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Патент USA US2405220

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333m" “00"
118-50
Aug. 6, 1946.
c. A. MANN
2,405,220
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOI-‘TEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
Filed Jan. 29, 1941
11 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
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Aug. 5, 1946.‘
2,405,220
C. A. MANN
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING'MOL'I‘EN METAL 0N STRIP STOCK
Filed Jan. 29, 1941
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Aug. 6, 1946.
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2,405,220
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOLTEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
Filed Jan. 29, 1941
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOLTEN METAL 0N STRIP STOCK
Filed Jan. 29, 1941
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOLTEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOLTEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOL'I‘EN METAL 0N STRIP STOCK
Filed Jan. 29, 1941
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APfLYING MOLTEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
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Aug. 6, 1946.
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C. A. MANN
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING MOLTEN METAL 0N STRIP STOCK
Filed Jam 29' 1941
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INVENTOR
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Patented Aug.a6, 1946
2,405,220
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,220
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING
MOLTEN METAL ON STRIP STOCK
Cecil A. Mann, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General
Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application January 29, 1941, Serial No. 376,512
24 Claims.
(01. 117-114)
2
This invention relates to a method and appa
ratus for continuously applying a soft metal to
the surface of a metal strip and is more particu
larly concerned with a method and apparatus for
continuously applying and simultaneously im
pregnating porous metallic strip with a lower
melting point metal.
It is the primary object of this invention to
provide a method and apparatus wherein porous
strip material, preferably supported by a more
molten metal and whose rate of rotation is
greater than the rate of fall of the molten metal
whereby the molten metal is held in place until
solidi?cation occurs.
.
Another object of ‘the invention is to provide a
method and apparatus for casting an overlay of
lower melting point metal on a metal strip where
in the forward speed, of motion of the strip is
regulated so that the cooling rate of the molten
metal is such thatsolidi?cation occurs at atime
when the thickness of the overlay reaches a pre
dense metal backing, may be continuously im
pregnated and overlaid with a lower melting point
Further objects andadvantages of the vpresent
metal so that the overlay is of a predetermined
invention will'be apparent from the following de
thickness within close limits.
Another object of the invention is to provide a 15 scription, reference, being, had ‘to the'accomp'anye
determined
dimension.
'
,.
'
.7
.
‘
method and apparatus whereby strip material, '
ing drawings wherein preferred embodiments of
such as composite strip material which includes
a porous metal layer thereon, may be continu
ously impregnated and overlaid with a lower
the present invention are clearly shown.
In the drawings:
,
.
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of one type of
melting point metal, wherein the impregnation 20 apparatus which may be used to continuously im
pregnate and overlay porous metal strip with a
takes place under vacuum conditions.
lower melting point metal.
In carrying out the above object it is a further
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
object to impregnate and overlay porous strip
apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
material in a substantially flat condition thereby
eliminating bending the strip material during op 25 Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view of the enclosed
- portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, without
erations thereon.
showing detailed constructural features.
A further object of the invention is to provide
Fig. 4 is a detailed cross sectional view of the
a method and apparatus whereby a vacuum may
portion of Fig. 3 identi?ed as “A."
be applied to the porous metal layer of strip ma
terial, said vacuum being maintained by means of 30 ,Fig. 5 is a view taken on line 5--5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a view taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 4.
a seal of the impregnating metal in the molten
Fig. 7 is a view taken on the line 1--‘| of Fig. 4.
condition.
Fig. 8 is a view in section of the enclosed por
Another object of the invention is to thoroughly
tion of the apparatus identi?ed as “C” in Fig. 3,
condition the material for impregnation whereby
the strip material is ?uxed for improving the wet 35 together with a cross section of the casting gate.
Fig. 9 is a view taken on the line 9-9 of Fig. 8
ting action of the molten material, said ?uxing
showing detailed‘valve construction.
being carried out by means of a gaseous medium
Fig. 10 is a view taken on the line Ill-l 0 of Fig.
contacting the metallic surface under elevated
8 showing a cross sectional view of the casting
conditions of temperature. In some cases said
?uxing may be carried out by means of a'series 40 equipment.
Fig. 11 is a view taken on the line li-II of
of rolls of sponge rubber, or the like, whereby
Fig. 8 showing cross sectional view of the outlet
liquid is transmitted to the surface of the metal
gate.
from a reservoir at a point remote therefrom and
Fig. 12 is a plan view of the casting gate and
uniformly distributed on the surface of the metal
and when operating upon porous strip, into the 45 casting apparatus.
Fig. 13 is a view taken on the line lit-l3 of
pores therebf.
A still further object is to provide a method and
Fig. 12 and shows in section one of the pairs of
apparatus for casting a predetermined thickness
rollers used to maintain‘ the strip in alignment.
of overlay of lower melting point metal on the
Fig. 14 is a view taken on the line lL-ll of
surface of a metal strip.
_
50 Fig. 12 showing constructural details of the mov
able side walls of the casting equipment.
In carrying out the above object it is still an
Fig. 15 is a view taken on the line l5—l5 of
other object to maintain the desired thickness of
Fig. 14.
molten metal on top of the metal strip by means
of rotatable gates which revolve in the direction
opposite to the direction of the gravity ?ow of 55
Fig. 16 is a plan view of another embodiment
of the castingapparatus.
2,405,220
3
Fig. 17 is a view taken on the line ll-l'l of
Fig. 16.
Fig. 18 is a view taken on the line 18-18 of
Fig. 16.
Fig. 19 is aview taken on the line l9—-l9 of
Fig. 18.
Fig. 20 is a view taken on the line tit-26 of
Fig. 16.
4
soft low melting point metal in the flat condition
and it is to this operation that the present method
and apparatus is particularly adapted.
In order to clarify the operation of the appara
tus a schematic drawing, in section, is shown in
Fig. 2, wherein a machine 20 comprises an elon—
gated tunnel-like structure which is divided into
three chambers 24, 26, 28. Strip material 30 en
ters the apparatus 20 through an opening into
Fig. 21 is a view taken on the line 2l--2l of
10 chamber 24, then passes through chamber 26 and
Fig. 17.
