Патент USA US2405196код для вставки
m1611946. ~ D. C. ELUOT 'my 2,405,196 RNEYS Aug» 5, 1946» ì D. _c. ELLIOT` ETAL ' OIL BURNER Filed May 1‘1, 1944 _ 2,405,196 ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTO R N EYS ’ 'Aug 6» 1946- l.">. c. ELLIOT ETAI.- 2,405,196 OIL BURNER Filed May 11, 1944 s sheets-sheet s . f s l 3 v ,. s 'A `mvE'N-romi .Zio/mw äEu/or Afm BY OFDM E PAW. '\ '9L M ATTORN EYS Patented Aug. 6, 1946 2,405,196 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,196 OIL BURNER` Donald C. Elliot, West Springfield, and Oreas H. Paul, Chicopee, Mass., assignors to Gilbert & ì Barker Manufacturing Company, West Spring field, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts ApplicaeonMay 11,1944, serial No. 535,034 3 Claims. (c1. 15s-1s) 1 2 This invention relates to improvements in oil burners of the so-called gun type adapted for residential heating purposes as distinguished The invention will be disclosed with reference to theV accompanying drawings, in which, Fig. 1 is an elevational view, with parts in from industrial furnaces. ' section and parts broken away, of an oil burner More particularly, the invention is concerned with improvements having to do with the manner embodying the invention; in which the air is supplied to and mixed with a spray of atcmized oil issuing from a pressure Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; ' f Fig. 4 is a sectional plan view taken on the Fig. 2 is an end elevational View thereof; atomizing nozzle. In general, the air is supplied in a stream, which whirls around and around 10 line ¿1_-4 of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary cross sectional view the conical oil spray, mixing therewith and burn taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 1; ing with a relatively short flame. It is well Fig. 6 is a fragmentary end view showing the known that if the air is supplied to the oil spray cuter end of the air tube as it appears when its in a whirling manner, a more nearly perfect mix end closure is swung open; and ~ ture of air and cil result with better and more efficient combustion. This invention has for an object to provide improved means for supplying the air to the oil Fig. 7 is a fragmentary view of the air valve showing a diiîerent mounting of the same. Referring to these drawings and first to Figs. spray in a whirling stream without turbulence> l and 4 thereof; the burner includes an air tube and effecting improved distribution of it around 20 I, through which all of the air for combustion the oil spray so that the resulting mixture of is supplied to Ithe burner. This tube is of cir oil and air is substantially uniform and the name cular cross section and usually it is of uniform is of substantially uniform density throughout. diameter, thus being cylindrical as shown. ' How The invention has for another object to pro ever, the true cylindrical form is not necessarily vide in a burner of the class describedan air 25 essential for all purposes. The important char tube of substantial length which is of circular acteristic is that the internal peripheral surface cross section and smooth from its inlet to its of the ltube is smooth from end to end so that outlet end and to provide in the inlet end of the air, which is whirled as it enters the tube at one tube a circular series of slots and a plenum cham end, may advance through the tube in a. whirling ber surrounding the slotted end of the tube to 30 layer or stream, hugging its smooth wall, and gether with means for forcing air into the plenum may issue from the tube in a whirling stream' chamber and through said slots in a whirling without turbulence. One end of :tube I is closed, stream of substantially uniform thickness and as by a plate 2. The other end is open but usually advancing such stream without turbulence' to the carries a more or less conical air nozzle 3 which outlet end of the air tube to envelop a spray of 35 condenses the air stream and directs it- inwardly oil issuing from a nozzle located in the tube at toward the oil spray. said outlet end. Such spray is emitted from a pressure-atomiz The invention has for another object the pro ing nozzle 4 located centrally of the tube, near its vision in an arrangement such as has just been outlet end. This nozzle is carried by a longitudi described, of slots which are helical with a steep 40 nally-disposed member 5, which forms a pari; of pitch to assist in whirling the air and advancing the oil supply conduit for the nozzle. To the rear it in the desired helical path. endof member 5 is connected a pipe 6 which eX The invention has for another object to com tends rearwardly of the tube and outwardly there bine with the slotted tube a valve sleeve