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GEQLDSTEHN
FRASE TYPE '135 EGT INDICATING DIRECTION FINDER
Filed Sept. 3, 1941
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M, K GQLDSTEW
2,405,2@3
PHASE TYPE DIRECT INDIGATING DIRECTION’FINDER
Filed Sept. 3, 1941
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,203
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,203
PHASE TYPE DIRECT INDICATING
DIRECTION FINDER
Maxwell K. Goldstein, Washington, D. C.
Application September 3, 1941,`Serial No. 409,391
35 Claims. (Cl. Z50-11)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
1
2
This invention relates to a phase type direct
indicating direction finder.
In the direction ñnders previously known to
To provide a direction iinder employing either
simple phase modulation or simultaneous phase
and amplitude modulation thus avoiding the need
for matching potentials or circuit performance
the art many di?liculties have prevented the de
velopment of equipment capable of giving a direct
indication of bearing, with sense, over long ranges
with a satisfactory signal to noise ratio. These
through separate channels.
difficulties arose in large part from the use of
nals of extremely short duration.
signal nullity as an on course indication.
diñiculties were further increased by the neces
To provide a direction finder utilizing the volt
ages induced in the elements of its collector sys
sity of providing separate channels for the out
puts of the collectors ahead of the receiving
equipment and the necessity of carrying on the
tems in summation rather than annulling rela
tionship as has been the practice heretofore, thus
raising the signal level above that of residual
The
To provide a direction finder giving continuous
sense and continuous message reception on sig
double channel arrangement through'amplifying
and abnormal polarization voltages and resulting
stages, which required elaborate and expensive 15 in greater freedom from night eiîect and reradia
equipment in order to secure proper phase and
amplitude tracking.
tion errors.
To provide a direction finder utilizing a rotat
able collector system to produce an indication
been eliminated. In a system which provides a
having sense, Without the necessity of a non
direct indication of bearing, including sense, and 20 directional antenna.
allows continuous message reception simulta
To provide a direction finder in which the out
neously with the taking of bearings, the outputs
puts of the collectors are superimposed ahead
In the present invention such difiicultíeshave
of the collectors are combined ahead of the re
ceiving equipment, thereby permitting operation
of the receiving equipment, thereby permitting
single channel operation with non-critical tuning
with the great advantage of non-critical tuning 25 of the collector output, While retaining sense,
of the collector output. In this manner any
conventional receiving equipment may be em
direct indication of bearing and continuous mes
sage reception.
Other objects will become apparent to one
skilled in the art from a consideration of the
ployed for the frequency selective portion of the
equipment. Furthermore the convenient tuning
of the collector output made possible by the in 30 following description when taken together with
vention results in increasing the signal to noise
the accompanying drawings in which:
ratio of the equipment, thus giving longer range
Fig. 1 is a block diagrammatic showing of a
on weak signals.
circuit illustrating the principles underlying the
The inventionl further contemplates the uti
lization of the phase relationship of the super- Fig. 2 is a vector diagram illustrating the volt
imposed outputs of the collectors as an indication
age relationships obtained in the circuit of Fig. l;
invention;
of bearing, the one course indication being the
condition of phase nullity. This, of course, fur
ther increases the signal to noise ratio and makes`
' possible continuous message reception at long
ranges and With signals of extremely short
duration.
Among the several objects of this invention
are:
To provide a direction finder capable of di
rectly and automatically indicating in a visual
manner the direction of a received signal.
To provide a direction iinder utilizing the phase
relations of voltages induced in the elements of
its collector system by a received Wave as a meas
ure of the direction of origin of said Wave.
To provide a direction finder employing a single
receiver and a cathode ray indicator in conjunc
tion with either a fixed or a rotatable collector
system.
,
-
.
.
f
`
Fig. 3 is a block diagrammatic showing of a
direction finder circuit embodying the invention
and employing a iixed collector system;
Fig. 4 is a diagram showing the direction of
an arriving Wave and its relation to the fixed
collector system of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic showing of the portion
of the circuit of Fig. 3 modiñed by the substitu
tion of the manually rotatable collector system
for the iixed system of Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic showing of a portion
of the circuit of Fig. 3 modiiied by the substitu
tion of a motor rotated collector >system for the
50 iixed system oi Fig. 3;
'
Fig. 7 is a vector diagram showing the voltage
relations of the device of Fig. 6.
The invention utilizes a single receiver and
cathode ray tube indicator used as a direct read
as ing phase meter, capable of measuring the phase
¿2,405,203
3
For other values of s, the amplitude modula
tion is proportional to
difference between any two equal or unequal arn
plitude radio frequency voltages within its range.
