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Патент USA US2405196

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m1611946.
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D. C. ELUOT 'my
2,405,196
RNEYS
Aug» 5, 1946»
ì D. _c. ELLIOT` ETAL
'
OIL
BURNER
Filed May 1‘1, 1944
_
2,405,196
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
ATTO R N EYS
’ 'Aug 6» 1946-
l.">. c. ELLIOT ETAI.-
2,405,196
OIL BURNER
Filed May 11, 1944
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BY OFDM E PAW.
'\ '9L M
ATTORN EYS
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,196
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,196
OIL BURNER`
Donald C. Elliot, West Springfield, and Oreas H.
Paul, Chicopee, Mass., assignors to Gilbert & ì
Barker Manufacturing Company, West Spring
field, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts
ApplicaeonMay 11,1944, serial No. 535,034
3 Claims.
(c1. 15s-1s)
1
2
This invention relates to improvements in oil
burners of the so-called gun type adapted for
residential heating purposes as distinguished
The invention will be disclosed with reference
to theV accompanying drawings, in which,
Fig. 1 is an elevational view, with parts in
from industrial furnaces.
'
section and parts broken away, of an oil burner
More particularly, the invention is concerned
with improvements having to do with the manner
embodying the invention;
in which the air is supplied to and mixed with
a spray of atcmized oil issuing from a pressure
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on the
line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
'
f Fig. 4 is a sectional plan view taken on the
Fig. 2 is an end elevational View thereof;
atomizing nozzle. In general, the air is supplied
in a stream, which whirls around and around 10 line ¿1_-4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary cross sectional view
the conical oil spray, mixing therewith and burn
taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 1;
ing with a relatively short flame. It is well
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary end view showing the
known that if the air is supplied to the oil spray
cuter end of the air tube as it appears when its
in a whirling manner, a more nearly perfect mix
end closure is swung open; and
~
ture of air and cil result with better and more
efficient combustion.
This invention has for an object to provide
improved means for supplying the air to the oil
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view of the air valve
showing a diiîerent mounting of the same.
Referring to these drawings and first to Figs.
spray in a whirling stream without turbulence>
l and 4 thereof; the burner includes an air tube
and effecting improved distribution of it around 20 I, through which all of the air for combustion
the oil spray so that the resulting mixture of
is supplied to Ithe burner. This tube is of cir
oil and air is substantially uniform and the name
cular cross section and usually it is of uniform
is of substantially uniform density throughout.
diameter, thus being cylindrical as shown. ' How
The invention has for another object to pro
ever, the true cylindrical form is not necessarily
vide in a burner of the class describedan air 25 essential for all purposes. The important char
tube of substantial length which is of circular
acteristic is that the internal peripheral surface
cross section and smooth from its inlet to its
of the ltube is smooth from end to end so that
outlet end and to provide in the inlet end of the
air, which is whirled as it enters the tube at one
tube a circular series of slots and a plenum cham
end, may advance through the tube in a. whirling
ber surrounding the slotted end of the tube to 30 layer or stream, hugging its smooth wall, and
gether with means for forcing air into the plenum
may issue from the tube in a whirling stream'
chamber and through said slots in a whirling
without turbulence. One end of :tube I is closed,
stream of substantially uniform thickness and
as by a plate 2. The other end is open but usually
advancing such stream without turbulence' to the
carries a more or less conical air nozzle 3 which
outlet end of the air tube to envelop a spray of 35 condenses the air stream and directs it- inwardly
oil issuing from a nozzle located in the tube at
toward the oil spray.
said outlet end.
Such spray is emitted from a pressure-atomiz
The invention has for another object the pro
ing nozzle 4 located centrally of the tube, near its
vision in an arrangement such as has just been
outlet end. This nozzle is carried by a longitudi
described, of slots which are helical with a steep 40 nally-disposed member 5, which forms a pari; of
pitch to assist in whirling the air and advancing
the oil supply conduit for the nozzle. To the rear
it in the desired helical path.
endof member 5 is connected a pipe 6 which eX
The invention has for another object to com
tends rearwardly of the tube and outwardly there
bine with the slotted tube a valve sleeve movable
from, Vin a manner later to be described, for con
on the tube to vary the effective area of the slots 45 nectionY to an oil pump. Ignition electrodes 1 are
through which air may enter the tube.
