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Патент USA US2405182

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Amigo @9 WMO
Ja H. BQLLMAN
ULTRA-SONIC RANGIEQ? ÍGÉVÍGE
VAC0POITNE8FMROAL
ÜOIIDENSER C/O
CHARGING 0F
ZAÜÈQEÈE
J; H. EQLLMAN
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ULTRA-SONIC HANGING BEVICE
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2,405,182
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
UNITED STATES
ATENT OFFICE
2,405,182
ULTRASONIC RANG-ING DEVICE
.lohn H. Bollman, Rutherford, N. J., assignor to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Y
Application December 1o, 1942,7seria1No. 468,532
4 Claims.
(C1. 177-386)
l
2
This invention relates to detecting and locating
devices, and particularly to ultra-sonic echo
Timing circuits are provided, comprising gen
erally relaxation oscillators whose rate of opera
ranging equipment.
tion is controlled by a variable resistance and a
In devices of this character distances may be
measured by projecting a pulse of a frequency
within or above the sound range and `measuring
condenser in a charging circuit, By Varying the
resistance element in the said charging circuit
the rate of charging may be varied and hence the
periodicity of the operation of the circuit. A
the time of its travel from the time at which it _
iirst timing circuit is provided to place an ultra
is transmitted to the time it travels to an object
sonic signal generator into operation. The opera
to 4be located, is reflected therefrom and returns
as an echo. The rate of travel being known, the 10 tion of this circuit at the same time starts a sec
ond and a third timing circuit into operation, the
distance to the object may be readily calculated.
second being employed for generating a compari
Such devices may be used to locate objects in the
son signal and the third being employed for gen
air or under water. For purposes controlled by
erating a stop signal. The comparison signal
various factors the ultra-sonic range is commonly
used which generally means a range of frequen 15 when its circuit is adjusted to make it coincide
cies between 15,000 and 40,000 cycles per second.
By way of example, and in a preferred embodi
ment of the present invention a frequency of 25
kilocycles will be described in connection with a
device for locating objects under the surface of 20
the sea where it is known that sound of this fre
quency travels at the rate of 1,600 yards per
second.
An object of the invention is to provide a com
pact, comparatively light-weight and economical 25
equipment unit requiring a small amount of power
for use on small boats,
Accordingly, an electronic tube device is pro
vided having a combination of three timing cir
cuits for starting and stopping the transmission 30
of an ultra-sonic signal and for timing another
signal used for comparison with the echo of the
said supersonic signal. By vthe use of these timing
circuits power which has been stored at a low rate
for a comparatively long period may be delivered 35
as a heavy surge for a comparatively short period
to the generator of the ultra-sonic signal whereby
strong signals may be transmitted for short inter
vals periodically.
LA feature of the invention is an energy reser 40
voir by which a large amount of power for a short
interval is made available by the storage of power
at a low rate over a comparatively long period.
In the speciñc embodiment of the invention here
in described a condenser is used as a storage 45
means and which releases a comparatively great
amount of power after being charged at a com
paratively low rate. By such means the use of
bulky and expensive primary sources of power is
avoided. Where, by way of example, a surge of
power of about two-tenths of a second duration
once every six seconds is employed, the power
may be derived from an economical source and
the size and Weight of the apparatus can be con
siderably reduced.
with the beginning ofV the ultra-sonic echo will
indicate that the reading of a calibrated scale
indicator on the comparison signal adjusting
means is properly set and hence such reading will
give the correct distance of the target. The stop
signal will reverse the condition established by
the ñrst or start timing circuit and thus termi
nate the transmission of the supersonic signal.
The rate of operation of the stop signal timing
circuit thus determines the length of the trans
mitted ultra-sonic signal.
The start signal circuit operates periodically
and independently cf the other circuits and thus
determines the periodicity of the echo ranging
operation. The stop signal circuit and the com
parison signal circuit, however, are dependent on
the start signal circuit and both start their opera
tion in response to the start signal.