movable from, Vin a manner later to be described, for con on the tube to vary the effective area of the slots 45 nectionY to an oil pump. Ignition electrodes 1 are through which air may enter the tube. also mounted in tube I with their spark gap lo A further object of the invention is to provide in the air tube a support for the oil nozzle andk cated in operative relation with nozzle A. ’ Each electrode has a conductor `Il which extends rear ignition electrodes which "will not offer any sub wardly of the tube and is supported by an insu stantial obstruction to or interfere with the de 50 lating tube 9. These'insulators' 9 and the mem sired whirling air stream in any such way as to ber 5 are properly located within the tube I by a create any substantial degree of turbulence. support, which includes a central massilll and a These objects and others relating to construc tional features of the burner will best be under stood as the detailed descriptionproceeds. plurality (preferably three) of pin-like members II, for engaging the inner peripheral surface 'of the tube'. This mass I0 is streamlined, having 2,405,196 3 4 the curved surface I3', to guide any air, which ing an annular chamber which is- part of the ple may advance in the central portion of the tube along the oil pipe 5, member 5 or electrode insu lators 9, outwardly toward the peripheral part of the tube to merge with the whirling stream. This guide insures that all the air in the tube is forced num chamber I'I, above described. This tube 21 is connected by a frusto-conical part 29 to a cylin drical sleeve 30 which closely ñts tube I and closes one end wa11 of the plenum chamber. The sleeve 30 is fastened as by welding, to tube l and serves to support the latter from the panel-like frame into the whirling.k peripheral layer which hugs the casting I8. wall of tube I. The streamlined guide also directs the air smoothly as it leaves the pins and passes The sleeve valve I3, Fig. 4, extends from the on toward the nozzle 4, preventing the eddie’s> 10" closure plate 2 to the part 29 and may be fric which might otherwise occur. The pins I i pre tionally held in place between these parts. This sent very little obstruction to the whirling air sleeve valve I3 has an annular ring 3| of angle stream. Except for the pins I I, there are no ob section suitably fastened thereto, as by welding. structions of a kind to create turbulence in the air One face of this ring serves as a closure for ple stream. Very little turbulence is created by the 15 num vchamber I'I while the other seats in a circu pins I I and this is localized near the pins and does- ' lar opening in the wall of casting I8. The clo not persist long enough to have any effect on _the ‘ Sure plate 2 (Fig. 2) is large enough to close the air stream at the location where it acts on the oil , ,A last-named opening. This plate may abut the ad jacent ends of tube I, sleeve valve I3 and ring spray. , The air is admitted to tube I through slots I2 20 3l, as shown in Fig. 4. The end plate 2 is hinged as at 32 to a support 33, Fig. 2, ñxed as by screws which are formed in the peripheral' wall of the 34 to a plate 35, which in turn is fastened by tube near its closed end.` Each slot extends gen erally lengthwise of- the tube and preferably is of screws 38 to the casting I8. When closed, plate the' helical form shown. The pitch V.of the helix 2 is held in place by a screw 37, threaded into may be right or left hand as desired. AThese slots are equally-spaced angularly around the tube in a circular series. Rotatably mounted on the tube I, near its outer end, is a sleev'eîval've I3. Prefer ably, this sleeve has slots I3', Fig. 3, which match the slots I2 and register therewith when the valve is in lone position. The valve may be moved to casting I8. , For operating the sleeve valve I3, a handle 38 is provided. The inner end of this handle is fixed, as by welding, to the ring 3l of the valve (Fig, 6). The ñange 39 is recessedat 40 to4k enable handle ' 38 to move through the range necessary to move valve I3 from fully closed Ato fully open position. The closure plate 2 abuts this ñange .39. By loosening screw 31, the handle 38 may be turned (see Fig. 3) and cut down the eiîective area of the to rotate valve I3. The valve is held against openings through which air can enter tube I. Air is fed into the described slots in a manner 35 movement, when screw .3T isiully tightened, be cause it is then clamped between the parts 2 and best shown in Fig. A fan I4 rotating in the di various other positionsto partially close slots I2 rection of the arrow in a scroll chamber I5 forces air through the conduit I6 into a plenum chamber Il. This chamber completely surrounds the outer end of