Fig. 22 is a view in perspective of the gaseous
then through chamber 28. A pair of pinch rolls,
?uxing apparatus used at the entrance to the
not shown, may be used to pull the strip through
the machine. Chambers 24 and 28 contain
enclosed portion of the apparatus.
molten low melting point metal in su?icient quan
Fig. 23 is a view in section of the fluxing equip
tity to cover the strip 38 passing therethrough,
ment shown in Fig. 22.
Fig. 24 is a view partly in section of another
while chamber 26, which is intermediate chamber,
is evacuated. A reducing gas is preferably main
embodiment of the ?uxing apparatus used in con
tained over the molten low melting point metal in
nection with a liquid ?ux.
the chambers 24 and 28 to prevent oxidation of
Fig. 25 is a view taken on the line 25-25 of
Fig. 24.
20 the molten metal. In order to maintain a vacuum
Fig. 26- is- a fragmentary view- of fluxing equip
in chamber 26 a vacuum pump, not shown, is
attached to the pipe 32. A heated supply sump
ment using the resistance of the strip as a means
34 is provided wherein a constant. level of low
of heating same, and,
melting metal in the molten state is preferably
Fig. 27 is another view of ?uxing equipment
utilizing inductive heating.
25 maintained and which is connected to the cham
ber 26 by means of a tube 36 which is immersed
The apparatus and method disclosed herein is
in the metal of sump 34 and which connects at
particularly adapted to the application of a low
the other end thereof to the vacuum chamber 26.
melting point metal upon metallic strip material
The tube 36 should be of greater length than the
wherein the strip continuously passes through the
apparatus. The apparatus further is adapted to
30 height of a barometric head drawn on the metal
vacuum impregnation of the strip material and
thus various materials may be passed there
through in strip form and be impregnated with
in sump 34. This barometric head is indicated in
Fig. 2 and depends upon the density of the low
melting point metal.
v
-
-
A melt-down tank 38 is also provided which
any desirable impregnant which, in the preferred
form, is a low melting point metal, for example, 35 may be heated by suitable means and in which
a supply of low melting point metal is placed and
a lead or tin base Babbitt or other metal having
kept in a molten condition. Since no reducing
a melting point‘ lower than the melting point of
atmosphere is maintained over this molten metal
the strip material being operated upon whereby
the impregnant may be maintained in a molten
it is desirable to have a layer of bentonite or other
condition without changing the phase character 40 suitable material ?oating thereon to prevent con
tact and resulting oxidation by the atmosphere.
istics of the strip passingtherethrough.
Two pumps 48 and 42 are provided adjacent the
In the preferred embodiment, the apparatus
bottom of the melt-down tank 38 and have their
and method is particularly directed to the con
outlets connected to the chambers 24 and 28 re
tinuous impregnation of porous metallic material
spectively. These pumps supply su?icient molten
preferably bonded to a strong steel supporting
low melting point metal to chambers 24 and 28
strip. The method of making such porous metal
so that there is always an excess of the molten
bonded to strip material is clearly disclosed in
metal ?owing over the weirs 44 and 46, which ex
Koehring Patents 2,198,253 and 2,198,254 whereas
material having a porous metal layer bonded to a
cess metal passes through pipes 48 and 58 back
strong metal backing, said layer being overlaid 50 into the melt-down tank 38.
The vacuum operation of the apparatus de
with a soft metal is disclosed in the Boegehold
pends upon the pumps 40 and 42 having sumcient
Patent No. 2,198,240. All of these patents are
capacity to maintain a continuous ?ow of molten
assigned to the assignee of the present invention.
metal over the weirs 44 and 46. Thus, as metal
Material as disclosed in the Boegehold patent is
particularly desirable in the manufacture of bear 55 leaks out of chambers 24 and 28, either at the
outlet or exit of the apparatus, or through the
ings since this stock has the desirable babbitt
apertures in the two chambers which connect
quality at the surface thereof due to the overlay
to the vacuum chamber 26, it maintains a vac
and likewise has the babbitt layer mechanically
uum seal at all openings. The metal which ?ows
locked to the steel by means of the intermeditae
porous metal layer. Furthermore, the porous 60 into the vacuum chamber 26‘ passes into the pipe
38 where the barometric head is maintained.
metal layer may be in itself a metal of good bear
Excess metal in the sump 34 is eliminated by an
ing characteristics and if the overlay of babbitt
automatically operated pump 52, which pumps
should wear through in spots the exposed porous
molten metal from the sump into the melt-down
metal will not in any way impair the bearing
65 tank to maintain the desired level of molten metal
quality of the element.
in the sump 34. Thus, the vacuum pump draws
In making bearings of the Boegehold type it is
a vacuum in chamber 26 which is sealed by metal
particularly desirable from the economy angle to
leaking therein from chambers 24 and 28, and due
be able to manufacture the stock of said bearings
to the fact that pumps 40 and 42 supply an excess
in a continuous manner. Continuous impregna
tion and overlaying of a porous metal layer on the 70 of metal to chambers 24 and 28, the vacuum is
never broken and the seal is maintained. In
steel backing presents a di?icult problem since
this manner the strip 38 with the porous metal
the steel is of a substantial thickness and is not
layer thereon passes into the apparatus and is
adapted to excessive bending duing the processing
immersed in the molten low melting point metal
thereof. For this reason it is desirable to impreg
nate and overlay the porous metal layer with a 75 in chamber 24 whereupon the molten metal par.
2,405,220
5
tially impregnates the pores of the porous metal
layer but due to occluded air therein does not
completely ?ll the pores. The strip next passes
into vacuum chamber where the air pressure over
the strip is reduced to such an extent that the
occluded air within the pores of the porous metal
layer escapes through the molten metal. A vi
brator 54 may be used to aid in dislodging the
occluded air if desired at this point. After the
occluded air is removed‘ from the porous metal
the molten metal thereon sinks into the pores.
The strip then passes into the next chamber 28
6
serted by reversing the operation and bolting the
assembly in place.
The bottom 92 of chamber 24 is designed to
slope toward drain 94 which connects with pipe
96 coming from the pump 40.