also mounted in tube I with their spark gap lo
A further object of the invention is to provide
in the air tube a support for the oil nozzle andk
cated in operative relation with nozzle A. ’ Each
electrode has a conductor `Il which extends rear
ignition electrodes which "will not offer any sub
wardly of the tube and is supported by an insu
stantial obstruction to or interfere with the de 50 lating tube 9. These'insulators' 9 and the mem
sired whirling air stream in any such way as to
ber 5 are properly located within the tube I by a
create any substantial degree of turbulence.
support, which includes a central massilll and a
These objects and others relating to construc
tional features of the burner will best be under
stood as the detailed descriptionproceeds.
plurality (preferably three) of pin-like members
II, for engaging the inner peripheral surface 'of
the tube'. This mass I0 is streamlined, having
2,405,196
3
4
the curved surface I3', to guide any air, which
ing an annular chamber which is- part of the ple
may advance in the central portion of the tube
along the oil pipe 5, member 5 or electrode insu
lators 9, outwardly toward the peripheral part of
the tube to merge with the whirling stream. This
guide insures that all the air in the tube is forced
num chamber I'I, above described. This tube 21
is connected by a frusto-conical part 29 to a cylin
drical sleeve 30 which closely ñts tube I and closes
one end wa11 of the plenum chamber. The sleeve
30 is fastened as by welding, to tube l and serves
to support the latter from the panel-like frame
into the whirling.k peripheral layer which hugs the
casting I8.
wall of tube I. The streamlined guide also directs
the air smoothly as it leaves the pins and passes
The sleeve valve I3, Fig. 4, extends from the
on toward the nozzle 4, preventing the eddie’s> 10" closure plate 2 to the part 29 and may be fric
which might otherwise occur. The pins I i pre
tionally held in place between these parts. This
sent very little obstruction to the whirling air
sleeve valve I3 has an annular ring 3| of angle
stream. Except for the pins I I, there are no ob
section suitably fastened thereto, as by welding.
structions of a kind to create turbulence in the air
One face of this ring serves as a closure for ple
stream. Very little turbulence is created by the 15 num vchamber I'I while the other seats in a circu
pins I I and this is localized near the pins and does- ' lar opening in the wall of casting I8. The clo
not persist long enough to have any effect on _the ‘ Sure plate 2 (Fig. 2) is large enough to close the
air stream at the location where it acts on the oil , ,A last-named opening. This plate may abut the ad
jacent ends of tube I, sleeve valve I3 and ring
spray.
,
The air is admitted to tube I through slots I2 20 3l, as shown in Fig. 4. The end plate 2 is hinged
as at 32 to a support 33, Fig. 2, ñxed as by screws
which are formed in the peripheral' wall of the
34 to a plate 35, which in turn is fastened by
tube near its closed end.` Each slot extends gen
erally lengthwise of- the tube and preferably is of
screws 38 to the casting I8. When closed, plate
the' helical form shown. The pitch V.of the helix
2 is held in place by a screw 37, threaded into
may be right or left hand as desired. AThese slots
are equally-spaced angularly around the tube in a
circular series. Rotatably mounted on the tube
I, near its outer end, is a sleev'eîval've I3. Prefer
ably, this sleeve has slots I3', Fig. 3, which match
the slots I2 and register therewith when the valve
is in lone position. The valve may be moved to
casting I8.
,
For operating the sleeve valve I3, a handle 38
is provided. The inner end of this handle is fixed,
as by welding, to the ring 3l of the valve (Fig, 6).
The ñange 39 is recessedat 40 to4k enable handle
' 38 to move through the range necessary to move
valve I3 from fully closed Ato fully open position.
The closure plate 2 abuts this ñange .39. By
loosening screw 31, the handle 38 may be turned
(see Fig. 3) and cut down the eiîective area of the
to rotate valve I3. The valve is held against
openings through which air can enter tube I.
Air is fed into the described slots in a manner 35 movement, when screw .3T isiully tightened, be
cause it is then clamped between the parts 2 and
best shown in Fig.