Direction iinding is accomplished by observing
la cos pt cos 0
the phase difference between two R. F. voltages
El
while phase modulation is- proportional to
induced in the antenna elements of a collector
system and interpreting this phase difference inV
terms of the arriving Wave angle. '
Since all forms of the invention involve the l l
cos pt sin 0
employment of a phase meter the theory of op
eration of the phase meter will now be set forth.Y
Y Thevresultant voltage e5 therefore consists in
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 2, the two R. F. " general of the constant or reference voltage ei
voltages, the phase relationship of whichpis to
and tWo simultaneous types of modulation,
be determined, are indicated by the instantaneous
namely, amplitude and phase modulation. The
voltages e1 and e2. The invention contemplates
receiver Il is tuned to accept this resultant
the modulation of one of the voltages; for ex
ample, ez, by a low frequency voltage ofV instan
taneous value e3 in a balanced modulator ,.lû.
voltage.
If two types of -detectors are used in the re
‘ „ceiver, one responsive to amplitude modulation
' andthe jotherresponsive to phase modulation,
each will give an output proportional to cos 0
and sin 0 respectively. If ' the detector output
The resulting product of this modulation is the
instantaneous voltage e4 which consists of the side
bands e’l and e"4. The theoretical explanation
of this operation is as follows:
levels are so adjusted that theyhave the same
Y
factor of proportionality; ile., equal conversion
Let e1=E1 00S wt
e2=E2 cos (wt-l-o)
and gain, these outputs may thenV be applied to
the orthogonal de?lecting plates of a cathode ray
tube and the resulting trace will be a line along
.
e3=E3 cos pt=rmodulating low frequency volt
age having angular velocity pi
,the` diameter of the tube. The spot tracing out
the line will oscillate at a frequency of p/Z-/r and
the line position from some ñXed reference will
vary with 0, the phase difference between the
radio `frequency voltages e1 and Ve2. Sense or
Where E1, E2, and E3 are the maximum valuesof
e1, e2, and es, respectively; w is the angular ve
locity of the instantaneous R.. F. voltages Whose
phase relationship isto be measured; and '0 is
the phase angle difference between the two R. F.
voltages whose phase relationship is to be deter
mined.
unique lead~lag phase indication is obtained by
blocking the cathode ray beam ‘duringone-half
of the p/21r cycle.
In carrying out the invention the phase meter `
-35 may be combined with several types of collector
systems among which may be fixed, manually
rotatable or vmotor rotated types.
'
'
Fig. Y3 illustrates the use of Ya fixed system of
collectors consisting of two pairs of- antenna
A,VA’ and B, B’ arranged in space quadrature.
In Fig. 4 the arrow P indicates the direction
of an arrivingV wave having electrical component
E and magnetic component H, shown in relation
to the antennas A, A’ and B, B' of Fig. 3.
Note that, as stated above, eli consists of the
side bands e'4 and e”4. The positions of the side
band vectors depend directly upon 9; consequent- *
e5=E1 cos contig-¿kos (w+p)t+cos (we-Mt]
With such an arrangement the voltage output
_of one pair will be eze-:762132 cos wt'cos 0 where
w/21r is the frequency of the arriving wave and
.0 its propagation angle with respect to this ref
erence pair of collectors. The voltage output of
50 the other pair of collectors will be
:El cos wt-l- E4 cos wt. cos pt
55
V'If ezt is shifted in phase by 90° then:
Where
El
E1
60
is the depth of modulation.
If 0 is 90°
e5=E1 cos wid-ë [cos (1r/2+ (ori-130+
E
‘
cos (1r/2+ (wîplm
:El cos wt--2-4 [sin (wl-@Hsin (cd-pm
Thus, the summation of voltages derived from
the two pair of antennae produces a voltage of
constant amplitude, but whose phase angle is the
angle the arriving wave makes with respect to
the reference collectors. By comparing the
phase of .
==E1 [cos ot-ë
cos pt . sin wt]=phase modulation
2
For @__-90° it is seen that e4. adds in quadrature
with e1 and thus produces 'aV pronounced phase
shift (proportional to Evi/Eicos pt) .and a negli
gible amplitude change` >(if E4/E1<'<1/2)-+see
Figure 2.
'
w
.
70 with that of voltageV '
Y
e1=k1E1 cos wt'
the latten-derived from va central non-directional
antenna, the phase meter directly-indicates-the
bearing of the approaching wave.
‘ Y
'
f «
2,405,203:
5
The resultant voltage e2 may also be obtained
by shifting eza 45° ahead and ez» 45° below their
unshifted values. By this means the resultant
voltage ez will have an instantaneous phase angle
which will track the arriving wave angle.
Fig. 3 shows th‘e voltage ezb being applied to
the phase shifter 23. The output e’zb is com
bined with en. The resultant of the combined
voltages is indicated by e2, which voltage is fed
into a balanced modulator I0. Here it is modu
lated by a low frequency voltage es produced by
oscillator I3. Product e4 of this modulation is
then combined with voltage ei from non-direc?
tional antenna C. The resultant e5 of this com
bination is th'en fed into receiver II which is
may be employed t0 prevent the signal modula
tion or noise from obscuring the measurement.