Thus when it is
desired to partially ?ll the chamber with molten
metal the pump 40 is started to pump molten
metal through the drain 94 and into the chamber
24 toa level of the weir 98, as shown in section
in Figs. 5 and 6. When the level of the metal
in chamber 24 exceeds the height of the weir 98
in drains thereover into the sloping channel 99
where additional molten metal is supplied as an
and returns to the melt-down tank through pipe
overlay. From chamber 28 the strip passes
I00. A window I 02 may be provided in the cham
through a suitable casting gate I28, to be de 15 ber so that internal operations may be clearly
scribed in detail hereinafter, where a predeter
observed.
mined thickness of overlay is cast on to the sur
After the strip has passed through chamber
face of the strip.
24 and through vacuum chamber 26 wherein air
Fig. 3 shows a section through the apparatus 20
is substantially removed from the interstices of
wherein the detailed construction of chambers 20 the porous metal, it next passes into the third
24, 2E and 28 is shown. It will be noted that the
chamber 28. Chamber 28 has a removable throat
three chambers are aligned and are de?ned by
assembly similar to the one used in chamber 24
separating walls 58 and 60 which separate cham
which includes a restriction I04 in wall 60, con
bers 24 and 28 respectively from chamber 26.
necting members I06, together with a second
Each chamber is heated by its own heating unit 25 throat portion I08 in the end wall of the cham
which preferably is a gas ?ame burning in tubu
ber. The throat I08 is shown in detail in Fig. 11
lar combustion chambers 62, 64, 66 and 68. The
and includes a series of serrated portions IIO
strip 30 passes from one chamber to another
which permit a limited amount of metal to flow
through the various walls including walls 58 and
out on top of the strip. The serrations IIO may
60 and through throat portions ‘I0 and 12 which 30 be varied to give the desired results. The cham
are in separating walls 58 and 60 respectively.
ber 28 includes the heater 68 and a lower outlet
These throat portions will be explained in more
I I2 which is used to either drain or ?ll the cham
detail hereinafter. The strip 30 when passing
ber 28 up to the level of the weir II4 which level
through the vacuum chamber 26 goes through
is adjustable in height so that a ?xed level of
perforated tubular receptacles ‘I4 and ‘I6 which
the molten metal may be maintained above the
act as guides for the strip and which are open
surface-of the strip. In this manner, no exces
adjacent the center of the chamber 26 to permit
sive pressure head is imposed on the metal to
any excess low melting point metal to drain
increase the ?ow thereof through serrations H0
in throat I08.
therefrom. It will be noted that the tubular re
ceptacles ‘I4 and 1e are sloped to insure drainage 40
Adjustment of weir I I 4 is obtained by the rota
therefrom. The heaters 64 and 66 in chamber
tion of hand wheel II6 which rotates the semi
26 maintain the temperature within the chamber
cylindrical weir level H8 in receptacle I20. The
above the melting point of the low melting point
weir level H8 is of the length equal to the length
metal so that air may be drawn from the inter
of the weir and rides in the receptacle I20. Ro
stices of the porous metal layer by the vacuum 45 tation of the hand-wheel H6 to the right causes
in the chamber. All the chambers are jacketed
the weir to rotate in a clockwise direction for
by means of an insulated jacket ‘I8. The space
lowering the level of metal above the strip;
between jacket ‘I8 and the walls of chamber 24,
whereas rotation of thewheel H6 in the oppo
26 and 28 may be ?lled with heat insulating ma
site direction makes it possible to raise the level
terial or may be a substantially dead air space 50 of the metal above the strip. Excess metal which
to prevent transmission of heat. The melt-down
?ows over the weir II4 falls into the elongated
tank 38 is also double walled having a heat in
sloping chamber I22 which is connected by means
sulating outer wall 80 enclosing the same.
of pipe 50 with the melt-down tank 38.
'
The detailed construction of chamber‘ 24 is
When it is desired to completely drain the
shown in Fig. 4 wherein the heating element 62 65 chamber I22 the. hand wheel I24 may be used
is disposed in a serpentine path therein to pro
which connects with a valve I26 that permits any
vide the sections as shown in the drawings. A
excess metal in the chamber I22 to drain back
section through the throat ‘I0 is shown in Fig. 7
into chamber 28 whence it will ?ow through the
wherein the close ?t between the strip and the
lower drain II2 back into the melt-down tank
throat may be noted. In. this manner a mini 60 when the pump 42 stops operating. It is desir
mum of low melting point metal is allowed to be
able when draining either chamber 24 or cham
drawn through the throat in the vacuum cham
ber 28 to remove the pumps or open the passage
ber 26. The throat ‘I6 is carried by elongated
way therethrough so that metal in either cham
tubular members 84 which in turn connect with
ber may be drained completely back to the melt
outer throat portion 86 which is bolted to the outer 65 down tank. Longitudinal walls 91 and H3 coop
side of the end face of chamber 24. Thus when
erate with weirs 98 and I I4 respectively to re—
varying size strips are to be operated upon, the
duce the volume of chambers 24 and 28 thereby
throats may be changed so as to insure a close
reducing the required quantity of molten metal
?tting restriction in the wall between chambers
in each chamber.
24 and 26. The entire throat assembly, as will be 70
After the strip emerges from chamber 28
observed, can be removed by removing bolts 88
through the throat I08 it passes into the casting
and 90 on the outside of chamber 24 and drawing
apparatus or what may be termed “casting gate”
the assembly which includes portions 85 and 10
I28 which is shown in section in Fig. 10 and
and connecting tubular members 84 from the
which includes a rotatable wire brush I30 that
chamber 24. A new throat assembly may be in. 75 is placed close to the throat I08 and beneath the
a.