tube> I and its only outlet is by way of slots I2 and I3’ into tubeÍ I. The only inlet'to cham ber I'I is by way of conduit I6, which is disposedv tangentially of the chamber, whereby the air en tering the latter is caused to whirl around the tube and to enter through the slots as indicated by the arrows and continue to whirl in tube I, advancing in a helica1 stream, hugging the pe ripheral wall of tube I,` to meet the oil spray.V The helical form of theslots is preferred as this will assist in the whirlingaction and in causing the air to travel forwardly in a helical path, as is desired. The valve may also be arranged as shown in pari; in Fig. 7. With this arrangement the air enters the slots more smoothly and produces a somewhat better whirling stream of air within the tube I. A . Y Referring now'more .particularly to the details of the exemplary apparatus, the scroll chamber I5, conduit I6 and part of the plenum chamber Il are formed in a casting I8, which is supported ver tically by an adjustable leg I9 from a base V23 as will be clear from Figs. 1 and '2. This casting has y a ñat end wall 2l from which projects the mar 39. Y ' 5 , 4 . The closure plate 2 may, if desired, Vcarry the ignition transformer 40, the supply cable 4I of which is shown as 'entering a recess in casting I8 beneath plate 35. The high tensionterminalsI of the transformer are'shown at 4I and their in sulators at 42. When the cover plate 2 is swung open to expose the outer end of the air tube, the terminals 4I of the transformer move away from the >ends of the conductors 8 and thus break the high tension circuit. " ' ' When closure`2 is open, the assembly'of nozzle 4, member 5, electrodes 7, conductors 8, insulators ï 9, streamlined guide I0 and support pins II,.may be removed as a unit from tube I` by pulling out-v wardly on oil pipe 6 after the latter has iirstbeen disconnected at the union-'43 `(Fig.Y 1). The oil Y pipe, at the outer end of tube I ,extends radially _outward through a notch 44 -in tube IV (Figfô) slots 45 and 4G in sleeve'valve" I3 and ring 3|, respectively, and a notch 41 in flange 38. The slots 45 and 46 enable the valve'I3 to turn through the desired range. The cil pipe 6, on Vleaving' GO notch 4l enters ‘a recess 48,V Fig. 4,Íin wall 2U, which lies beneath closure plate 2, and extendsí upwardly to the union 43.' ' _ An electric motor 49 islmounted on theïframe i3 to drive the fanV I4 Aand >an' oil pump.- The Y ginal flange 22 (Fig. 3) which deñnes thecham motor casing is cylindrical and one end thereof > bers I5 and I'I and their connecting conduit I6. lies in a circular opening 50 in the frame I8 but A thin plate 23is secured to flange 22 with a is spaced therefrom, A gutter 5I surrounds .part gasket 24 interposed between them,'as by a series of this opening 5B. " The motor "has a series of' of screws 25. This plate closes the scroll chamber» ears 52'Which Llie in >this gutter. ‘ Each ear has a' recess in casting I8, except for an inlet 26, Fig. 1, opening axially ofrfan I4. It also closes the re .70.: rubber Ybushing 53 therein and on either side of» the ear are 'rubber' washers 54'. ’A steel 'plate 55l cess in the Vcasting which forms'conduit I6 and' of arcuate form closes the gutter v5I and ieper-' ‘ part of the recess which forms the plenum cham forated to 'receive'screwsößfonefor 'each ear. ber I'I. Fixed with this plate to the casting I8 is Each screw passes throughplate4 55, and threadsv the end flangev of a tube 21 which encompasses part of tube I in spaced relation therewith, 'form-L. into the “base'wall ofthe guttei'g’l The plate 553 l2,405, 19€ closely fits the outer and circular wall of gutter assignee of the present invention and in which application said improvement is claimed. 5I but it does not engage the motor casing al According to the present invention, the air is though it comes very close to it. The motor is admitted from the fan by passage IE5 into plenum thus resiliently supported from frame I3. The motor has a single long bearing yEil for its (n chamber I1 in a stream which enters the plenum chamber and is subdivided into a plurality of shaft 58. The rotor is indicated at 5g and the streams, one for each slot of the circular series. stator at til, The fan iii is fixed to the one end These air streams enter the slots, one through of shaft 58 which projects from the motor casing each, and a much better distribution of the air and it has its hub connected to the fan by a coni cal part el, which enables the motor bearing to ’ eircularly is obtained than would be possible with out it. Aside from uniform distribution ofthe air, lie partly within it. A substantial part of the the slots of the preferred helical form assist in motor casing lies inside