A phase shifter 22 may be employed to compen
sate for any undesirable phase diñerence of the
l?.
`
21r
frequency in the two detection channels.
A pair of ear phones 42 is shown tapped into
the amplitude detection channel >ahead of se
lective ampliñer 2|. A band rejection ñlter 43 is
provided in the ear ph'ones circuit for filtering
out the local oscillator note if desired. Since
under certain circumstances the presence of such
a background note is valuable as a monitoring in
4 , provided with automatic volume control and may>
dication the circuit is provided with a bypass 44
be tuned by a, single tuning dial I2. This tuning
for cutting out the rejection filter at will.
dial is the only control necessary to the operation
Fig. 5 shows a second embodiment of the in
of the direction ñnder.
vention employing a manually rotatable collector
After leaving the receiver, the I. F. voltage is
system. The collector system is shown mounted
sent through two detectors, one indicated at I3
on a body 34 for manual rotation by means of
being responsive to phase modulation and the
handwheel 49.
other indicated at I4 being responsive to ampli
In this arrangement the voltage e2 from an
tude modulation. The phase detector will give
tennas B, B’ is modulated by the voltage e3 in
an output proportional to sine 0 while th'e output 25 modulator I0 as before. The resulting voltage
of the amplitude detector will be proportional to
e4 is combined with voltage e1 from antenna ele
cosine 0. The detectors should be adjusted so
ments A, A’ in a coupling device 24. The re
that their conversion, gain and output levels give
mainder of the device is identical with the em
the same factor of proportionality. These out
bodiment of Fig. 3.
puts may then be applied to the orthogonal de 30
In the operation of this embodiment the col~
ñecting plates of a cathode ray oscillograph, th'e
lector system is rotated until the oscillograph
output of phase detector I3 being applied to ver
gives a zero reading, at which time the direction
tical deflecting plates I5 while the output of am
of origin of the arriving wave will be at right
plitude detector I4 is applied to horizontal de
angles to the plane of the collector system.
ilecting plates I6.
1n Fig. 6 is shown a third embodiment, uti
The result will be a line traced along the diam
lizing a collector system in which the elements
eter of the tube face. The spot tracing out the
are mounted for relative rotation. For purposes
line will oscillate at a frequency of
of illustration the elements A, A’ are shown
_1L
21r
and the line position from the ñXed reference
point will vary with 0, the phase difference be
tween the radio frequency voltages e1 and e2.
Unique lead-lag phase indication is obtained by
blocking the cathode ray beam during one-half
of the
l’.
l
21V
mounted on a drum 45 which is rotated by motor
40 26 through shaft 35.
Around the outside of the
drum is wound a coil 49 connected to antennas
A, A’. The coil-carrying drum forms the primary
of a rotary transformer by means of which the
voltage e2 induced in antennas A, A’ is collected.
The coil 48 wound on stationary drum 41 forms
the secondary. Through transformer 46 the volt
age e1 from antenna elements B, B’ is super
imposed on voltage e2 and the resultant is led
to receiver I I of the same type as shown in Fig. 3.
50 'I‘he motor 26 through shaft 36 also drives a two
cycle. This is accomplished by a triggering mech'
anism I 'I actuated by the audio oscillator I8
which supplies the voltage e3. Phase detection
phase generator 2l having an electrical frequency
equal to the frequency of shaft 36. The output
of the generator leads to the deflection plates of
can be accomplished in a known manner by
cathode oscillograph 3'I. One component of the
passing the phase modulated signal through a 55 voltage is supplied through leads 30, 3| to ver
limiter and a frequency multiplier, thus convert
tical plates I5 while the other component is sup
ing phase modulation to frequency modulation,
plied through leads 28, 29 to the horizontal plates,
then heterodyning and passing the result through
the Ítwo components, being in quadrature, pro
a discriminator network. When great accuracy
ducing a circular trace on the face of the oscillo
is required or small phase angles are to be meas 60 graph tube. The output of receiver I I is now
ured, it is possible to increase the accuracy of
measurement by increasing in steps of ten times
the phase difference between the R. F. voltages
to be measured. This can conveniently be done
submitted to phase detection. Prior to detection
it may be passed through a decade phase multi
plier I9 as in Fig. 3. Phase detection is accom
plished in a known type of device I3 as described
by using a phase multiplier I9 in the phase de 65 with reference to Fig. 3, which first converts
tection channel prior to detection. The phase
phase modulation to frequency modulation and
multiplier may consist of an appropriate fre
then submits the product to detection. The out
quency multiplier combined with frequency het
put is now passed through a triggering device
erodyning. The decade multiplier can be ar
38 which tends to bias oil’ grid 39 of the oscillo
ranged to be switched in or out of the circuit at
graph when the output of I3 is a minimum.
will.