“p
a
2,406,220
the gate I28 a plurality of water jets I50 are used
strip to remove any low melting point metal from
which direct streams of water against the under
the back side of the strip 30. The top of the
side of the strip just after it emerges from the side
strip due to the serrations H0 in throat I08
rails I32. This freezes the molten metal at this
carries an overlay of molten metal which is held
point. In order to prevent any sticking as the
in place by side rails I32 as shown in the plan
strip passes the end of the rails I32 in the event
view Fig. 12. These rails are spring pressed
that the freezing should be slightly premature,
against the side of the strip by a plurality of
two gas burners I52 are provided which heat the
' springs I34, vthe construction thereof being clear
corners of rails I32 as the strip 30 passes there
ly noted in Fig. 15. The rails are serrated at the
from. At the other end of the casting gate I28,
sides thereof opposite to the sides that contact
two sets of rollers are provided, the upper pair
the strip, as at I36, for keeping the rails heated
being designated as I54 whereas the lower pair is
at ‘the outer edges thereof, the heat being trans
designated as I55. These rollers help guide the
mitted to the serrations by longitudinal gas burn
strip as it passes this point. All four rollers are
ers located beneath the side rails I32. The
journaled on ball bearings I56 and each of the
15
springs I34 are set in recesses I38 of blocks I40,
upper pair of rollers I54 is rotatably mounted on
' which blocks are water cooled by means of cir
a shaft I58 and is urged by means of spring I60
culating water supplied through pipes I42 which
toward the strip 30. In this manner a de?nite
passes through chambers I44 in blocks I40.
pressure is maintained on the strip at all times to
In order to keep the strip 30 substantially level
aid in guiding the same. The pressure of spring
20
in a given plane two leveling plates I46 are used
I60 may be adjusted by means of screw I6I to
which are likewise resiliently held, as shown in
vary the pressure of the rollers I54 on top of
Fig. 14~ by means of springs I48, in engagement
the strip 30. The strip 30 passes out of chamber
with the surface of strip 30. The plates I46 are
28 at a slight upward angle and, therefore, as it
pivotedly attached to blocks I40 by bolts I41
passes through the casting gate it is possible to
whereby tilting of the plates is possible around 25 maintain the depth of metal on the strip at any
the bolts against the compression of springs I48.
desired depth prior to freezing thereof by suitable
Thus the rails I32 and leveling plates I46 keep
adjustment of the speed of the strip and the size
the strip in alignment while it passes through
of the serrations H0 and by the degree of the
the casting gate I28.
angle of the strip.
In order to permit the use of varying width
A second embodiment of a suitable casting gate
strips as 30, the side rails I32 are adjustable lat
is shown in Figs. 16 through 20. Referring par
erally. The adjustment is accomplished by the
turning of handle I66 which causes screws I68
and I10 to turn which screws are threaded on
ticularly to Fig. 16, a pair of longitudinally spaced
rollers I90 are disposed on either side of the strip
30 and rotate in the direction of the arrows as
one end thereof with right-hand threads and 35 shown in Fig. 1'7. These rolls I90 are cored out
On the other end thereof with left-hand threads
and include therein a plurality of inwardly ex
whereby the hangers I12 of blocks I40 travel in
tending projections I92 to increase the inner sur
wardly or outwardly in accordance with the di
face of the roll. Each of the rolls is provided
rection of rotation of the handle I66. In this
with a gas burner to heat the interior thereof
~10
manner major adjustments for width may be
and thereby cause the exterior to reach a suffi
accomplished since translation of the block I40
ciently high temperature to prevent freezing of
in either direction obviously moves the side rails
the molten metal thereto. These burners are
and other supported mechanisms therewith.
supplied gas through pipe I94. The rolls I90 are
The side rails I32 are maintained at a tem
driven by a motor I96 through suitable gearing,
perature above the melting point of low melting ~
point metal in order to prevent premature freez
ing thereof and resultant sticking of the strip
thereto. Referring to Fig. 14, the channeled con
struction at the interior. of block I40 is shown
wherein the longitudinal chamber I14 which ex- ‘
tends the length of the block is supplied with gas
and air under pressure.
This chamber com
municates with the longitudinal opening I16 in
the block at spaced distances through hollow
bolts I18.
These bolts supply air and gas to a '
burner I80 which runs longitudinally in opening
I16 and burns beneath the side rails I32 to main
tain the same at any predetermined tempera
as shown in Figs. 18 and 19 at I98. In this man
her, the rolls may be caused to rotate at any
desired speed but in opposite directions.
The
proper rate of rotation may be obtained by ob
servation. Thus the rolls I90 rotate at a speed
su?lcient to overcome the attraction of gravity to
ward the molten metal and thereby prevent the
metal from leaking through the small longitudi
nal spaces between the edges of the strip and the
rolls. In this manner, the molten metal is held
on top of the strip between the rolls. In order to
maintain a predetermined depth of molten metal,
a third roll 200 is provided which is set in a plane
transverse to the plane of movement of the strip
30, This roll is of larger diameter than rolls I90
tudinal channels or chambers I82 and I84 therein
and is cored out in a similar manner at the in
which are used as a means for circulating water
terior thereof to produce a plurality of inwardly
therethrough to keep the block cool so that the
extending projections 202. The roll 200 is suit
temper of the various springs received therein is
ably journaled as at 254 and 206 and is set directly
not removed. Fuel is supplied to the burners
above a somewhat similar roll 208 that is placed
65
I80 through tubes I86 connecting with the proper
beneath the strip. The roll 208 has circum
channel in block I40 while the water connections
ferential grooves at the surface thereof as at 2I0.
I42 connect in the water supply pipe I88.
This roll is also hollowed out at the interior
The slightly inclined plane at which the strip
thereof. The rolls 200 and 208 are geared as at
30 passes through the casting gate, the speed of
2I2 and therefore rotate in synchronism when
the strip, the size of the serrations in the throat
driven by a motor 2I4 through a chain drive 2I6.
I08, and the level of the molten metal maintained
The roll 200 has a gas burner 2 I 8 disposed therein
factors
controlling
the
thick
_ by weir H4 are all
which maintains the roll in a heated condition.
ness of the low melting point metal to be cast
The journals 204 and 206, which support the roll
on the surface of the strip 30. In order to set
200, have suitable brackets thereon which are
the molten metal on the strip as it passes through 75
ture. The block I40 also carries a pair of longi
I
I
.
o
I
2,405,220
10
9.
used additional burners may be inserted. These
openings 248 may be plugged when not in use.
