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Патент USA US2405213

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Aug. 6, 1946.
c. c.- HERITAGE
,
v - 2,405,213
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCTION OF VFIBER FROM VEGETABLE MATTER
Filed Aug. s, '1940
Patente- ug. 6, ‘ läd
52,405,213
PBOGESS AND APP l», 'ros non Pnonuc
TÍON 0F .'le
snor/r vnoa'rnnnn
MÀTTER
Clark C. Heritage, Cloduet, Minn., asslor to
Wood Conversion Conipany, Cloquet,
corporation oi Belaware
Application August 3, 1940, Serial No. 351,066
l
5 Cla.
’
(ci. az-o)
The present invention relates generally to the
production of pulp, and in particular to appara
tus therefor.
’
Fig. 1 represents a plan view of a machine ac
cording to the Asplund U. S. Patents No. 2,008,892
and No. 2,145,851.
"
p Reference is made to the Asplund U. S. Patent
Fig. 2 represents a. conduit and a cyclone system
No. 2,008,892, describing a machine for the pro
attachedy to the machine and used to separate
steam and gas from the rlber as formed, and used
also to dry the ilber.
The apparatus not only provides economy in
duction of pulp. The raw material in the form of
wood chips, grasses, straw, bagasse, cane, and the
like is fed into a. magazine ahead of a steam pres
sure chamber in which is housed a rotary device
for reducing the material to pulp in a steam en
vironment and particularly in the absence of sus
pending water. Beyond the defibering chamber
there is an >outlet device having in series alter
power and convenience in handling, but may give .
desirable processing to the über. It is a stated
objective of the Asplund patent and its process
Patent No. 2,008,892, to minimize the time of ex
posure of the material to the elevated tempera
nately operating valved oriñce's. By this» device,
,
one oriiice discharges from the machine while the
tures used in forming the liber. yIn connection
In applying the Asplund machine to other uses.
wherein it became desirable to dry the über di
rectly, the discharged fiber was carried by a belt
mal operation of said machine.
with other developments employing _forming con
other oriiice is closed. The :fiber trapped be-`
ditions as they emst in the said Asplund machine,
tween the valves is discharged from the intervalve
I have found that it may be desirable to expose
space by the expansion of the high temperature
the material, and especially the formed ilber, to
steam also trapped in said space. As originally
taught and disclosed the said device discharges 20 elevated temperatures, and particularly to steam,
ior a much longer time than is permitted by nor
the ñber into water.
`
l
By employing a long conduit, I have discovered
2 that a back pressure may exist continuously in
type conveyer. to a suitable drier device which 25 the conduit at the discharging orifice of the ma
chine. This is reduced as the body of über car
happened to be located at some distance from the
riecl in the conduit moves on toward the discharge
machine and at a. considerable height above it.
end into the atmosphere or other receiving space
One object of the present invention is to pro
-of pressure lower than that in the deñbering ma
vide means to carry the discharged fiber from the
machine for considerable distances away from 30 chine. Of course, the length of this pressure zone
in the conduit is dependent in part upon radiation
and even to a higher level, without the use .of
from the conduit, which may be controlled by in
mechanical means and power to convey the fiber.
sulation or its heat surroundings, or both.
ere
In particular, it is an object of the invention to
the gas pressure ceases to exist in the conduit the
utilize the pressure of the discharged steam to
convey the über for long distances with or with 35 fiber is moved along as a column :by mechanical
pressure from that portion of the über which is
out elevation. "
moved bythe gas pressure.
n is sun a further object of the invention to
It is vof course to be understood that there are
provide a cyclone system at the end of said con
I many factors involved which anyone skilled in the
duit for separating :dber and any steam or gases
attendant the discharged material.
art will naturally be obliged to consider in in,
stalling or operating the apparatus.~ Friction of
fiber with the conduit, weight of the' column of
.
A further object of the invention is to provide
to said cyclone system a supply of drying gas or
air for the removal of water from, or for drying,
iiber tobe lifted, and the existing moisture of ,
added condensate, are all forces opposing the
It is also an object oi’ the invention continuous 45 pressure. With these opposition forces also must
be considered the loss or pressure in the gas or
ly to reduce lignocellulose raw material, especial
steam as a result of its expansion or its cooling. ’
ly wood, to a mass of ilbers, and especially dry
the über in the cyclone system.