Since this will be the case when the phase differ
,Selective ampliñers 20 and 2| responsive only
ence between e1 and e2 iszero, it will occur twice
to frequency
each cycle of rotation of the collector system and
by proper orientation of the oscillograph tube the
screen would indicate the direct and reciprocal
2,405,203
Marings of the received Wave by spots of dark
ness'in the light trace on the tube` face.
,Y
8
1 I'clairn:
y»
f
,
llfMeans‘ for determining“ the,V direction of . a
c
radio Wave, comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
In order to givesense to the 'indication use is
made of a second triggering device 4I controlled
means modulating the voltage induced by said
by the first triggering device and, through branch
wave in one of said antennas with a low frequency
voltage, means superimposing on> the resulting
leads 32 and 33, by theV component of the gen
erator voltage which goes to the vertical plates
of the oscillograph.> .This _device tends to bias off
the grid 3d when therinput through the leads 32
and 33 is negative. Theeffectrof the cascaded
10
triggering devices .working together is to produce
a spot of darkness# in the lighrt trace, which, by
proper orientation of the tuben `face with respect
voltage the voltage induced inthe other of said
antennas,` means amplifying the resultant ofl said
superimposed voltages, and phase detecting means
deriving V-frorn said amplified voltage a voltage
having the frequency of said modulating voltage,
and the.Y amplitude of which is directly propor
tional to the sine of the angle of phase diiîerence
between-said voltages induced in said antennas. .
to a scale 40 similar to that shown in the other
shownV the tube >face can be made to show a
A2. Means for determining the direction'of a
radio wave, ycomprising a pair of spaced antennas,
meansl modulating the voltage induced by said
Wave in one of s_aid antennas With a 10W frequency
voltage, means superimposing on the resulting
It ,should be notedV that the invention inthe
between said voltages induced in said antennas,
embodiments of the invention, >will 'indicate di
rectly the direction of the arriving Wave.
Other forms of indication are available.> By
proper selection` of triggering devices cascaded as
spot of .light at the bearing ofthe arriving wave, 20 voltage the voltage induced'in Vthe other of said
antennas, means amplifying the resultant of said
the` remainder of the Vtrace beingA blocked, If a
superimposed voltages, phase detecting means
radial indication is desired this can be secured in
deriving from said amplified voltage a Voltage
a Well known manner by applying a voltage pulse
having the frequency of said modulating voltage,
to the second anode `of the tube when the plane
and the amplitude of which is directly propor
of the collector system is at right angle to: the
tional to the sine of the angle of phase difference
arriving wave.
_ . e
andV means> indicating the magnitude .of said de
embodiments of Figs, >5 and 6 utilizes a rotatable
collector system to secure an indication of direc
rived voltage as a measure of theA direction of said
tion having sense, without the necessity for thev
Wave.
'
y
3. Means-for determining the Vdirection of a
radio wave, comprising a pair of spaced lantennas
Fig. ’7 showsthe phase relationship ~between the
voltage components el and e2 for thefembgdi
transmission lines vbeing of arbitrary lengths,
employment o_f a non-directional antenna fork this
purpose, ashas been necessary heretofore.,
_ v
and transmission lines associated therewith, said
ments of Figs. 5 and y5, theY vectors e2 and e’2 in- f
di'eating the limits of therange through» which
' the phase of” voltageezisshifted during` antenna
antennas, means amplifying the resultant of said
superimposed voltages, and means deriving from
said amplified voltage a voltage having the fre
quency of said modulating voltage, and the am
imum amplitude thus enabling the Y signal to_ be
received over ahigh level of _eresidualand _ab
normal polarization voltages. This constitutes a
decided advantage over previously lmown devices
dition.
Y
.
_
Y
y
,
wave in oneof said antennas with a low frequency
voltage, vmeans superimposing on the resulting
voltage the voltage induced in the other of said
rotation. It should be noted that _Whenthecol
lector system is4 trained. on _the bearing ofthe
arriving wave the resultant e5 will -be at its maX
using amplitude nullity as an indicating con
means modulating the voltage induced by said
plitude of Which'is directly proportional to the
cosine of the angle of phase difference between
45 said voltages induced in said antennas.
.
'
4. The method of determining the direction of
Y`This invention brings to the art many striking
advantages not heretofore available. Because of
the propagation of a radio wave intercepted by a
very- >rapid takingV of .bearingsî The -useof’ïa
single receiver allows non-critical operation.
sultant Vof said superimposedrvoltages separately
Continuous sense and message reception are pos
sible due to the use of maximum signal amplitude when on course. For the first time bearingswith
ing >from said phase and amplitude detection as an
pair of spaced antennas, which comprises modu
lating the voltage induced in one of said anten
the use ¿of maximum signal amplitudeV theA range
of «direction finders is greatlyV increased .The 150 nas with a low frequency voltage, superimposing
on the resulting voltagethe voltage> induced in
automatic'features of Vthe inventionipermitthe
the other. of said antennas, submitting the re
Ysense are secured with only" two 'antenna ele
to both phase and amplitude detection and utiliz
ing the'relative magnitudes of the voltagesresult
indication of said direction.