A fan I4 rotating in the di
various other positionsto partially close slots I2
rection of the arrow in a scroll chamber I5 forces
air through the conduit I6 into a plenum chamber
Il. This chamber completely surrounds the outer
end of tube> I and its only outlet is by way of slots
I2 and I3’ into tubeÍ I. The only inlet'to cham
ber I'I is by way of conduit I6, which is disposedv
tangentially of the chamber, whereby the air en
tering the latter is caused to whirl around the
tube and to enter through the slots as indicated
by the arrows and continue to whirl in tube I,
advancing in a helica1 stream, hugging the pe
ripheral wall of tube I,` to meet the oil spray.V
The helical form of theslots is preferred as this
will assist in the whirlingaction and in causing
the air to travel forwardly in a helical path, as is
desired. The valve may also be arranged as shown
in pari; in Fig. 7. With this arrangement the air
enters the slots more smoothly and produces a
somewhat better whirling stream of air within
the tube
I.
A
.
Y
Referring now'more .particularly to the details
of the exemplary apparatus, the scroll chamber
I5, conduit I6 and part of the plenum chamber Il
are formed in a casting I8, which is supported ver
tically by an adjustable leg I9 from a base V23 as
will be clear from Figs. 1 and '2. This casting has y
a ñat end wall 2l from which projects the mar
39.
Y
'
5
,
4
.
The closure plate 2 may, if desired, Vcarry the
ignition transformer 40, the supply cable 4I of
which is shown as 'entering a recess in casting
I8 beneath plate 35. The high tensionterminalsI
of the transformer are'shown at 4I and their in
sulators at 42. When the cover plate 2 is swung
open to expose the outer end of the air tube, the
terminals 4I of the transformer move away from
the >ends of the conductors 8 and thus break the
high tension circuit.
"
'
'
When closure`2 is open, the assembly'of nozzle
4, member 5, electrodes 7, conductors 8, insulators
ï 9, streamlined guide I0 and support pins II,.may
be removed as a unit from tube I` by pulling out-v
wardly on oil pipe 6 after the latter has iirstbeen
disconnected at the union-'43 `(Fig.Y 1). The oil Y
pipe, at the outer end of tube I ,extends radially
_outward through a notch 44 -in tube IV (Figfô)
slots 45 and 4G in sleeve'valve" I3 and ring 3|,
respectively, and a notch 41 in flange 38. The
slots 45 and 46 enable the valve'I3 to turn through
the desired range. The cil pipe 6, on Vleaving'
GO notch 4l enters ‘a recess 48,V Fig. 4,Íin wall 2U,
which lies beneath closure plate 2, and extendsí
upwardly to the union 43.'
'
_
An electric motor 49 islmounted on theïframe
i3 to drive the fanV I4 Aand >an' oil pump.- The Y
ginal flange 22 (Fig. 3) which deñnes thecham
motor casing is cylindrical and one end thereof >
bers I5 and I'I and their connecting conduit I6.
lies in a circular opening 50 in the frame I8 but
A thin plate 23is secured to flange 22 with a
is spaced therefrom, A gutter 5I surrounds .part
gasket 24 interposed between them,'as by a series
of this opening 5B. " The motor "has a series of'
of screws 25. This plate closes the scroll chamber»
ears 52'Which Llie in >this gutter. ‘ Each ear has a'
recess in casting I8, except for an inlet 26, Fig. 1,
opening axially ofrfan I4. It also closes the re .70.: rubber Ybushing 53 therein and on either side of»
the ear are 'rubber' washers 54'. ’A steel 'plate 55l
cess in the Vcasting which forms'conduit I6 and'
of arcuate form closes the gutter v5I and ieper-'
‘ part of the recess which forms the plenum cham
forated to 'receive'screwsößfonefor 'each ear.
ber I'I. Fixed with this plate to the casting I8 is
Each screw passes throughplate4 55, and threadsv
the end flangev of a tube 21 which encompasses
part of tube I in spaced relation therewith, 'form-L.
into the “base'wall ofthe guttei'g’l The plate 553
l2,405, 19€
closely fits the outer and circular wall of gutter
assignee of the present invention and in which
application said improvement is claimed.
5I but it does not engage the motor casing al
According to the present invention, the air is
though it comes very close to it. The motor is
admitted from the fan by passage IE5 into plenum
thus resiliently supported from frame I3.