-
However, in spite of all these oppositions, I have
fibers, with retention of substantially all the solid
material, and with change
found that a conduit in diameter the same as the
v content of the original
in the content of the original material so that it 50 machine oriiice, say 6 inches, may extend i’or 150
to 200 feet and at the same time elevate the :über
presents less resistance to certain treatments by
by as much as 50 feet, the conduit discharging
_,water. chemical solutions-` and other reagents, . into
air from a deiibering pressure of 150 lbs. per
where it is desired to use the über as a starting
point to produce übers lacking in some of the solid
content of the original wood other than its alpha
cellulose content.
Various other and ancillary objects and advan
tages of~the invention will become apparent from
the following description and explanation of the
invention, as illustrated by the accompanying
drawing in which:
,
"
55
-
sq. in. steam pressure. Such distances readily
accommodate various pieces of equipment in a
plant, at different levels, and at remote locations,
to simple connection by a conduit to a iixedly lo
cated deñb‘ering machine, whereby a plant is
made flexible, and whereby a defibering’machine
may be operated to produce and discharge fiber
for various processes of utilization.
.
The exposure of raw material to thesteam'in
’
`
2,405,213
the machine continues for such a short time, that
the chemical reaction-in the machine is limited.
I have found for example,- that by extracting ñ
bers ofraw aspen not at al1 preheated, using 2%
ñber consistency in water for two hours, the wa
ter soluble extract is about 4% to 5% of the dry
wood used. Using liber deñbered in the Asplund
machine at 135 lbs. pressure of steam;and imme-4
diately exposed to the atmosphere, the water
soluble content is about 10%. I have also deter
mined that prolonged exposures to steam will
bring the‘like water extract to about 2'1 % as a
practical limit. By use of the conduit> as a steam
chamber I may control water solubles to various
degrees, in the case of aspen, between substan
tially 10% and 27%. I have also found that high
temperatures and short times can produce as
much water-extract as a certain combination of
lower temperature and longer time, there being
I _
be branched and valve-controlled. To avoid
plugging bythe body of ñber moving therein,
sharp angles are> avoided, as represented by
sweeping bends“ and Il. A Y fixture l2 and
valves 43 and Il are shown, as oi the gate type.
These may be opened readily, but for closing, the
supply of fiber may be stopped until the valve is
cleared by the end of the moving liber. Branch
I5 leading from valve 43 represents a supply to
any use. Branch IB leading from valve 44 repre
sents connection to a cyclone or cyclone system.
In the machine, some slight amount oi' gas ls
generated from reactions in the wood at the tem
perature of the steam, and it is desirable to dis
charge these. This is permitted by any 'simple
cyclone to separate the fiber from the gas and also
any residual steam, the discharged über being
moist. Where moist liber is useful, it may be
taken from such a simple cyclone. However, for
purpose of producing dry fiber, the first cy
less darkening of the ñber at the latter condition. 20 the
clone is made a part of a cyclone drying system
Hence, for prolonging the steam eilect it is de
as now described.
sirable to use a lowertemperature than exists in
A plurality of cyclones is used, the number be
the Asplund machine. The discharging valve
ing dependent upon design to effect ultimately a
structure of the Asplund machine-is an excellent
fiber. Four are illustrated _and designated
pressure reducing device for such purpose, and esdry
50, 5l, 52 and 53. Conduit 46 enters the top of
the lengthy conduit is an excellent means for pro
cyclone 50 which discharges gas and steam to the
longing the time of exposure.
'
atmosphere at 54. The bottom of cyclone 50 has
m Fig. 1, an ¿spinne machine is illustrated in' ,
alternative outlets, merely for the purpose .of
part, showing the essential parts.
Outlet 55 represents the path for
A tubular chamber i 0 is used to introduce wood 30 illustration.
removing moist fiber, and a valve 56 is shown to
as chips, or other lignocellulose material into a
cut on such outlet. The other outlet is asso
high pressure environment within the machine.
ciated with the cyclone system as follows:
The inlet i0 has a serrated or notched interior
Cyclone 50 drops the iiber into a housing 51
wall which acts to prevent steam pressure Vpush
in which a vaned rotor 58 operated by motor 59,
35
ing back a plug in the inlet iormed'of the raw
drops the fiber into a conduit S0 supplied by hot
material by the action of a ram or plunger I I, act
gas from a supply main 6l . Fiber and hot air are
ing on raw material fed into the path of the
thus led into a fan housing 63 which blows it
plunger through a hopper opening i2 (Fig. l) , through
conduit 54 into cyclone 5 i . The cyclones
under a hopper i3 (Fig. 2). The inlet l0 opens
5I
and
52
continue the series in the same way by
into a magazine il capable of holding high pres 40
like equipment, with some parts indicated as folsure steam therein. The bottom of the magazine
lows: hot gas conduits 55 and 66, fans S1 and 68.
connects by a passageway i5 having a screw con
ian-outlet conduits 69 and T0. Conduit 10 leads
veyer I6 therein, operated on the axis i1, by power.
into cyclone 53, which drops dry ilber into e, re
connection i8. The conveyor feeds the raw ma
ceiver 1i.
