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Патент USA US2405217

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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Emile Labin, New York, N. Y., assignor to Inter
national Standard Electric Corporation, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application March 13, 1941, Serial No. 383,116
7 Claims.
This invention relates to impulse generating
and transmitting systems and more particularly
to systems in which properly timed impulses are
obtained from damped oscillations.
It is often desirable, particularly in distance
measuring systems, to transmit energy impulses
(Cl. 250-17)
spark gap I2 and a transmission line I3, pref
erably a coaxial line having an outer conductor
Ill and an inner conductor I5. At the remote end
of transmission line I3 is provided a resistance
element It which is made to be equal to the surge
impedance or characteristic impedance of the
having a relatively short period of duration com
line. As shown in Fig. 1, this resistance is illus
pared to the period of oscillation or repetition of
_ trated as a plate coated with a high resistance
the impulse. For such generators a spark gap
material. This resistance, however, may take any
oscillator would appear to be well suited. It is 10 desired form and may be arti?cially cooled by
found, however, that in ordinary spark gap oscil
a water jacket or the like in order to dissipate
lators the duration of the impulse at a particular
heat generated by the energy traversing the re
frequency is not suf?ciently controllable and is
sistance. The resistance can also be part of a
generally not su?lciently long to make such ar
more complicated dipole taking into account the
rangements practicable.
change in the characteristic impedance of the
It is a principal object of my invention to pro
transmission line due to the coupling with the
vide a system utilizing spark gap discharge cir
cuits in which the length of impulse at a par~
ticular frequency may be readily controlled.
This object may be accomplished according to
a feature of my invention by producing a spark
gap discharge across a point coupled to one end
of a transmission line, the other end of which is
terminated in the characteristic impedance of the
resonant cavity.
. .
The outer conductor I 4 of the transmission line
is provided with a plurality of apertures I'I ar
ranged in spaced longitudinal relationship along
the transmission line. Over each opening I1 is
provided a resonant cavity shown in Fig. 1 as
being substantially spherical in shape. These
This arrangement will then produce an 25 cavities l 8 serve to extract energy at the resonant
frequency thereof from the discharge energy as
impulse traveling from the spark gap down the
it traverses transmission line I3. To each of the
length of the line to the terminating impedance.
' resonant cavities I8 is coupled an antenna unit
Along the transmission line at one or more points
I9 forming a dipole radiator.
is coupled a resonant circuit, preferably a hol
low resonant cavity for extracting energy at the 30 In operation a voltage is built up by energy
supplied from source Ill across condenser II until
resonant frequency of the cavity from the dis
this voltage is sufficiently high to cause a spark
charge current or voltage as it traverses the line.
discharge across gap I2. These discharges will
Due to the high Q value of the resonant cavity
be produced periodically depending upon the na
the duration of the pulse can be made long enough
for practical purposes.
35 ture of source Ill. The discharge across gap I2
will produce an impulse which will traverse line
While I have broadly set forth the principal
113 to its remote end where it will be absorbed in
object and feature of my invention, a better
understanding of my invention and the objects
terminating resistance I6. The discharge im
and features thereof may be had from the par
pulse traversing line I3 will have a steep wave
front and will be highly damped as in most spark
ticular description thereof made in conjunction
with the accompanying drawing, in which
discharge systems. Accordingly, because of the
form of the discharge it is clear that energy com
ponents of various high frequencies will be pres
ent in the wave. As the wave caused by the dis
45 rupted discharge travels past apertures I7 a por
invention; and
Fig. 3 represents a different form of impulse
tion of the energy will be extracted by resonant
generator according to my invention.
cavities I8 and will be radiated from antenna
In Fig. l, at I0, is shown a source of potential
elements I9. By properly choosing the spacing
connected across a condenser II. Source II] is
between the apertures and the antenna units the
preferably an alternating or impulse potential
proper phase relationship for obtaining a desired
source having a period equal to the desired spac
directive effect may be produced directly in the
ing between the impulses to be produced and a
system. For example, if antennae I9 are suc
potential sufficiently high to cause a spark dis
cessively spaced a wavelength apart and it is
charge over the spark gap terminals I2. Across
assumed that the discharge traverses transmis
Fig. 1 illustrates partially in cross-section a
circuit in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 illustrates a modi?ed embodiment of my
condenser II is provided a circuit comprising 55 sion line I3 at the speed of light, then each suc
cessive antenna unit will be energized in phase
tended as limitations of the scope of my inven
tion. Many changes and alterations in the struc
tural details of the system may be made within
and a so-called broadside array will be produced.
In traversing line l3 the impulse waves may be
slightly attenuated as to the frequencies absorbed
in resonant circuits I8. However, if this absorp
the spirit of my invention. For example, resonant
cavities such as shown at 18, in Fig. 1, may be
made in the form of ?gures of revolution instead
tion is sufficiently great so as to tend to produce
of the spherical arrangements shown. Also,
many other changes in the type of transmission
line used and in the various circuits applied there
large di?erences in theenergization of antennae
19, the losses in resonant chambers [8 may be
adjusted to care for this decrease. This may be
accomplished by choosing materials or providing 10 to may be provided within the terms of my in
vention. For example, instead of using a spark
a coating on the inner surface of chambers ill,
gap to produce the impulses traveling from the
or, preferably, by controlling the coupling be
fed end down to the terminating impedance of
tween the chambers and the loading so as to have
the line, it is possible to use any kind of pulse
a higher Q in the chamber ?rst traversed by the
generator, such as an electronic tube generator.
energy than in the succeeding chamber.