Y
'
'
5. Means for determining the .direction of a
ments. The use of the phaseY null method of in
radio-Wave, comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
dicating when on course' also allows high reso-lu
meansV modulating the voltage inducedby said
tion. Commoncollector tuning capabilities` are 60 wave in one of said antennas with a low frequency
voltage, means superimposing on the resulting
high. The maximum signal operation land high
voltage the voltage induced in the other of said
collector tuning capabilities allow considerable re
antennas, means amplifying the resultant of said
duction in` collector 'height andspacing forV a
given range of operation.
`
Y*
>
It should be understood that the practice 'of i
the» invention is not limited to the embodiments
illustrated and ‘describedgbut is Ícircumscribed only
by .the scope and limitations of the appended
Claims.
'
'
,
'
'.The >invention described >herein may-be man '-0
`factured and 4used vby -or for> the. Government of
`the United .States of America for- governmental
.purposes ' Without. the payment ïof . any; ¿royalties
, ¿thereon ortherefoi‘f;y
'
superimposed voltages, means deriving'from said
amplified’voltage a pair of voltages having the
frequencyrof said modulating voltage, the ampli
tud'eof one of whichjdep'ends on the sine, and the
amplitude-of the other of which depends upon the '
cosine, ofthe angle of phase difference between
said voltages induced in said antennas, and means
indicating' the relative magnitude of saidderived
voltages as an indication of the directionïof said
wave.
,
'
'
6. Means for determining the direction of a
2,405,203
9
10
radio wave, comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
means modulating the voltage induced in one of
said antennas with a low frequency voltage,
means superimposing on the resulting voltage the
voltage induced in the other of said antennas,
means amplifying the resultant of said superim
posed voltages, means deriving from said ampli
fied voltage a pair of voltages having the fre
quency of said modulating voltages, the amplitude
direction of said wave, and means rendering said
indicating means inoperative throughout a por
`
`
tion of each cycle of the output of said modu
lating means.
11. A direct reading means for determining the
direction of a radio wave, comprising a fixed
collector system having directional character
istics and a non-directional antenna, means
modulating the output of said ñxed collector sys
0f one of which depends upon the sine and the 10 tem at a low frequency, means superimposing
amplitude of the other of which depends upon the
said modulated output upon the output of said
cosine of the angle of phase diiîerence between
non-directional antenna, means amplifying the
said voltages induced in said antennas, a cathode
resultant of said superimposition, a single tuning
ray oscillograph, and means applying each of said
means on said amplifying means, said tuning
derived voltages to one of the sets of deflection 15 means constituting the only control means neces
plates of said oscillograph.
sary to the operation of said direction ñnder,
Y 7. A direct reading means for determining the
means submitting said resultant to separate
direction of a radio wave, comprising a fixed col
phase and amplitude detection and means com
lector system having directional characteristics
paring the relative magnitudes of the outputs of
and a non-directional antenna, means modulat 20 said detecting means and indicating the result as
ing the output of said fixed collector system at a
an indication of the direction of said wave.
low frequency, means superimposing said modu
12. Means for determining the direction of a
lated output upon the output of said non-direc
radio wave comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
tional antenna, means amplifying the resultant
means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable
of said superimposition, means submitting said 25 as a unit, means modulating the output of one of
resultant to separate phase and amplitude de
said antennas at a low frequency, means super
tection and means comparing the relative magni
imposing said'modulated output on the output of
tudes of the outputs of said detecting means and
the other of said antennas, means amplifying the
indicating the result as an indication of the di
resultant of said superimposition, means sub
rection of said wave.
80 mitting said resultant to separate phase and am
8. A direct reading means for determining the
plitude detection and means comparing the rela
direction of a radio wave, comprising a fixed col
tive magnitudes of the outputs of said detecting
lector system having directional characteristics
means and indicating the result, whereby the di
and a non-directional antenna, means modulating
rection of said wave may be determined by rota
the output of said fixed collector system at a low 35 tion of said pair of antennas until said indi
frequency, means superimposing said modulated
cation assumes a predetermined reference pat
output upon the output of said non-directional
tern.
antenna, means amplifying the resultant of said
13. Means for determining the direction of a
superimposition, means submitting said resultant
radio wave comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
to amplitude detection, means separately submit 40 means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable
ting said resultant to phase multiplication, means
as a unit, means modulating the output of one
submitting said phase multiplied resultant to
of said antennas at a low frequency, means su
phase detection, means comparing the relative
perimposing said modulated output on the output
magnitudes of the outputs of said detecting means
of the other of said antennas, means amplifying
and indicating the result as an indication of the 45 the resultant of said superimposition, means sub
direction of said wave.