The strip 39 passes over the burner 2M and is
heated to a suitable elevated temperature but
below its melting point. Prior to its entry into
the apparatus through the throat 83, a hood 250
is provided which is hollowed out as noted in
Fig. 23 and is connected by means of the pipe
hinged to the casting gate framework by means of
auxiliary shafts as shown at 219 in Fig. 20. The
roll 200 is thus rotatable on the shafts 2| 9 and
may be adjusted to any desired distance above
the strip by means of indexing nuts 220 which act
through ball thrust bearings 224 so as to be easily
rotatable on rod 222 for adjustment purposes.
Obviously, if any irregularities occur on strip 30
252 to a source of a reducing atmosphere. Thus
the upper roll 209 is capable of upward movement
on shafts 219 to permit such irregularities to pass 10 as the strip 30 in the heated condition passes
beneath hood 259 it is subjected to the action
thereunder.
of a reducing atmosphere, such as; hydrogen,
The roll 290 rotates in the direction of the ar
carbon monoxide, mixtures thereof, incompletely
rows in Fig. 21 and the speed of the rotation is
burned natural gas, or any other suitable reduc
such that excess molten metal on the strip is pre
vented from passing thereunder. In this man 15 ing atmosphere. Thus the action of the atmos
phere on the oxides at the surface of the strip
ner, the metal which remains on the strip is of
causes the reduction thereof which is hastened
a de?nite thickness as it passes through rolls 200
by the heated condition of the strip. Likewise
and 298.
certain other foreign material that is detrimental
Beneath the strip and just before the strip
passes beneath roll 29!], see Fig. 21, a water jet 20 to bonding is removed due to the heat. In this
manner, the strip 39 as it passes through the
226 is provided to start solidi?cation of the molten
throat 86 is preheated and likewise is cleaned of
metal. This jet, however, does not cool the strip
all oxides and certain other foreign matter and
sufliciently to actually freeze said metal but
is thereby ?uxed so that the molten metal in
merely reduces its temperature to a point some
where near freezing. After passing between rolls 25 the chamber 24 readily wets the surface thereof.
The ?uxing equipment as shown at 240 is par
200 and 298, a second jet 228 is provided which
ticularly successful ?rst, because the strip is pre
causes ?nal solidi?cation or freezing of the metal.
heated and, second, because the metal of the strip
The jets 226 and 228 are connected to a Water
is in what might be termed a nascent condition
source supplied by pipe 236. Since rolls I90 are
due to the reducing action just prior to the im
heated the strip does not freeze thereto regardless
mersion into the molten metal. In this manner,
of where the freezing of the low melting point
the molten metal appears to have a better wet
metal occurs and, therefore, is free to pass from
ting action than under any other known con
the casting gate.
ditions.
’
When operating on varying width strips 30 the
Another type of fluxing equipment shown in
side rollers I99 may be adjusted by means of 35
Figs. 26 and 27'utilizes electrical heating of the
handle 230 which acts through suitable gears to
strip. In this instance the strip 30 as shown in
turn the threaded rods 232 and 234 which carry
Fig. 26, passes between a pair of pinch rolls 215
the rolls I99. Since each rod carries a right and
and 211 which are spring pressed by means of
a left-hand thread thereon it is possible to cause
the rolls I99 to either come closer together or to 40 springs 216 and are carried by block 219'which
is supported by and insulated from a support 28I.
move further apart in accordance with the width
The block 219 is connected to one side of a suit
of the strip 30 to be operated upon. In the pres
able electrical current source by means of a con
ent embodiment varying width strips require com
duit 283. The hood 250 is similar to the hood
plete change of rolls 299 and 208 to rolls of the
shown in Fig. 23 and is supplied with reducing
desired width. The circumferential grooves 2“)
gas through tube 252. The strip 30 passes into
on roll 298 are cast therein to prevent overheat
the babbitt designated at 285 which is carried
ing of the roll and permit free air ?ow beneath
within chamber 24. The babbitt and chamber
the strip, A hood (not shown) may be provided
are connected to the other side of the current
over the strip 30 and closely ?tted to the contour
of the rollers I90 and 209 into which a non-oxi 50 source by means of the conduit 281. Thus a
complete circuit is set up through conduit 283,
dizing atmosphere may be introduced. This hood
block 219, pinch rolls-215, strip 30,'babbitt 285
may or may not be desirable according to the oxi
and conduit 281 whereby the portion of the strip
dation of the soft metal, in other words. if the
between the pinch rolls 215 and 211 and the
metal is not excessively oxidized the hood need
babbitt 285 is heated by means of the resistance
not be used.
'
thereof to a suitable temperature. This temper
When operating on metal strip material it is
ature can be varied by either changing the cur
usually desirable to clean the same and remove
rent input, or by increasing the distance between
oxide coatings, etc., so that low melting point
the pinch rolls and the babbitt 285.. In this man
metal wets the surface as the strip passes through
ner, the strip is heated to a temperature approxi
the apparatus. This step may be termed a “flux
mating the temperature obtained when using the
ing step” and while ?uxing equipment is pro
apparatus as shown in Fig. 23 and reducing gas
vided with the present apparatus it should be
,
understood that in cases where strip metal is
provided that is free from oxide that such ?uxing
apparatus or'step may be unnecessary. However,
under usual production conditions it is advisable
to have the ?uxing step included in the process.
Referring to Fig. 22, the preferred type of fiuxing
equipment 249 is shown. This ?uxing equipment
is held thereover by hood 259.
Thus the appa
ratus ?uxes the surface of the strip and cleans
the same of any oxidation.
'
'
Fig. 2'1 shows another modi?cation of the elec
trically heated equipment wherein the strip 39
passes through an elongated tunnel 291 which
includes an insulating outer portion 293 and a
includes a gas burner 241 which comprises a cored 70 coil 295 therein which is connected by means of
conduits 291 and 299 to a suitable current source.
out block 242 which carries therein a plurality
As the strip 30 passes through the coil,‘ it is heated
of blast burners 244. The block 242 is connected
inductively to a suitable temperature. Reducing
to an air-gas supply through a pipe 246. Addi
gas is supplied chamber 29| from tube 301 and
tional outlets in the block, such as 248. are also
?uxes the strip in the same manner as previously
provided so that when varying width strips are
2,405,220
11
described in connection with Figs. 22, 23 and 26.