the frame, thereby mate~ advancing the air in a spiral path through the rially lessening the part which projects outwardly tube. That is, air which enters any slot, as indi from the frame. The motor casing houses in its cated in Fig. 1 by the arrow in the case of one slot, outer end a fuel-supply unit which includes the is free to move forwardly (to the left as viewed pump, pressure-regulating and cut-off valves and in Fig. l) and the stream thus has a tendency to iilter and may, for example, be constructed as move in a helical path as is desired. The sev shown in the application of Virgil E._Duemler, eral streams passing through slots in tube I iiled April l, i944, under Serial No. 529,048, which application is owned by the assignee of the pres 20 merge inside the tube in a single layer or stream of air which hugs the interior wall of the tube and ent application. For the present purposes, it will advances in a helical path to the nozzle of the suiiice to state that 62 indicates the pump, the burner. The stream is substantially uniform in outlet of which is suitably connected to the pipe thickness due to the uniform feeding in of air e, and 53 its drive shaft. through the slots at evenly distributed points The oil pump is driven from the motor through around tube l. If any of the air flow lies inside a speed-responsive coupling, comprising a drum the stream nearer the axis of tube I, the stream~ Gli fixed to pump shaft t3, and a pair of weight ined guide iE! will direct it outwardly and into the segments S5, pivotally mounted on pins t6 fixed stream and without'creating turbulence. As the to the rotor. The coupling is shown in more de air passes the supporting pins I I it has te be di tail in Fig, 5. A spring el' connects a pin t8 on 30 'Vided to some extent but the obstructions offered each segment to the outer end of pivot pin 5E. by these pins are so small as to be negligible. The Each segment has a suitable facing Sii to engage air unites after passing the pins II and the uni the inner periphery of the rim of drum da. It form annular stream is guided to the oil spray by will be clear that as the motor reaches a certain speed. the centrifugal force acting on the seg 35 the cone 3 and by the forward streamlined part of guide Iii. The air issues from tube l, whirls ments will overcome the force of springs 6l and around and around the oil spray, enveloping it, swing the segments outwardly, pressing their fac penetrating it and mixing- with it. The mixture ings t9 against the drum and causing the latter formed is exceptionally uniform as evidenced and the pump shaft to rotate. The motor and fan are thus enabled to start up without the load of 40 from observation of the resulting flame which shows uniform density throughout. A solid mass the oil pump and to acquire speed more rapidly of flame of uniform color throughout is obtained, than they wouid otherwise be able to do. Thus, indicative of a most effective and uniform mixing the fan can have time to clear the dead air out of the oil and air. These results are secured, it of tube I and establish the desired whirling stream of air adjacent the nozzle before any oil 45 is believed, because the air when formed into a whirling stream at the inlet end of the air tube issues from the nozzle. On deenergization of the is uniformly distributed around the circular wall motor, the coupling will soon operate to discon of the tube so that the air stream is of uniform nect the pump, which will then stop almost in thickness. Then the stream, so formed, is main stantly, while the fan it’. will continue in motion due to its momentum and that of the heavy rotor 50 tained in its formation while advancing along the tube to meet the oil spray, by making the tube 59. Thus, the emission of oil from the nozzle d smooth from end to end to avoid turbulence such will be stopped before the air supply in order to as would destroy the uniform distribution of air avoid poor combustion during the stopping in in the stream. And the streamlined guide offers terval of operation of the burner. The frame i3 has a marginal flange 1I cf in 55 help if and when needed by insuring that all air which passes it lies in the stream. The desired verted U-shape to receive the correspondingly results are secured by a substantially uniform shaped flange i2 on a cover 13. This cover has a distribution of air in the whirling envelope which slot ‘Iâ of inverted U-form to f_t over the tubular surrounds the spray and this, 0f course, results in wall 2l. The cover is connected near its upper end by a hook ‘l5 on its inner wall engaging in 60 a flame showing uniform density at all parts of it. We claim: an eye i6 on plate 23. The cover is further held 1. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in in place by two screws ll', one adjacent each lower ternal peripheral surface which is smooth froml corner, which screws thread into the ñange 'I I. one end to the other, a closure for one end'of the ln operation, on energization of motor ¿19, the fan It is brought nearly up to full speed before 65 tube, the other end of the tube being open and constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a the speed-responsive coupling picks up the oil pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the out pump. The result is an establishment of substan let end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical tially full air flow in sufficient volume and at spray of atomized oil, said tube having in its pe suflicient velocity to create the desired whirling air stream at and near the oil nozzle 4 before oil 70 riphery near its closed end and remote from said outlet a Íplurality of slots through which all the issues therefrom in an atomized spray. lThis is air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said an important improvement for the reasons fully pointed out in the copending application of War ren H. DeLancey, filed May l, 1944, under Serial slots extending generally lengthwise of the tube and being angularly spaced about the periphery of No. 535,036, which application is owned by the 75 the tube in a circular series; a housing having 7 2,405,196 near its" lower end a chamber enveloping the slottedvend of said tube, a scroll chamber near its upper end and a conduit between said chambers; and a fan in said scroll chamber, said conduit di-> recting the air from the fan tangentially into said lower chamber whereby the air whirls therein around the slotted portion of said tube enters the tube through said slots and is uniformly dis tributed around the tube and formed into a whirl tube substantially without turbulence to mix with the oil spray from said nozzle. 3. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in te'rnal peripheral surface which is smooth from one end to the other, a closure for one end of the tube, the other end of the tube being open and constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the outlet end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical ing stream which is advanced through said tube 10 spray of atomized oil, said tube having in its pe substantially Without turbulence to mix with the riphery near its closed end and remote from said oil spray from said nozzle. outlet a plurality of slots through which all the 2. In an oil burner, an air tube having an in air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said ternal peripheral surface which is smooth from slots being helical and angularly spaced about the one end to the other, a closure for one end of the 15 periphery of the tube in a circular series; a hous tube, the other end of the tube being open and constituting the outlet for air for combustion, a pressure-atomizing nozzle mounted in the outlet end of the tube and adapted to emit a conical spray of atomized oiLÍsaid tube having inî'its pe riphery near its closed end and remote from said outlet a plurality of slots through which all the air for combustion is admitted to said tube, said slots being helical and angularly spaced about the periphery of the tube in a circular series; a hous ing having near its lower end a chamber envelop ing the slotted end of said tube, a scroll chamber near its upper end and a conduit between said ing having near its lower end a chamber envelop ing the slotted end of said tube, a scroll chamber near its upper end and a conduit between said chambers; and a fan in said scroll chamber, said conduit directing the air from the fan tangen-` tially into said lower chamber whereby the air whirls therein around the slotted portion of said tube enters the tube through said slots and is uniformly distributed around the tube and formed into a whirling stream which is advanced through said tube substantially without turbulence to mix with the oil spray from said nozzle, a sleeve ro tatably mounted on the tube and having helical chambers; and a fan in said scroll chamber, said slots to match the slots in the tube and to reg conduit directing the air from the fan tangentially 30 ister with the tube slots when the sleeve is in one into said lower chamber whereby the air whirls position, said sleeve being movable on the tube to therein around the slotted portion of said tube vary the effective area of the openings through enters the tube through said slots and is uniformly which air enters said tube. distributed around the tube and formed into a DONALD C. ELLIOT. whirling stream which is advanced through said 35 OREAS H. PAUL.