The motor has a single long bearing yEil for its (n chamber I1 in a stream which enters the plenum
chamber and is subdivided into a plurality of
shaft 58. The rotor is indicated at 5g and the
streams, one for each slot of the circular series.
stator at til, The fan iii is fixed to the one end
These air streams enter the slots, one through
of shaft 58 which projects from the motor casing
each, and a much better distribution of the air
and it has its hub connected to the fan by a coni
cal part el, which enables the motor bearing to ’ eircularly is obtained than would be possible with
out it. Aside from uniform distribution ofthe air,
lie partly within it. A substantial part of the
the slots of the preferred helical form assist in
motor casing lies inside the frame, thereby mate~
advancing the air in a spiral path through the
rially lessening the part which projects outwardly
tube. That is, air which enters any slot, as indi
from the frame. The motor casing houses in its
cated in Fig. 1 by the arrow in the case of one slot,
outer end a fuel-supply unit which includes the
is free to move forwardly (to the left as viewed
pump, pressure-regulating and cut-off valves and
in Fig. l) and the stream thus has a tendency to
iilter and may, for example, be constructed as
move in a helical path as is desired. The sev
shown in the application of Virgil E._Duemler,
eral streams passing through slots in tube I
iiled April l, i944, under Serial No. 529,048, which
application is owned by the assignee of the pres 20 merge inside the tube in a single layer or stream
of air which hugs the interior wall of the tube and
ent application. For the present purposes, it will
advances
in a helical path to the nozzle of the
suiiice to state that 62 indicates the pump, the
burner. The stream is substantially uniform in
outlet of which is suitably connected to the pipe
thickness due to the uniform feeding in of air
e, and 53 its drive shaft.
through the slots at evenly distributed points
The oil pump is driven from the motor through
around tube l. If any of the air flow lies inside
a speed-responsive coupling, comprising a drum
the stream nearer the axis of tube I, the stream~
Gli fixed to pump shaft t3, and a pair of weight
ined guide iE! will direct it outwardly and into the
segments S5, pivotally mounted on pins t6 fixed
stream
and without'creating turbulence. As the
to the rotor. The coupling is shown in more de
air
passes
the supporting pins I I it has te be di
tail in Fig, 5. A spring el' connects a pin t8 on 30
'Vided to some extent but the obstructions offered
each segment to the outer end of pivot pin 5E.
by these pins are so small as to be negligible. The
Each segment has a suitable facing Sii to engage
air unites after passing the pins II and the uni
the inner periphery of the rim of drum da. It
form annular stream is guided to the oil spray by
will be clear that as the motor reaches a certain
speed. the centrifugal force acting on the seg 35 the cone 3 and by the forward streamlined part of
guide Iii. The air issues from tube l, whirls
ments will overcome the force of springs 6l and
around and around the oil spray, enveloping it,
swing the segments outwardly, pressing their fac
penetrating it and mixing- with it. The mixture
ings t9 against the drum and causing the latter
formed is exceptionally uniform as evidenced
and the pump shaft to rotate. The motor and fan
are thus enabled to start up without the load of 40 from observation of the resulting flame which
shows uniform density throughout. A solid mass
the oil pump and to acquire speed more rapidly
of flame of uniform color throughout is obtained,
than they wouid otherwise be able to do. Thus,
indicative of a most effective and uniform mixing
the fan can have time to clear the dead air out
of the oil and air. These results are secured, it
of tube I and establish the desired whirling
stream of air adjacent the nozzle before any oil 45 is believed, because the air when formed into a
whirling stream at the inlet end of the air tube
issues from the nozzle. On deenergization of the
is uniformly distributed around the circular wall
motor, the coupling will soon operate to discon
of the tube so that the air stream is of uniform
nect the pump, which will then stop almost in
thickness. Then the stream, so formed, is main
stantly, while the fan it’. will continue in motion
due to its momentum and that of the heavy rotor 50 tained in its formation while advancing along the
tube to meet the oil spray, by making the tube
59. Thus, the emission of oil from the nozzle d
smooth from end to end to avoid turbulence such
will be stopped before the air supply in order to
as would destroy the uniform distribution of air
avoid poor combustion during the stopping in
in
the stream. And the streamlined guide offers
terval of operation of the burner.