The period of the stop signal is the shortest of
the three periods measured, varying by way of
example from eight-hundredths to three-tenths
of a second, The -time interval measured by the
comparison signal is next in length, being much
greater than the stop signal interval but only
slightly shorter than the start signal timing. The
three controls may be separately manipulated so
that in the handsof an expert operator the dif
ferent conditions may be adjusted to a íine degree
and great accuracy inthe determination of the
distance sought can be attained.
As an alternative arrangement at the discretion
of the operator and as illustrated herein as a pre
ierred embodiment of the invention, the Vthree
controls may be manipulated simultaneously by
a single dial.
Thus as the interval of the com
parison signal is changed the intervals of the
start‘and stop signals will be changed accord
ingly', though the relative lengths of the various
intervals will not be altered.
Another feature of the invention is, therefore,
55
2,405,182.
4`
3
tion with a unitary controlling means for oper
denser C|`5 being charged at this time will now`
discharge over resistance R20. The voltage`
across condenser CI5 is shown by the graph ofi
Fig. 4 and win be seen to follow the graph of'
Fig. 2 in its time elements. The complete action
ating said controls, the arrangement being such
that the relative lengths of the various time in
of Fig. 5 which represents the potential 0f the
tervals measured remain substantially unaltered
control anode of tube V8. Therefore it will be
the use of a plurality of timing circuits all co
operating in a single circuit operation, each of
which measures a diiferent time interval and each
having an interval varying control, in combina
of the circuit of Fig. 3 is depicted in the graph
throughout the range of said unitary controlling
seen that in a very short time after tube V6 fires
V10 and extinguishes tube V8 by reducing the poten
means.
Other features will appear hereinafter.
The drawings consist of two sheets having
eight figures, as follows:
Fig. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram showing
a typical relaxation Oscillator` for timing` the op 15
tial on the point between resistances R20 and
RZI, a condenser, CIG, charges and causes the
firing of tube V8. This tube therefore becomes
conducting again very shortly after it is extin
guished and remains in this condition until con
denser C5 charges to the firing point of V6, rep
resented by the dotted line in Fig. 5. The com
paratively long horizontal part of the graph of
operational interval t;
_
Fig. 5 represents the control anode potential of
Fig. 3 is another schematic circuit diagram 20 tube V8 while it is conducting.
showing the combination of two relaxation oscil
The time tf between the firing of tube V6
lators, the one shown in Fig. 1 and another for
and the ñring of tube V8 represents the time
timing the interval over which a ranging signal is
during which the outgoing signal is transmitted
transmitted during an interval t1;
and the time t-t’ as represented by the hori
Fig. 4 is a graph showing the poten-tial varia
zontal portion of the graph of Fig. 5 represents
erational interval of the device;
'
Fig. 2 is a graph of the potential on theanode
of the tube in the circuit of Fig, 1 showing the
tion across a condenser which acts to discharge
the tube which controls the length of the time
interval t1;
Fig. 5 is a graph of the potential on the anode
of the tube which controls the time interval t1; 30
Fig. 6 is another schematic circuit diagram
showing the combination of two relaxation oscil
lators, the one shown in Fig. 1 and another for
timing the compariso-n signal transmitted at the
the time over which energy is being stored at a
low rate for dissipation in a short interval (t’)
signal at a high rate. The ñringof tube V6 rep
resents a start signal and the firing of tube V8
representsastop signal.
.
,
.
' It will be noted that a resistance R25 and con-.
denser Cl? control the time interval t’.
Figs. 6 and 7 are similar to Figs. 3 and 5, re-L
spectively, and show the generation ofthe com
end of an interval t2;
Y .
35 parison signal >generated-by the firing of tube
Fig. 7 is a graph ofthe potential on the anode
V1. The time interval [t2 Vbetween the firing of’
of the `tube which controls the time interval t2;
tube V6 andthe firing of. tube' Vl is thus the in-`
terval which it takes for a signal to be transmit
and
.