mitting said resultant to amplitude detection,
9. A direct reading means for determining the
means separately submitting said resultant to
direction of a radio wave, comprising a ñxed
phase multiplication, means submitting said
collector system having directional character
phase multiplied resultant to phase detection,
istics and a non-directional antenna, means 50 means comparing the relative magnitudes of the
modulating the output of said fixed collector
outputs of said detecting-means and indicating
system at a low frequency, means superimposing
the result whereby the direction of said wave may
be determined by rotation of said pair of an
tennas until said indication assumes a predeter
said modulated output upon the output of said
non-directional antenna, means amplifying the
resultant of said superimposition, means sub
mitting said resultant to separate phase and
amplitude detection, means bringing the outputs
of said detecting means into phase equality and
55
mined reference pattern.
14. Means for determining the direction of a
radio wave comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable
as a unit, means modulating the output of one
means comparing the relative magnitudes of the
outputs of said detecting means and indicating 60 of said antennas at a low frequency, means su
the result as an indication of the direction of
Vperimposing said modulated output on the output
said Wave.
of the other of said antennas, means amplifying
10. A direct reading means for determining
the resultant of said superimposition, means sub
the direction of a radio wave, comprising a fixed
mitting said resultant to separate phase and am
collector system having directional character
istics and a non-directional antenna, means
plitude detection, means bringing the outputs of
said detecting means into phase equality and
modulating the output of said ñXed collector sys
means comparing the relative magnitudes of the
tem at a low frequency, means superimposing
outputs of said detecting means and indicating
said modulated output upon the output of said
the result whereby the direction of said wave may
non-directional antenna, means amplifying the 70 be determined by rotation by said pair of an
resultant of said superimposition, means sub
tennas until said indication assumes a predeter
mitting said resultant to separate phase and azn
mined reference pattern.
plitude detection, means comparing the relative
15. Means for determining the direction of a
magnitudes of the outputs of said detecting means
radio Wave comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
and indicating the result as an indication of the 75 means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable
2,405,263
ll
‘12
ing to render said oscillograph operative during
as a unit, means Ymodulating the outputl of one
of said antennas at a low frequency, means su
one half of the rotation of said rotative means,
the simultaneous operation of both of said trig
gering means being necessary to render said os
perimposing said modulated output on the output
of the other of said antennas, means amplifying
the resultant of said superimposition, Ymeans
ciliograph operative. f
19. A direction ñnder comprising a pair of
submitting said resultantto separate phase and
spaced antennas mounted for relative rotation,
amplitude detection, means comparing the rela
tive magnitudes of the outputs of said detecting
means for maintaining said rotation at a con
stant speed, a cathode ray Oscillograph, means
generating on the face of said oscillograph a cir
cular trace having the same frequency as the fre-`
portion of each cycle of the output of said modu
quency of said rotation, means superimposing the
lating means, whereby the direction of said ywave
voltages induced in‘ said antennas by an arriving
may be determined by rotation of said pair of
wave in a manner to preserve the amplitude of
antennas until said indication assumes a prede
l5 one of said voltages, and means responsive to the
termined reference pattern.
' ` Y
'
excursions of the resultant of said super
16. Means for determining the ,direction'of a
means and indicating the result, and’means ren
dering said indicating means inoperative during a
radio wave comprising a pair >of spaced antennas,
means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable
as a unit, means n'iodulatingr the output ofr one
of said antennas at a low frequency, means, su 20
imposition to rendering said oscillograph opera
perimposing said modulated output on the output
tive means.
of the other of saidantennas, means amplifying
the resultant of Said superimpositiomfa single
tuning >means on said amplifying means, said
20. A direction finder comprising a pairV of
spaced antennas mounted for relative rotation,
means for maintaining said rotationV at a constant
speed, a cathode ray oscillograph, means gener
ating on the face of said oscillograph a circular
trace having the same frequency as the frequency
of said rotation, means superimposing the volt
ages induced in said antennas by, an arriving
tuning means constituting the only control means
necessary to the operation of saidV direction
finder, means submitting said resultant to sepa
rate phase and‘amplitude detection and means
comparing the relative magnitudesv of' the V~out
puts of said detecting means andindicating the
result, whereby the direction of said wave'may
be determined by rotation of saidV pair of an
tennas until said indication assumes la prede
termined reference pattern. '
’
tive whenever the existence of a minimum phase
difference between said voltages occurs during
one particular half of the rotation of said rota
wave, means amplifying theresultant of said
superimposed voltages, means submitting said
amplified resultant to phase multiplication,
means submitting said phase `multiplied resultant
to phase detection, a first triggering means oper
t i
ated by the output of said phase detecting means
andtending to render said oscillograph operative
1'7. A direction .finder comprising a pair of
spaced antennas, means for rotating said an
tennas in a manner to obtainra phase modulated
when said outputlis a maximum, a second trigger
output therefrom, a _two-phase generator driven
ing means operated by the output of said trace
generating means and tending to render said
by said rotating means, the output of said gen
erator having an electrical frequency equal to the 40 oscillograph operative during onehalf ofthe ro
tation of said rotative means, the simultaneous
frequency of rotation of said pair of antennas, a
operation of .both of said triggering. means being
cathode ray oscillograph, means impressing one
necessary to render said oscillograph operative.