Resistance and inductive heating are well-known
in the art and, therefore, speci?c currents etc.,
will not be designated since these factors are best
arrived at by trial and in accordance with the
width, thickness and length of strip used.
A second type of ?uxing equipment is shown in
Figs. 24 and 25 where no preheating of the strip
30 is involved. In this embodiment a series of
sponge rubber rolls 254, 255 and 256 are disposed
in driving relation to one another with the roll 256
dipping into a ?uxing liquid 258 held in a shallow
tank 260 and with the roll 254 bearing against
12
opening in the throat I08 and by the cooling rate
of the strip. Either type of apparatus provides
satisfactory results although for adjustment rea
sons it is apparent that the second type of gate
is more practical from a production angle where
various width strips are necessarily operated
upon in a single machine.
While the embodiments of the present inven
tion as herein disclosed, constitute preferred
forms, it is to be understood that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the scope
of the claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. A vacuum impregnating apparatus for use
the surface of the strip 30. Thus, as the strip
progresses in the direction of the arrow the roll 15 in the continuous impregnation of metallic strip
material which includes a porous metal layer
254 is rotated and drives the rolls 255 and 256
thereon, comprising; an elongated tunnel-like‘
due to their frictional engagement, As theroll
structure having openings at both ends thereof to
25B rotates it picks up liquid flux from the tank
permit ingress and egress of the strip, said struc
250 and this ?ux is transferred from roll 256 to
roll 255 to roll 254 whence it is evenly spread on 20 ture including, a chamber at the ingress end
thereof‘adapted to be partially ?lled with babbitt
the surface of the strip 30. Suitable valve equip
in the molten condition through which the strip
ment 262 with a ?oat 265 maintains the level of
passes, an intermediate chamber which is adapted
the ?ux 258 in tank 260 by supplying additional
to be evacuated and which connects with said ?rst
flux from a main supply tank 266. Any suitable
chamber by means of a throat that ?ts closely,
?ux may be used such as zinc chloride, "Blanc”
around the strip, and a third chamber at the
liquid or any other commercial ?ux which will
egress end of the structure adapted to be par
give the desired results.
tially ?lled with babbitt through which said strip
The present method and apparatus eliminates
passes and having a throat that ?ts closely
one of the major problems in continuous vacuum
impregnation of the strip material, namely, the 30 around the strip at the ingress end thereof,
means for evacuating said middle chamber; a
bending of the material. In the present instance
supply tank ?lled with molten babbitt, and pump
the strip passes through the apparatus in a sub
means adapted to pump molten babbitt into each
stantially ?at condition and the vacuum is main
of said end chambers, said pump means having
tained through the use of pumps which supply
su?icient capacity to maintain the level of babbitt
molten metal in sufficient quantities to maintain
in said two end chambers above the surface of
the vacuum seals and likewise maintain a de?nite
the strip whereby the molten babbitt seals said
level of molten metal above the surface of the
strip. I am aware of the past type of impregnat
ing apparatus for use in vacuum impregnation
wherein the conventional type of barometric leg
is utilized and wherein the strip must be bent
and passed upwardly through an impregnant col
umn equal to the barometric head and then
two end chambers from said vacuum chamber,
said two end chambers and said vacuum chamber
together with the ingress and egress openings
and the communicating throats being so disposed
with relation to one another that the strip ma
terial passes therethrough in a single plane.
2. An apparatus for continuously impregnating
passed downwardly through another column of
similar height. Such procedure is unnecessary p GI metallic strip material including a porous metal
layer thereon, said material being in a substan
when following the present method and by using
tially ?at condition during the impregnation
the present apparatus.
thereof, comprising in combination; a babbitt
Another feature of this invention resides in the
chamber adapted to be partially ?lled with babbitt
casting gate apparatus wherein a de?ned thick
ness of low melting point metal may be cast upon 50 through which said strip may pass and including
throats at either end thereof which closely ?t the
the surface of a strip in a continuous manner.
strip as it passes into and out of said chamber;
Obviously this casting gate may be used whether
a communicating chamber at the egress end of
or not the vacuum impregnation is utilized since
said ?rst chamber means for evacuating said sec
it is possible to cast one metal upon the surface
of another in this manner whether or not a D0 55 ond mentioned chamber; a third chamber at the
egress end of said second chamber and including
rous metal layer is used. Similarly, the fluxing
throat portions at either end thereof, said third
arrangement may be used with any other type of
chamber also being at least partially ?lled with
impregnating or casting equipment to yield
molten babbitt; a heated supply tank for holding
equally satisfactory results.
Embodiments of the casting gate as shown in 60 a large supply of molten Babbitt metal therein;
pump means connected with said supply tank and
Figs. 16 through 21 utilizes a widely different
with said ?rst and third mentioned chambers for
principle of operation than the gate as shown in
maintaining the level of babbitt in said ?rst and
Figs. 8, 10, 12 through 15. In the ?rst instance
third chambers substantially constant and above
the level of molten metal is maintained by over
coming the force of gravity whereby the molten 65 the surface of the strip, whereby the babbitt
maintains a. vacuum seal at the egress end of said
metal is prevented from dropping off the surface
?rst chamber of the ingress end of said second
of the strip through the use of rotating mecha
chamber; and return means connected with said
nisms whose rotational speed in feet per minute
first, second and third chambers for returning ex
is greater than the rate in feet per minute of
cess babbitt to said supply tank.
gravity fall of the molten metal. In this manner
the molten metal is maintained at a de?nite level
on the surface of the strip until freezing occurs.
In the second embodiment the thickness of the
molten metal held on the surface of the strip is
3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein
weirs having their edges longitudinally disposed
above the level of the strip are provided in said
?rst and third chambers to maintain the desired
controlled by the rate of speed of the strip, the 75 level of babbitt therein.