In Fig. 2 a slightly modi?ed arrangement is
What is claimed is:
1. An electrical impulse generator comprising
illustrated. The source [0, condenser I l, and
a two-conductor line, means for terminating one
spark gap 12 may be substantially the same as
end of said line in its characteristic impedance,
those shown in Fig. 1. Likewise, a similar co
axial transmission line i3 having an inner con 20 means for producing a damped electrical dis
charge periodically at the unterminated end of’
ductor l5 and outer conductor M is provided. As
said line, whereby electrical impulses will
shown in this ?gure, the terminating impedance
periodically traverse said line to said character
I6 is illustrated as a generalized resistance, al
istic impedance means, and a substantially closed
though it should be clearly understood that any
resonant chamber coupled to said line to extract
form of resistance unit may be used. Along the
a portion of the energy at the resonant frequency
length of outer conductor M are provided a plu
of said chamber from said impulses traversing
rality of coupling openings 20. rI'he ?rst open
ings are shown as rectangular in form while those
at the center are shown as circular openings. It
said line.
2. An impulse generating system according to
should be understood that any types of openings 30 claim 1, wherein said two-conductor line com
prises a coaxial line provided with an opening,
may be used, it merely being necessary to provide
and said resonant chamber is coupled to said line
some apertures for coupling an external circuit to
by ?tting over said opening.
the transmission line. Instead of a plurality of
3. An impulse generator according to claim 1,
separate chambers, a single resonant cavity 2|
wherein said two-conductor line comprises a
is provided. This cavity is coupled with the line
length of coaxial line provided with a plurality
at a plurality of places corresponding to open
of openings spaced apart along said line, and
ings 20. To cavity 21 is coupled a line 22 so that
said substantially closed resonant chamber com
energy may be furnished to a load circuit. If
prises a single cavity coupled with said line
desired, a plurality of lines 22 may be coupled
at spaced points along the surface of cavity 2| 40 through said spaced openings.
4. A radiating arrangement comprising a two
to provide differences of phase in the energized
conductor line, means for terminating one end of
generator to be used in place of the simple spark
said line in its characteristic impedance, means
for producing a damped electrical discharge
gap of Figs. 1 and 2.
I In this ?gure an end of the cable cut at line
periodically at the unterminated end of said line,
whereby electrical impulses will periodically
, In Fig. 3 is shown a preferred type of impulse
traverse said line to said characteristic impedance
means, a substantially closed resonant chamber
coupled to said line to extract a portion of the
energy at the resonant frequency of said chamber
from said impulses traversing said line, and a
radiating unit coupled with said resonant cham
5. A radiating arrangement compising a two
conductor coaxial transmission line terminated at
one end in its characteristic impedance, means
for providing a damped electrical discharge
periodically at the unterminated end of said
transmission line, a plurality of openings in the
GO outer conductor of said transmission line, said
A—A is shown, comprising inner and outer con
ductors l3, M, respectively. A source of energy
30 is provided connected at one side to outer con
ductor M, which conductor is made to extend past 1
the inner conductor [3 and is preferably reduced
in ‘diameter beyond the inner conductor. The
other terminal of source 30 is connected to a rod
32 provided in spaced relation with central con
ductor H3. The potential of source 30 is sum
ciently high to maintain an arc discharge 34
between l3 and 32. This is preferably accom
plished by arranging the arc equipment in an
atmosphere of inert gas.
A source of energy 3| which is preferably
periodic in nature is connected to a pair of de
?ecting coils 33. When coils 33 are energized are
34 is forced to one side and into contact with
the reduced portion of outer conductor 34. Each
time the arc contacts 33 and again breaks away
from contact a short damped impulse is produced
which traverses the transmission line in a manner
similar to that described in connection with Figs.
1 and 2. The period of the impulse generation
may be controlled by the frequency of pulsation "
or interruption of energy from source 3!.
While I have described above for the purpose of
illustration some structural embodiments of my
invention, it should be distinctly understood that
these embodiments do not serve and are not in
openings being spaced longitudinally of said line
a predetermined fraction of a wavelength, a plu
rality of substantially closed resonant cavities
?tted over respective ones of said openings to
extract energy therefrom during passage of an
impulse along said line, and individual radiators
coupled to said resonant chambers.
6. An electric impulse generator according to
claim 1, wherein said means for producing a
damped electrical discharge comprises an are dis
charge gap provided in one of the conductors of
said line, a source of electrical energy connected
to said transmission line conductors to maintain
an arc discharge across said gap, and periodically
operating means for distorting said are periodi
cally into contact with the other conductor of
said line whereby damped impulse waves are pro
duced in said line.
'7. An electric impulse generator for use in a
two-conductor transmission line comprising an
arc discharge gap provided in one of the con
ductors of said line, a source of electrical energy
connected to said transmission line conductors to
maintain an arc discharge across said gap, and
periodically operating means for distorting said
are discharge periodically into contact with the
other conductor of said line whereby damped im
pulse waves are produced in said line.
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