.
45
terial to the center of opposed grinding disks 2d
Where the fiber is useful dry, a high yield is
and 2|. Disk 20 is stationary and receives the
obtained from Wood or the like with substantially
raw material near its center. Disk 2| rotates at
all the solid substance preserved, as described in
axle
22,
driven
by
a
powerful
belt
Y
high speed -on
my copending application U. S. Serial No. 227,338,
connection 23. Means (not shown) permits ad
justing the spacing between the disks. A housing 50 now abandoned, filed August 29, 1938, of which
the present invention is a continuation in part.
24 for the grinding disks opens .to an outlet con
nection 25. Steam is fed from a supply 26 to a
v
Where the ñber is to be used as a raw material
for a solvent extraction, the moist or the dry
fiber may be used for extraction by an aqueous
into various inlets to the spaces within the
55 solvent.
machine.
The extent to which the liber is subjected to
The outlet 25 is connected to an oflset exten
steam (see my copending application U. S. Se
sion ñxture 28 with valves 30 and 3l at its ends. .
distributing system 21 for introducing the steam
The valves are arranged to have parallel operat-ingstemsSZand 33. and mechanism (not shown)
rial Nos. 351,041 to 351,065, filed August 3, 1940,
as indicated by stressed arrows 34 and 24". These
described, the extent of time and exposure to -
and related cases), inñuences the content of ex
and the character of the liber.
so operates them that when one is closed or sub 60 tractable-matter
composition.y
By
design and operation as above
stantially so the otheris open or substantially so,
steam, may be controlled, for such fiber-consti
reciprocate rapidly and’in operation, ñrst admit
tutional purposes, making the apparatus one of
steam andñberintotheñxture “,thenatleast 65 chemical as well as physical processing signin
-partially closethe Aiixture at the machine end
cance, as set forth in the appended claims.
while opening at the other end to discharge the
I claim:
.
_
opening
of
the
valves
and
über. The degree of
1. Apparatus for continuously producing fiber
the vtiming is adjustable, in order to control the
comprising in combination, a high pressure ehamamount or steam pressure accompanying the ilber
ber for _containing steam under pressure, means
to
feed high pressure’ steam into said chamber at
The discharge end or nx'ture 2l is connected by
a temperature to effect softening of lignocellu
elbow 35 ` to an extending conduit 3i, shown in
lose in said chamber, rotary deñbering means in
Fig. 2 only in cross-section, indicating its vertical
said chamber, feeding means to feed lignocellu-`
2.
IThis
may
run
for'
extent, better shown in Fig.
lose vegetable matter into said chamber for de
75
longV distances' horizontally and vertically,- and
to move it along as described below.
2,405,213
nbermg by said centering means, said feeding
continuously discharging steam and über froml
means being arranged and constructed to prevent
the exit of steam from said chamber, pressure
reducing means operated to open intermittently
said chamber into an elongated laterally conüned
space and reducing the pressure of the steam at
said discharge, while continuously moving said
in rapid succession for providing an outlet from
über along‘said space and discharging said über
from said space by the reduced pressure o1' said
said chamber for steam and über, whereby small
.batches of loose über _are discharged in rapid
steam into a region of pressure still lower than
succession, and an open-ended conduit connected
to and extending from said pressure-reducing
means for containing über and steam under
pressure and for conveying the über, said conduit
having a length and cross-section which together
said reduced pressure, and while employing the
length of said space to create a pressure of steam
increasing in the direction from said region to
' said chamber, whereby thermal action in the -
presence of steam is'eiïected on all the über in
said space to alter its composition as it moves
are such as to permit said pressure-reducing
-means to eü’ect a reduction in pressure and to
alongsaid elongated space..