component of the output offsaid generatoren
each of the sets of deflection plates of said oscillo
graph, whereby a circular trace isrproducedon
the face of said o'scillograph, means superimpos
ing the voltages induced in said antennas by an
arriving wave„means amplifying the resultant of
said superimposed voltages, means submitting
said amplified resultant to phase detection, a ñrst
triggering means operated by the output of said
phase detecting means and tending to render said
oscillograph operative when said _output is a max
imum, a second triggering means operatedby the
output Yof said generator and,> tending to render
45
21. A direction ñnder comprising a> pair of
spaced antennas, means causing relative ‘rotation
of said pair of antennas at constant speed, an azi
muth scale, means constantly determiningßthe
phase difference between the voltages induced in
said antennas by an arriving wave independently
of their amplitudes and means indicating opposite
said scale the point at which said phasedifference
becomes Zero as an indication of the direction of
said wave.
22. Means for directly indicating the direction
V.of a radio wave comprising a ñxed collector sys
said oscillograph operative ~-during one half o_fnthe
tem having two pairs of antennas arranged in
rotation of said rotating means, the simultaneous
spacev quadrature and a non-directionalantenna,
operation of both of said triggering meansY being
means shifting the outputs of said pairsof an
necessary to render said oscillograph'operati've.
tennas into phase quadrature means superimpos
18. A direction finder comprising a pair of 60 ing said outputs, whereby the resultant of said
spaced antennas mounted for relative rotation,
outputs will track the azimuth angle of said wave,
means modulating said resultant with a low fre
means for maintaining said rotation at a con
quency voltage, means superimposing said modu
stant speed, a cathode ray oscillograph, means
generating on the Aface of said oscillograph a cir
lated voltage on the output of said non-direc
cular trace having the same frequency as the fre 65 tional antenna, means submitting the resultant of
quency of said rotation, means superimposing the
said last mentioned superimposition separately
voltages induced in said antennas by >an arriving
to both phase and amplitude detection, and means
comparing the relative magnitudes of the outputs
wave, means amplifying theresultant of said su
perimposed voltages, means submitting saidY am
of said phase and amplitude detecting means and
pliñed resultant to phase detection,'a first trig 70 indicating the result as anindication of the direc
gering means operated by the output of'said phase
tion of said wave.
»
2.3` A direction ñnder comprising a pairv of
detecting means and tending to render'said vos
directional antennas, means providing relative
cillograph operative when said output is a maxi
rotation _of said antennas, means directly and in- ,
mum, a second triggering means operated by the
output of said trace generating means and tend 75 stantaneously indicating the direction of an ar
2,405,203
13
14
riving wave solely in terms of the phase rela
28. Means for determining the direction of a
radio wave comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
means rendering said pair of antennas rotatable,
tionship between the voltages induced in said an
tennas by said wave, and means controlled by the
rotation of said antennas to suppress indications
means modulating the output of one of said an
of the reciprocal of said direction.
tennas at a low frequency, means superimposing
24. A direct reading means for determining the
said modulated output on the output of the other
direction of a radio wave, comprising a ñxed col
of said antennas, means amplifying the result
lector system having directional characteristics
ant of said superimposition, means submitting
and a non-directional antenna, means modulat
said resultant to phase detection, and means in
ing the output of said fixed collector system at a 10 dicating the magnitude of the output of said de
low frequency, means superlmposing said modu
tecting means, whereby the direction of said wave
lated output upon the output of said non-direc
may be determined by rotating said pair of an
tional antenna, means amplifying the resultant
tennas until said indication becomes zero.
