 50 by a gang control as indicated in Fig. 8. f In 'the of Fig. 2. When the potential across the ytube latter case the relative lengths of the time inter reaches the value Ec the tube fires and the po vals t, t’ and t2 are maintained as" described. « tential drops suddenly and then begins to build The complete operation ofthe device may be up again. The time t between two firing points understood through the following description of > of the tube determines the rate of operation of 55 the circuit diagram of Fig. 8. The device is con this circuit, which depends in a manner well un nected by any usual means to a source> lof alter derstood on the constants of the resistance R23 nating current and rendered effective» by the clo and the condenser C5. Since the resistance is sure of the switch 2. In thismanner alternating variable the time t may be controlled at will. current is connected to Primary coil 3 of trans If this relaxation oscillator circuit is now in-I 60 former TI which has a plurality Vof secondary cluded in a more complex circuit, as indicated in coils for supplying various potentials to different Fig. 3, another timing operation may be pro circuits. ` Thus coil 4 supplies filament currentv duced. If each of the sudden drops of potential to tubes VI and V2 and coil 5> acts> asa source indicated in Fig. 2 is employed as a start pulse, of power, rectified by the tubes VI and V2 to a stop pulse may be produced a deñnite time in 65 charge the condenser Cl and to supply a direct terval thereafter by the use of another tube, V8. current potential across conductors 6 and 1, the The tube‘VS being in a conducting state the re rate -of charge being controlled by the ’resiste sistances R20 and R2l constitute a potentiometer ance so that one plate of condenser CI5 is held at a given potential. -The other plate offthecon denser Cl5 will vary with the potential of the anode of V6` which upon firing will' bring such other plate of condenser CIE down to the level RI. - » Y ~ - l ~ »Coil 8 supplies filament current to tubes‘VS, V4 and V5 and` coi1 9' suppliespower translated by tube. V3 into direct. current for. charging `con denserv C2. ' ' ' ` ' ` Condensers Cl and C2 arecomparatively large’ of its first plate connected to the lpotentiometerV capacity Condensers and they act tost’cre. alarge point between resistances R20 and R2I'.v Con 75 amount of power at a low rate during 'the interval'.V 2,405, 182 6 t-t’, which is released at a high rate during the tive under normal conditions. However, a con interval t', to operate the sound projector I0 to nection between the control grid and the screen send out a comparatively strong signal. The tube V4 and the windings of the trans grid of V5 includes a winding of transformer T3. The other winding of this transformer is con nected across the resistance Rliì in the anode cir cuit of tube V6 so that when tube V5 fires, the sudden current ñow in resistance RIB is trans lated into a positive pulse superimposed on the potential of the control grid of tube V5. This causes V5 to ñre and since its internal resistance is very low it practically grounds the resistance R30 with the results hereinbefore described. Now in a very short interval t1 determined by V8 a negative pulse is transmitted by condenser C`I3 by the ñring of tube V8 to the anode of tube former T2 comprise an oscillator which is con trolled by the tube V5, the tube V4 being known as a push-pull double pentode. Its control grids are connected to the outside terminals of one winding of the transformer T2 and its anodes are connected to the outside terminals of an other winding of this transformer. The source of current which is represented by the condenser CI connected to conductors 6 and 1 is connected between the anodes and cathodes of this tube and becomes effective when the potential of the screen grids is raised bythe fully chargedcon V5.y The potential of the control grid of this tube denser C2, the control grids being held at a having returned to normal the tube is now quenched and the action of tube V4 is stopped. relatively high negative potential with respect The network of resistances R3, R8, R9, RIU, to the cathode until tube V5 ñres. Feedback to the control grids is provided by the middle wind 20 RII, RI2,’R2‘I, R28 and R3I comprises a poten tiometer from which various taps, II to I8, inclu ing of transformer T2 so that oscillations are sive, are taken to provide various potentials for set up in this tube and transformer circuit in the purposes needed in the circuit. accordance with well-known principles and an The tap II supplies a charging potential for ultrasonic signal is transmitted by the transmit the storage condenser C2 through a compara ter I0. tively high resistance R2 whereby the rate of Under normal conditions, during the interval charge is low. Two voltage regulator tubes V9 t-ti, or while the tube V5 is not conducting, the suppressor grids and the cathodes of tube V4 and VIE) are connected in this network to main have comparatively small positive potential im tain steady potentials on the taps I2 and I3. `If ground is taken as a reference point, then the potentials of th'e taps I I to I5 will be at vari ous positive values and tap I6 wil1 be a negative value. Tap I2 leads to resistances RIS and R23 which control the relaxation oscillation circuit for tube V6 as explained in connection with Figs. 1 and 2. Tap I4 leads to resistances RI 5 and R25 which control the relaxation oscillation circuit for tube V8 as explained in connection with Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Tap I5 leads to resistances RI4 and R24 which control the relaxation oscillation circuit for tube V1 as explained in connection with Figs. 6 and 7. It may be noted that the condenser C6 of Fig. 6 actually consists of two condensers CI2 and C6 controlled by a switch' I'I. When the switch I‘I is thrown to the right these two con densers are connected in parallel so that the time interval t2 becomes comparatively long as illus trated in Fig. 7. When the switch I'I is thrown to the left condensers CI2 and C6 are in series