‘2,405,220
13
4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein
heating means are included in said ?rst and third
chambers for maintaining the babbitt in a molten
condition.
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein
said ?rst chamber includes a ?xed longitudinal
weir disposed above the level of the strip for
maintaining a de?ned level of babbitt therein and
wherein said third chamber includes an adjust
14
cline of the strip, the clearance of the throat, and
the speed of the strip.
9. An apparatus as claimed in claim 8 which in
cludes a wire brush disposed beneath the strip
adjacent the throat for removing excess molten
metal from the back of the strip.
10. An apparatus as claimed in claim 8 wherein
the means for maintaining the molten metal in
place on the strip are heated to a temperature
to prevent premature freezing thereto.
able longitudinal weir normally disposed above 10 su?icient
11. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
the level of the strip whereby the babbitt level in
layer of desirable thickness of low melting point
said third chamber may be maintained at any de
metal upon the surface of a higher melting point
'
strip comprising in combination, con?ning means
6. In a machine for continuously impregnating
porous strip material in the substantially ?at con 15 adjacent the edges of the strip resiliently held
thereto for providing a shallow trough therewith,
dition, an impregnating chamber including throat
means for supplying molten low melting point
portions at either end thereof for restricting the
metal to the surface of the strip as the strip
flow of impregnant therefrom around a strip
passes
between said con?ning means, and means
passing therethrough, a communicating vacuum
remote from said supply means for cooling the
chamber at the egress end of said ?rst chamber, 20 low melting point metal on the surface of the
means for evacuating said vacuum chamber, and
strip for solidifying the same, said cooling means
a second impregnating chamber connected with
being so spaced from the supply means and the
the egress end of said vacuum chamber and in
speed of the strip so regulated that the thickness
cluding throat portions at either end thereof for
of the solidi?ed low melting point metal layer is
sirable depth.
restricting the flow of impregnant therefrom
around a strip passing therethrough, a supply
tank for the impregnant, pump means for pump
ing impregnant to each of said impregnating
the desired thickness.
12. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
layer of low melting point metal upon the surface
of a higher melting point metal strip comprising
chambers said pump means having sufficient ca
in combination, longitudinally spaced con?ning
pacity to maintain a de?ned level of impregnant 30 means resiliently held against the edges of a strip
in each of said chambers above the level of said
moving at a slight upward incline therebetween
strip regardless of the leakage into the vacuum
whereby a trough is formed between the con?ning
chamber and out of the machine, and return
means and the strip, supply means for supplying
means for returning the impregnant which leaks
molten low melting point metal at the low end of
out of said throat portions to said supply tank.
said trough, and cooling means disposed remote
7. An apparatus for continuously casting a
from said supply means for solidifying the low
layer of a low melting point metal upon the sur
melting point metal when the thickness thereof
face of a higher point metal strip comprising in
reaches the desired thickness.
combination, a supply tank containing a heated
13. In an apparatus for continuously casting
supply of molten low melting point metal through
low melting point metal upon the surface of a
which said strip of higher melting point metal
passes, a threat at the egress end of said tank
higher melting point metal strip comprising in
combination, supply means for supplying molten
low melting point metal to the surface of said
a ?ow of molten metal from said tank onto the
strip, means for preventing gravity ?ow of said
surface of said strip, resiliently pressed con?ning 45 metal from the surface of said strip along both
means comprising rails at the sides of said strip
longitudinal edges thereof, means between said
for holding said molten metal thereon, means for
?rst means for controlling the depth of low melt
heating said rails to prevent premature freezing
ing point metal passing thereunder, and cooling
of said molten metal, cooling means disposed be
means for solidifying the controlled thickness
neath said strip and to a point remote from said 60 layer of low melting point metal upon the surface
throat for rapidly cooling the strip and the molten
of said strip.
'
metal thereon for freezing the low melting point
14. The apparatus as claimed in claim 13
metal whereby the thickness of metal cast on said
wherein said means for preventing gravity flow
strip is controlled by means of the speed of the
of metal consists of rollers rotating in a direction
strip the clearance of the throat and the distance 55 against gravity ?ow at a speed su?lcient to pre
between said throat and said cooling means.
vent gravity ?ow of the molten metal.
8. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
15. The apparatus as claimed in claim 13
layer of de?nite thickness of low melting point
wherein the means for controlling the depth of
metal upon the surface of a higher melting point
molten metal consists of a roller spaced a de?inite
metal strip comprising in combination, a supply 60 distance from the surface of said strip and rotat
ing the speed su?icient to prevent molten metal
tank for molten low melting point metal through
from passing thereunder in quantities in excess
which said strip passes, said tank including a
of the desired quantity.
throat having a predetermined clearance therein
16. An apparatus for continuously impregnat
at the egress side thereof for said strip, said strip
ing strip material in a substantially ?at condition,
passing through the supply tank at a slight in
comprising in combination, an impregnating
cline, means adjacent said throat for maintain
chamber including an inlet and outlet through
ing the molten metal on the surface of the strip
which said strip passes, said impregnating cham
in place after the strip has passed from said tank,
and cooling means spaced remotely from said 70 ber adapted to contain impregnant so that the
strip is covered therewith, a communicating vac
throat and beneath said strip for substantially
uum chamber, means for evacuating said vacuum
solidifying the molten metal on said strip at a
chamber, a second impregnating chamber oom
time when the depth of said molten metal reaches
municating with the other end of said vacuum
the predetermined thickness of metal desired to
be cast on said strip as determined by the in 75 chamber and having an inlet and outlet therein
said throat having suf?cient clearance to permit
2,405,299
through which said strip passes, said second ime
pregnating chamber adapted to contain suf?cient
impregnating material to substantially cover said
strip, means for pumping impregnating material
in su?icient quantities to said two impregnating
16
supply means and connected with said vacuum
chamber, said sump receiving impregnant leaking
from said impregnating chambers into said vac
uum chamber, and a separate pump means for
pumping impregnant from the sump to said sup
chambers to maintain a vacuum seal between
ply means for maintaining a given quantity of
said chambers and said vacuum chamber, a sup
impregnant in said sump.