~
,
Fig.` 8 is av detailed circuit diagram of the con
ted and its echo received, when the proper ad-V
nections ofthe device. of the present invention. 40 justment is made so that Ithe _comparison signal
The operation of the circuit may be .under
coincides with the reception »of Vthe said echo.
stood by the following description. Fig. 2 Vrepre
The time interval t2 is controlled by resistance
sents the fundamental operation of the timing
R24 and condenser C6.
I
Y Y
circuit for controlling the rate of operation there
It will be noted that the time intervalt is com
of or the frequency of the Astarting signal. The 45 paratively long,V that the time interval t2 is also
tube V6 as shown in Fig. 1 is' included in a re
long but somewhat shorter than t, and that the `
laxation oscillation circuit.
When such a cir
time interval t’ is comparatively short.V
Y
cuit is established the Ycondenser ’C5 charging
The variable resistances R23, R24 and R25 may
through resistance R23 varies the potential
be-individually adjusted or they may be 'operated
across the tube V6 in accordance with the graph 50 by a gang control as indicated in Fig. 8. f In 'the
of Fig. 2. When the potential across the ytube
latter case the relative lengths of the time inter
reaches the value Ec the tube fires and the po
vals t, t’ and t2 are maintained as" described. «
tential drops suddenly and then begins to build
The complete operation ofthe device may be
up again. The time t between two firing points
understood through the following description of
> of the tube determines the rate of operation of 55 the circuit diagram of Fig. 8. The device is con
this circuit, which depends in a manner well un
nected by any usual means to a source> lof alter
derstood on the constants of the resistance R23
nating current and rendered effective» by the clo
and the condenser C5. Since the resistance is
sure of the switch 2. In thismanner alternating
variable the time t may be controlled at will.
current is connected to Primary coil 3 of trans
If this relaxation oscillator circuit is now in-I 60 former TI which has a plurality Vof secondary
cluded in a more complex circuit, as indicated in
coils for supplying various potentials to different
Fig. 3, another timing operation may be pro
circuits.
`
Thus coil 4 supplies filament
currentv
duced. If each of the sudden drops of potential
to tubes VI and V2 and coil 5> acts> asa source
indicated in Fig. 2 is employed as a start pulse,
of power, rectified by the tubes VI and V2 to
a stop pulse may be produced a deñnite time in 65 charge the condenser Cl and to supply a direct
terval thereafter by the use of another tube, V8.
current potential across conductors 6 and 1, the
The tube‘VS being in a conducting state the re
rate -of charge being controlled by the ’resiste
sistances R20 and R2l constitute a potentiometer
ance
so that one plate of condenser CI5 is held at a
given potential.
-The other plate offthecon
denser Cl5 will vary with the potential of the
anode of V6` which upon firing will' bring such
other plate of condenser CIE down to the level
RI.
-
»
Y
~
-
l
~
»Coil 8 supplies filament current to tubes‘VS, V4
and V5 and` coi1 9' suppliespower translated by
tube. V3 into direct. current for. charging `con
denserv C2.
'
'
'
`
'
` Condensers Cl and C2 arecomparatively large’
of its first plate connected to the lpotentiometerV
capacity Condensers and they act tost’cre. alarge
point between resistances R20 and R2I'.v Con 75 amount of power at a low rate during 'the interval'.V
2,405, 182
6
t-t’, which is released at a high rate during the
tive under normal conditions. However, a con
interval t', to operate the sound projector I0 to
nection between the control grid and the screen
send out a comparatively strong signal.
The tube V4 and the windings of the trans
grid of V5 includes a winding of transformer T3.
The other winding of this transformer is con
nected across the resistance Rliì in the anode cir
cuit of tube V6 so that when tube V5 fires, the
sudden current ñow in resistance RIB is trans
lated into a positive pulse superimposed on the
potential of the control grid of tube V5. This
causes V5 to ñre and since its internal resistance
is very low it practically grounds the resistance
R30 with the results hereinbefore described.