and the time interval t2 becomes comparatively short. Thus means is provided to detect targets at long and sh'ort ranges. The firing of tube V1 produces a disturbance pressed thereon which may be traced from 30 ground, the voltage regulator tube VIi'I, resist ance R22, the gain control or bias adjustment network comprising resistance R29 and con denser C`4 to the supppressor grids and cathodes of tube V4. At the same time the screen grids 35 of tube V4 have a positive potential supplied thereto from condenser C2 but since these posi tive potentials are both related to ground the effective positive potential of the screen grids is the difference between such screen grid poten 40 tial and the said comparatively small positive potential on the cathodes and this is insufûcient to enable the tube V4. Therefore the tube V4 remains inactive. The tube V5 is a gas-filled tube and when it is ñred through an impulse provided by the trans former T3 it provides a path of very low resist ance from its anode to its cathode, and since its cathode is grounded the operation of tube V5 is then equivalent to grounding one terminal of low resistance R35. This substantially reduces the potential of the suppressor grids and the cath odes of tube V4, to ground potential, whereby the positive potential of the screen grids becomes relatively more postive and the negative poten tial of the control grids becomes relatively less negative, thus rendering the tube active. Thereupon, in effect the condenser CI dis charges from the anodes of tube V4 to the cath odes thereof and the condenser C2 discharges from the screen grids to the cathodes with the result that the power output of the transformer T2 rises to a high value. The time values in 45 50 55 through condenser C8, switch I8 and transformer T4 which is translated into a click in the head receiver I9. A companion receiver 20 is con nected to a. means for detecting the echo of the signal projected by the sound projector I0, here 60 shown schematically as sound receiver 2l. Th'e operator will adjust the three variable resistances R23, R24 and R25 either separately by the knobs 23, 24 and 25 or by a gang control until the click this circuit are so adjusted that during the heard in receiver I9 coincides with the beginning small interval t1 during which this action takes 65 of the echo heard in receiver 2i). The setting of the gang control dial 22 will indicate th'e distance place the charges on condensers CI and C2 will sought to be established. Such controls may be not be exhausted but only depleted. The power taken out during this interval will then be re marked so as to indicate directly the distances stored at a low rate during the following interval measured. As shown schematically here, the t-th 70 rack 26 in its right-hand position will cause the The tube V5 has its cathode at ground poten tial and its control grid and screen grid both at simultaneous adjustment of R23, R24 and R25. If moved to the left and hooked over the part 21 a comparatively low negative potential, that th'e three resistances may be separately adjusted. measured by the drop of potential across the What is claimed is: 1. In a signaling system wherein a signal is resistance R28. This holds the tube non-opera 75 2,405,182 8 cuit for periodically placing said signal generator operation, a timing circuit for taking said signal generator out of operation,la timing circuit for generating a signal for comparison with the echo in operation, a timing circuit for taking said sig of the signal transmitted by said signal generator, nal generator out of operation, a timing circuit for generating a signal for comparison with the echo of the signal transmitted by said signal gen erator, said timing circuits being started in opera said timing circuits being responsive to said au tomatically operating circuit, an individual time interval adjustment control for each of said three transmitted and an echo thereof is~received,-»a signal generator, an automatically operating cir circuits and a gang controller for operating said tion by said automatically operating signal gen three individual controls constructed and ar era-tor starting circuit simultaneously with the 10 ranged to maintain the relative time intervals of starting in operation of said signal generator, and the said th'ree circuits unchanged. an individual time interval adjustment control for each of said three circuits. 2. In a signaling system wherein a signal is transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a sig 4. In a signaling system wherein a signal is transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a signal generator, a source of energy, an energy reservoir for operating said signal generator at nal generator, an automatically operating circuit a comparatively high‘rate, means for transferring for periodically placing said signal generator in energy from said source of energy to said reser operation, a timing circuit for taking said signal voir at a comparatively low rate, an automatically generator out of operation, a timing circuit for operating circuit for periodically placing said sig generating a signal for comparison with' the echo 20 nal generator in operation, a timing circuit for Y takingsaid signal generator out of operation, a of the signal transmitted by said signal generator, timing circuit for generating a signal for com said timing circuits being responsive to said au parison with the echo of the signal transmitted tomatically operating circuit, an individual time interval adjustment control for each of said three by said signal generator, said timing circuits be circuits and a single means for simultaneously op erating said individual controls. >3. In a signaling system wherein a signal is ing responsive to said automatically operating circuit, and means for controlling the periodicity of said automatically operating circuit and said timing circuits. transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a sig nal generator, an automatically operating circuit ' e for periodically placing said signal generator in 30 JOHN H. BOLLMAN.