of said superimposition. means submitting said
29. A direct reading direction finder simulta
neously usable for continuous message reception
resultant to separate phase and amplitude detec
tion, means comparingthe relative magnitudes of
and the continuous taking of bearings, compris
the outputs of said detecting means and indicat
ing a collector system having 'spaced antennas,
means superimposing the voltages induced in said
antennas by an arriving wave, means modulat
ing said voltages at a low frequency, a receiver,
ing the result as an indication of the direction of
said wave, and means controlled by the output
of said modulating means to suppress the indi
cation of the reciprocal of said direction
a single tuning means for said receiver, means
25. Means for determining the direction of a
radio wave, comprising a pair of spaced antennas,
means modulating the voltage induced by said
impressing said modulated superimposed volt
ages on said receiver, means utilizing the out
put of said receiver for message reception, means
wave in one of said antennas with a low fre
quency voltage, means superimposing on the re
submitting the output of said receiver to phase
detection, means utilizing the magnitude of the
output of said phase detecting means as an in
sulting voltage the voltage induced in the other
dication of the phase relationship between said
of said antennas, means amplifying the result
induced voltages and as an indication of the di
ant of said superimposed voltages, means de
riving from said amplified voltage a pair of volt 30 rection of said wave, and means suppressing the
operation of said indicating means during a par
tages having the frequency of said modulating
ticular part of each cycle of said modulating
voltage, the amplitude of one of which depends
on the sine, and the amplitude of the other of
means, thereby giving sense to said directional
indication.
which depends upon the cosine, of the angle of
30. Means for determining the direction of a
phase difference between said voltages induced 35
radio wave, comprising a collector system hav
in said antennas, means indicating the relative
magnitude of said derived voltages as an indi
ing a continuously connected reference antenna
and at least one spaced antenna, means deiining
cation of the directionof »said wave and means
controlled by the output of said modulating
a single receiver channel, means cooperating
means to suppress the indication of the recipro 40 Iwith said receiver means to compare the phase
of the voltages induced in said antennas by said
cal of said direction.
wave, and means utilizing the magnitude of the
26;u A direct reading direction finder compris
ing a collector system having spaced antennas,
phase difference of said voltages as an indica
means superimposing the voltages induced in
tion of said direction.
31. A direct reading direction finder compris
said antennas by an arriving wave, a means de
ing a single collector system consisting of spaced
fining a singleV receiver channel, means impress
ing said superimposed voltages on said receiver
antennas, means defining a single receiver cha-n
nel, mean-s cooperating with said receiver means
channel, means submitting the output of said re
to compare the phase of the voltages induced in
ceiver means to phase detection, means deriving
from the output of said phase detecting means 50 said antennas by an arriving wave, a cathode ray
oscillograph and means producing on the face
an indication of the phase relationship of said
superimposed voltages, and means utilizing said
of said oscillograph an indication controlled by
the magnitude of the phase diiîerence between
indication as an indication of the direction of
said induced voltages.
said arriving wave, whereby said antennas and
32. Direct reading direction iinder comprising
receiver may be utilized for message reception 55
simultaneously with the taking of bearings, said
a collector system having a continuously con
nected reference antenna and at least one ‘spaced
indicated direction being independent of said re
antenna, an indicating means, means compar
ceiver tuning.
27. A direct reading direction ñnder compris
ing the phase of the voltages induced in said
ing a collector system having spaced antennas, 60 antennas, means deriving from said voltages a
means superimposing the voltages induced in said
voltage the amplitude of which varies solely in
antennas by an arriving wave, means defining a
accordance with the phase diiTerence between
single receiver channel, means impressing said
said induced voltages and means impressing said
superimposed voltages on said receiver means,
derived Voltage on said indicating means.
means submitting the output of said receiver to 65
33. A direct reading direction ñnder compris
phase detection, means deriving from the out
ing a collector system having a continuously con
put of said phase detecting means an indication
nected reference antenna and at least one spaced
of the phase relationship of said superimposed
antenna, means comparing the phase of the volt
voltages, means utilizing the output of said re
ages induced in said antennas by an arriving
ceiver for message reception, and means utiliz 70 wave, an indicating means and means produc
ing said indication as an indication of the di
ing on lsaid indicating means an indication in
stantaneously controlled by the magnitude of the
rection of said arriving wave, whereby message
phase difference between said induced voltages.
reception utilizing said antennas and said re
34. A direction finder comprising a single an
ceiver may proceed simultaneously with direc
75 tenna system consisting of a pair of spaced an
tion ñnding.
'2,405,203
15
tennas rotatable -as a unit, means defining a
single receiver channel, means cooperating with
said receiver means to determine the phase dif- '
16
nected. reference antenna and at least one spaced
antenna, means deñning a single receiver chan
nel,.rneans cooperating with said receiver means
to compare the phase of the voltages induced in
ference of the voltage-s induced in said antennas
by an arriving Wave, and means instantaneously lu said antennas by an arriving Wave and means
utilizing exclusively the phase relationship of
indicating said phase difference and solely re
said voltages as an indication of the direction .of
sponsive thereto, whereby the direction of said
said» wave whereby maximum signal energy is
Wave may be determined by rotating said an
constantly available for direction finding and
tennas until the indication of phase difference
10 message reception.
assumes a predetermined reference path.
35. A direct reading direction finder compris
MAXWELL K. GOLDSTEIN.
ing a collector system having a continuously con
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