ply means for holding a large supply of impreg
20. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
nating material and connected to said means for
layer of low melting point metal upon the sur
pumping the material to said chambers and 10 face of a higher melting point metal strip com
means cooperating with the inlet and outlet of
prising in combination, means for moving the
each of the said two impregnating chambers for
strip in one direction, supply means for supplying
returning the impregnant which discharges
molten low melting point metal in de?ned quanti
therefrom to said supply means.
ties to the surface of said strip, means for pre
17. An apparatus for continuously impregnat
venting ?ow of said molten metal from the longi
ing strip material in a substantially flat condition
tudinal edges of said strip, and cooling means
comprising in combination; a three part structure
spaced from said supply means for solidifying
including two impregnating chambers adapted
the low melting point metal on the surface of
to be ?lled with the impregnating material to a
said strip, the thickness of said solidi?ed layer
predetermined level and an intermediate com
being dependent upon the speed of the strip and
municating chamber adapted to be evacuated,
the quantity of molten metal supplied by the
said strip passing through said three chambers
supply means to the surface of the strip.
in a substantially ?at condition by means of inlets
21. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
and outlets in said two impregnating chambers,
layer of predetermined thickness of low melting
said level of impregnant in said chambers being 25 point metal to the surface of higher melting point
maintained above the level of the inlets and out
metal strip comprising in combination; con?ning
lets, means for evacuating said vacuum chamber,
means longitudinally disposed adjacent the longi
a supply means for containing a large supply of
tudinal edges of a metal strip, means for moving
impregnant, and separate pump means automati
said strip in one direction at a slight upward in
cally controlled and disposed between said sup 30 cline between said con?ning means, supply means
ply means and said impregnating chambers for
for supplying molten low melting point metal at
maintaining the level of said impregnant in said
the lower end of said moving strip, cooling means
chambers to the desired height whereby the im
disposed remote from said supply means for
pregnant lost by leakage from the inlets and out
solidifying .the low melting point metal on the
lets of said chambers is compensated for by in
surface of said strip when the thickness of said
coming impregnant for ‘maintaining the vacuum
low melting point metal layer reaches adesired
seal between said chambers and the vacuum
thickness, means for maintaining the strip ?at
chamber, and return means for returning the
adjacent said, cooling means, and heating means
over?ow of said impregnant to said supply means.
for providing localized heating adjacent said last
18. In combination with an apparatus for con
named means for preventing the strip from ad
tinuously casting a low melting point bearing
hering the last named means while low melting
metal upon the surface of a higher melting point
point ‘metal is solidifying.
supporting strip; a chamber through which said ,
22. In an apparatus for continuously casting a
strip passes, a weir positioned within said cham
low melting point metal upon the surface of a
ber formed in the general shape of a trough for
higher melting point metal strip, comprising in
containing molten low melting point bearing
metal and having the sides thereof sufficiently
high to maintain the surface of said low melting
' combination,
longitudinally spaced con?ning
means resiliently held against the edges of a strip
moving at a slight upward incline therebetween
point metal above the strip, one portion of said
weir being adjustable longitudinally thereof 50 whereby a trough is formed between the con?ning
means and the strip, supply means for supplying
whereby the level of the molten metal above said
molten low melting point metal at the low end
strip may be closely controlled so that any depth
of said trough, heating means for maintaining
of the'metal may be maintained.
said con?ning means at a sufficiently high tem
19. An apparatus for continuously impregnat
perature for preventing solidi?cation of the
ing porous strip material in a substantially flat
condition, comprising in combination; an impreg
molten low melting point metal thereagainst, and
cooling means disposed remote from said supply
nating chamber including an inlet and an outlet
means for solidifying the low melting point metal
through which a strip passes, said impregnating
when the thickness thereof reaches the desired
chamber being adapted to contain su?icient im
pregnant so that the strip is covered therewith, 60 thickness as determined by the incline of the strip
and the rate of longitudinal movement thereof.
a communicating vacuum chamber, means for
23. In a method of impregnating porous metal
evacuating said vacuum chamber, a second im
strip material continuously in a substantially ?at
pregnating chamber communicating with the
condition the steps comprising: immersing a ?at
other end of said vacuum chamber and having
an inlet and outlet therein through which said 65 stiff strip of porous metal in molten metal con
tained within an impregnating chamber, passing
strip passes; said second impregnating chamber
the strip from the molten metal into a vacuum
adapted to contain su?icient impregnant to sub
chamber for removing occluded air from the pores
stantially cover said strip, supply means for hold
thereof, again immersing the strip in molten
ing a large quantity of impregnating material,
metal contained within a second impregnating
pump means connecting said supply means with
70
chamber,
said strip being maintained in substan
each of said impregnating chambers for pumping
tially the same horizontal plane throughout all
impregnant from said supply means to said cham
of. said immersing and impregnating steps, and
bers, over?ow means in each of said chambers for
continuously supplying molten metal to each of
returning excess impregnant pumped thereto
said two impregnating chambers in sufficient
back to said supply means, a Sump below said 75 quantities to provide the sole seal between said
2,405,220
17
.
18 _
.
chambers and said vacuum chamber whereby said
strip becomes impregnated with said molten
metal.
chamber around said strip, passing said strip
through all 01' said chambers in the substantially
24. In. a method of maintaining a vacuum in a
zontal plane and beneath the impregnant in said
impregnating chambers, pumping su?icient im
pregnant into each of said impregnating cham
mechanism adapted to impregnate porous sti?
metal strip material in a substantially ?at con
dition; providing two impregnating chambers
containing impregnating molten metal, providing
flat and unbent condition and in a single hori
bers to maintain the level of the molten metal
constant so that said impregnant leakage is com
an intermediate vacuum chamber connecting said
pensated for by the new impregnant being
impregnating chambers, all or said chambers be 10 pumped into said chambers, whereby the vacuum
ing in substantially the same horizontal plane
seal is maintained between saidv impregnating
and so constructed that leakage can occur from
chambers and said vacuum chamber.
said impregnating chambers into said vacuum
CECIL A. MANN.
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