Now in a very short interval t1 determined by
V8 a negative pulse is transmitted by condenser
C`I3 by the ñring of tube V8 to the anode of tube
former T2 comprise an oscillator which is con
trolled by the tube V5, the tube V4 being known
as a push-pull double pentode. Its control grids
are connected to the outside terminals of one
winding of the transformer T2 and its anodes
are connected to the outside terminals of an
other winding of this transformer. The source of
current which is represented by the condenser CI
connected to conductors 6 and 1 is connected
between the anodes and cathodes of this tube
and becomes effective when the potential of the
screen grids is raised bythe fully chargedcon
V5.y The potential of the control grid of this tube
denser C2, the control grids being held at a
having returned to normal the tube is now
quenched and the action of tube V4 is stopped.
relatively high negative potential with respect
The network of resistances R3, R8, R9, RIU,
to the cathode until tube V5 ñres. Feedback to
the control grids is provided by the middle wind 20 RII, RI2,’R2‘I, R28 and R3I comprises a poten
tiometer from which various taps, II to I8, inclu
ing of transformer T2 so that oscillations are
sive, are taken to provide various potentials for
set up in this tube and transformer circuit in
the purposes needed in the circuit.
accordance with well-known principles and an
The tap II supplies a charging potential for
ultrasonic signal is transmitted by the transmit
the storage condenser C2 through a compara
ter I0.
tively high resistance R2 whereby the rate of
Under normal conditions, during the interval
charge is low. Two voltage regulator tubes V9
t-ti, or while the tube V5 is not conducting, the
suppressor grids and the cathodes of tube V4
and VIE) are connected in this network to main
have comparatively small positive potential im
tain steady potentials on the taps I2 and I3.
`If ground is taken as a reference point, then
the potentials of th'e taps I I to I5 will be at vari
ous positive values and tap I6 wil1 be a negative
value.
Tap I2 leads to resistances RIS and R23 which
control the relaxation oscillation circuit for tube
V6 as explained in connection with Figs. 1 and 2.
Tap I4 leads to resistances RI 5 and R25 which
control the relaxation oscillation circuit for tube
V8 as explained in connection with Figs. 3, 4 and
5. Tap I5 leads to resistances RI4 and R24
which control the relaxation oscillation circuit for
tube V1 as explained in connection with Figs. 6
and 7. It may be noted that the condenser C6
of Fig. 6 actually consists of two condensers CI2
and C6 controlled by a switch' I'I. When the
switch I‘I is thrown to the right these two con
densers are connected in parallel so that the time
interval t2 becomes comparatively long as illus
trated in Fig. 7. When the switch I'I is thrown to
the left condensers CI2 and C6 are in series and
the time interval t2 becomes comparatively short.
Thus means is provided to detect targets at long
and sh'ort ranges.
The firing of tube V1 produces a disturbance
pressed thereon which may be traced from 30
ground, the voltage regulator tube VIi'I, resist
ance R22, the gain control or bias adjustment
network comprising resistance R29 and con
denser C`4 to the supppressor grids and cathodes
of tube V4. At the same time the screen grids 35
of tube V4 have a positive potential supplied
thereto from condenser C2 but since these posi
tive potentials are both related to ground the
effective positive potential of the screen grids is
the difference between such screen grid poten 40
tial and the said comparatively small positive
potential on the cathodes and this is insufûcient
to enable the tube V4. Therefore the tube V4
remains inactive.
The tube V5 is a gas-filled tube and when it is
ñred through an impulse provided by the trans
former T3 it provides a path of very low resist
ance from its anode to its cathode, and since its
cathode is grounded the operation of tube V5 is
then equivalent to grounding one terminal of low
resistance R35. This substantially reduces the
potential of the suppressor grids and the cath
odes of tube V4, to ground potential, whereby
the positive potential of the screen grids becomes
relatively more postive and the negative poten
tial of the control grids becomes relatively less
negative, thus rendering the tube active.