cause a back pressure of_ steam in said conduit
_
4. The method of continuously producing über
increasing from the open and discharge end of
said conduit to said outlet of said chamber,
which comprises continuously introducing ligno
' whereby said pressure-reducing means freely dis
ceilulose material tò be defibered into a pressure
for a period of time during traverse of the con
to permit ready deübration, while substantially
comprising in combination a high pressure cham
ber for containing steam under pressure, means
to feed high pressure steam into said chamber at
‘ from said space> by the _reduced pressure of said
, chamber, continuously deübering said lignocellu
charges über in_to saidconduit and into an at
lose mechanically in the presence of steam in saidy
mosphere of steam under a pressure which eü‘ects
-movement of the said small batches of über along 20 chamber an'd in the absence of a suspending
quantity of water at a temperature above 212° F.
the conduit to said discharge end While exposing
'
and
at which the lignocellulose becomes softened '
all the übers thereof to the steam in said conduit
duit, the length of said conduit further being 25 continuously discharging steam and über from
said chamber into an elongated laterally' conüned
such that the time of exposure of übers inA said
space and reducing the pressure of the steam at
conduit to steam is longer than the time of ex
posure of lignocellulose to steam in said chamber. ' said discharge while continuously moving said
über along said space and discharging said über
2. Apparatus for continuously producing über
steam into a région of pressure sti1l.lower than
said reduced pressure, and vv’hile employing the
a temperature to effect softening of lignocellulose - ' length of said space .to create `a pressure of steam
in said chamber, feeding means to feed lignocellu- 1, increasing in the direction from said region to
lose vegetable matter into said chamber to be de 35 said chamber, whereby thermal action in the
presence of steam is effected on all the über in
übered, said feeding means being arranged andv
said space to alter its composition as it moves
constructed to prevent the exit of steam from said'
along said elongated space, the time of exposure
chamber, rotary deübering means in said charn
of the über -to steam at the reduced pressure in
ber, means within said chamber to feed said ligno
said space being longer than the time of exposure
cellulose to said deübering means, pressure-re»
ducing means operated to open intermittently in 40 of the lignocellulose to steam at the higher pres
sure in said chamber.
rapid succession for providing an outlet from said
5. The method of continuously producing über
chamber for steam and über, whereby small
which comprises continuously introducing ligno
batches of ' loose über are discharged in rapid
succession, and an open-ended conduit connected 45 cellulose material to be deflbered into a pressure
chamber, continuously deübering said lignocellu
lose mechanically in the presence of steam in said
mean for containing über and steam under pres
' to and extending from said pressure-reducing
sure-and for conveying the über, said conduit l
having a length and cross-section which together
are such as to permit said pressure-reducing
means to eiîect a reduction in pressure and t0
`cause a back pressure of steam in said conduit
to permit ready deübration, while substantially
continuously discharging steam and über from‘
said chamber into an elongated laterally conüned
increasing from the open and discharge, end of
said conduit to said outlet of said chamber,
space and reducing the pressure of the steam at "
whereby said pressure-reducing means freely dis- - -
charges über into said conduit and into an atmos
phere of steam under a pressure which effects
movement of the said small batches of über along
the conduit to said discharge endwhile exposing
all the übers thereof to the steam in said conduit
for a period of time during traverse of the con
duit, the length of said conduit further being such
that the time of exposure of übers in said conduit
to steam is longer than the time of exposure of
lignocellulose to steam in said chamber.
. 3. The method of continuously producingïüber
which comprises continuously introducing ligno
chamber and in the absence of a suspending
quantity of water at a temperature above 212° F.
and at which the lignocellulose becomes softened
said discharge, while continuously moving said
über along said space and discharging said-über
from said space by the reduced pressure of said
steam into a region of pressure- still lower than
said` reduced pressure, and while employing the
length of said space to create a pressure of steam
60
increasing inthe direction frdm said region to
said chamber, whereby »thermal action in the ’
presence of steam is eiïected on all the über in
said space to alter its composition as it' moves
along said elongated space, the time of exposure
65 of the lignocellulose to steam in said chamber
being insuüicient to complete formation of water
soluble material which results from the ,action
of said steam, and the time oi’ exposure of said
chamber, continuously deübering said lignocellu
lose mechanically in the presence of steam in said 70 über to steam at the reduced pressure in said
space being longer than the time of exposure of
chamber and in the absence of a suspending
the lignocellulose to steam at the- higher pres
quantity of water at a temperature above 212° F.
sure
in said chamber.
and at which the lignocellulose becomes softened
cellulose material to be deübered into a pressure
to permit ready deübration. while substantially
-
,CLARK C. HERITAGE
_
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