The frame i3 has a marginal flange 1I cf in 55 help if and when needed by insuring that all air
which passes it lies in the stream. The desired
verted U-shape to receive the correspondingly
results are secured by a substantially uniform
shaped flange i2 on a cover 13. This cover has a
distribution of air in the whirling envelope which
slot ‘Iâ of inverted U-form to f_t over the tubular
surrounds the spray and this, 0f course, results in
wall 2l. The cover is connected near its upper
end by a hook ‘l5 on its inner wall engaging in 60 a flame showing uniform density at all parts of it.
We claim:
an eye i6 on plate 23. The cover is further held
1. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in
in place by two screws ll', one adjacent each lower
ternal peripheral surface which is smooth froml
corner, which screws thread into the ñange 'I I.
one end to the other, a closure for one end'of the
ln operation, on energization of motor ¿19, the
fan It is brought nearly up to full speed before 65 tube, the other end of the tube being open and
constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a
the speed-responsive coupling picks up the oil
pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the out
pump. The result is an establishment of substan
let end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical
tially full air flow in sufficient volume and at
spray of atomized oil, said tube having in its pe
suflicient velocity to create the desired whirling
air stream at and near the oil nozzle 4 before oil 70 riphery near its closed end and remote from said
outlet a Íplurality of slots through which all the
issues therefrom in an atomized spray. lThis is
air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said
an important improvement for the reasons fully
pointed out in the copending application of War
ren H. DeLancey, filed May l, 1944, under Serial
slots extending generally lengthwise of the tube
and being angularly spaced about the periphery of
No. 535,036, which application is owned by the 75 the tube in a circular series; a housing having
7
2,405,196
near its" lower end a chamber enveloping the
slottedvend of said tube, a scroll chamber near its
upper end and a conduit between said chambers;
and a fan in said scroll chamber, said conduit di->
recting the air from the fan tangentially into said
lower chamber whereby the air whirls therein
around the slotted portion of said tube enters the
tube through said slots and is uniformly dis
tributed around the tube and formed into a whirl
tube substantially without turbulence to mix with
the oil spray from said nozzle.
3. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in
te'rnal peripheral surface which is smooth from
one end to the other, a closure for one end of the
tube, the other end of the tube being open and
constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a
pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the outlet
end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical
ing stream which is advanced through said tube 10 spray of atomized oil, said tube having in its pe
substantially Without turbulence to mix with the
riphery near its closed end and remote from said
oil spray from said nozzle.
outlet a plurality of slots through which all the
2. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in
air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said
ternal peripheral surface which is smooth from
slots being helical and angularly spaced about the
one end to the other, a closure for one end of the 15 periphery of the tube in a circular series; a hous
tube, the other end of the tube being open and
constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a
pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the outlet
end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical
spray of atomized oiLÍsaid tube having inî'its pe
riphery near its closed end and remote from said
outlet a plurality of slots through which all the
air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said
slots being helical and angularly spaced about the
periphery of the tube in a circular series; a hous
ing having near its lower end a chamber envelop
ing the slotted end of said tube, a scroll chamber
near its upper end and a conduit between said
ing having near its lower end a chamber envelop
ing the slotted end of said tube, a scroll chamber
near its upper end and a conduit between said
chambers; and a fan in said scroll chamber, said
conduit directing the air from the fan tangen-`
tially into said lower chamber whereby the air
whirls therein around the slotted portion of said
tube enters the tube through said slots and is
uniformly distributed around the tube and formed
into a whirling stream which is advanced through
said tube substantially without turbulence to mix
with the oil spray from said nozzle, a sleeve ro
tatably mounted on the tube and having helical
chambers; and a fan in said scroll chamber, said
slots to match the slots in the tube and to reg
conduit directing the air from the fan tangentially 30 ister with the tube slots when the sleeve is in one
into said lower chamber whereby the air whirls
position, said sleeve being movable on the tube to
therein around the slotted portion of said tube
vary the effective area of the openings through
enters the tube through said slots and is uniformly
which air enters said tube.
distributed around the tube and formed into a
DONALD C. ELLIOT.
whirling stream which is advanced through said 35
OREAS H. PAUL.
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