Thereupon, in effect the condenser CI dis
charges from the anodes of tube V4 to the cath
odes thereof and the condenser C2 discharges
from the screen grids to the cathodes with the
result that the power output of the transformer
T2 rises to a high value. The time values in
45
50
55 through condenser C8, switch I8 and transformer
T4 which is translated into a click in the head
receiver I9. A companion receiver 20 is con
nected to a. means for detecting the echo of the
signal projected by the sound projector I0, here
60 shown schematically as sound receiver 2l.
Th'e
operator will adjust the three variable resistances
R23, R24 and R25 either separately by the knobs
23, 24 and 25 or by a gang control until the click
this circuit are so adjusted that during the
heard in receiver I9 coincides with the beginning
small interval t1 during which this action takes 65 of the echo heard in receiver 2i). The setting of
the gang control dial 22 will indicate th'e distance
place the charges on condensers CI and C2 will
sought to be established. Such controls may be
not be exhausted but only depleted. The power
taken out during this interval will then be re
marked so as to indicate directly the distances
stored at a low rate during the following interval
measured. As shown schematically here, the
t-th
70 rack 26 in its right-hand position will cause the
The tube V5 has its cathode at ground poten
tial and its control grid and screen grid both at
simultaneous adjustment of R23, R24 and R25.
If moved to the left and hooked over the part 21
a comparatively low negative potential, that
th'e three resistances may be separately adjusted.
measured by the drop of potential across the
What is claimed is:
1. In a signaling system wherein a signal is
resistance R28. This holds the tube non-opera 75
2,405,182
8
cuit for periodically placing said signal generator
operation, a timing circuit for taking said signal
generator out of operation,la timing circuit for
generating a signal for comparison with the echo
in operation, a timing circuit for taking said sig
of the signal transmitted by said signal generator,
nal generator out of operation, a timing circuit
for generating a signal for comparison with the
echo of the signal transmitted by said signal gen
erator, said timing circuits being started in opera
said timing circuits being responsive to said au
tomatically operating circuit, an individual time
interval adjustment control for each of said three
transmitted and an echo thereof is~received,-»a
signal generator, an automatically operating cir
circuits and a gang controller for operating said
tion by said automatically operating signal gen
three individual controls constructed and ar
era-tor starting circuit simultaneously with the 10 ranged to maintain the relative time intervals of
starting in operation of said signal generator, and
the said th'ree circuits unchanged.
an individual time interval adjustment control
for each of said three circuits.
2. In a signaling system wherein a signal is
transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a sig
4. In a signaling system wherein a signal is
transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a
signal generator, a source of energy, an energy
reservoir for operating said signal generator at
nal generator, an automatically operating circuit
a comparatively high‘rate, means for transferring
for periodically placing said signal generator in
energy from said source of energy to said reser
operation, a timing circuit for taking said signal
voir at a comparatively low rate, an automatically
generator out of operation, a timing circuit for
operating circuit for periodically placing said sig
generating a signal for comparison with' the echo 20 nal generator in operation, a timing circuit for Y
takingsaid signal generator out of operation, a
of the signal transmitted by said signal generator,
timing circuit for generating a signal for com
said timing circuits being responsive to said au
parison with the echo of the signal transmitted
tomatically operating circuit, an individual time
interval adjustment control for each of said three
by said signal generator, said timing circuits be
circuits and a single means for simultaneously op
erating said individual controls.
>3. In a signaling system wherein a signal is
ing responsive to said automatically operating
circuit, and means for controlling the periodicity
of said automatically operating circuit and said
timing circuits.
transmitted and an echo thereof is received, a sig
nal generator, an automatically operating circuit
'
e
for periodically placing said signal generator in 30
JOHN H. BOLLMAN.
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