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Патент USA US2405229

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Aug. 6, 1946.
Filed 001;. 30, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
. .\2
Aug= 6, 194%-
Filed 001;. 30, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet '2
' \a/camv LEAK
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
< UNITED srAr-es'
William P. Mueller and NathanielhyKiser, Em- '
porium, Pa, assignors to Hygrade Sylvania Cor
poration, Emporium , Pa.,_ a ‘corporation of
Application October so, 1941; seriallnaeiuoes
5Claims. (o1. fascist)‘
This invention refers to the production. and
hasiseveral effects. Each of thectwotuned, ‘lines
utilization of electrical oscillationsl and ;in par
works substantially only. into. halithe tube?ree
ticular to the design and arrangement of the, cir-.
aotance,andv the current through each of the tube
cuit elements constituting the oscillationwcircuits " . leads,.,'is nnlyvlabout half of the'c'ur'rent flOWin'g
of the type incorporating tuned transmission
through each'lead; in the case’ofa single trans;
rmssi'onjline circuit.’
f .. ' 1
For the generation of high frequencies, in par
4, A ,numberf of. different tube‘v designs ‘have been
ticular. of ultra-high frequencies of the order of
carried out which allowée?ectiye,‘operation in such.
several hundred megacycles, simple and effective
a double-ended_,'synnnetrical vtuned line'circuit,
oscillation circuits can be obtained'by connecting 10 A typical arrangement. is .,_shown,in,a paper by
the two wires forminga tuned transmission line
A. L‘ Samuel, I. R. E, Proceedingspages1243+
on one end of the line to grid and plate of a
1252, October 1937. )The tubes ,used ' in these
triode or pentode. The other end ofthe trans
known arrangements are expensive and the prob
mission line may be either short circuited, con
lem presented by the symmetrical seals at oppor
stituting a “quarter wave line”; or they may be 16 site ends of the platelelectrode and of the‘, 'grid__
open, constituting a “half wave line.”
electrode throughplthe envelope requires the‘ full
attention 'of an experienced 8.1358, blower, Other
1 Quarter wave lines are usually preferable to
half wave lines, because of their higher Qvalue
disadvantages of ‘the ,knownjdouble-ended tuned
for 'given diameters of the wires forming the
line circuit are its doubled overalllength and the
transmission line, andbecause the overall length 20 inconveniencegin tuning. _. This. tuning isng‘en
of the circuit is smaller.
_. The actual length of the ‘,‘transmission has
only part. of the oscillationcircuit, which maybe
considered as made up .of a transmission‘ line
closed by the reactance of the tube leads and
the capacity formed'by grid and plate of the tube
used inv the circuit; It is usually shorter than
a quarter, (or a half) wave length. as'the effec
erall'r carried out by varying the. length of ‘each
transmission line by telescoping rods or tubings
at the twoends far removed from the oscillator
It is, 'therefore,
‘ '
the main obJ'ectof'thisinyen
tion to devise a double-endedultra-high ‘fre
quency oscillation circuit,y_.whi_ch,fhas anroverall
length substantially equal toi'that'of, the single
tive. reactance of the'tube elements andrileads
tuned transmissionline circuit“
. I
is usually capacitive and. smaller- than the unit 30 Another main ‘object of the invention. refers
length capacity of the transmission line, When
tothebonstmction and circuit application of a,
the value of the effective grid to plate capacitance
tube, which is provided with twosymmetrical
of the tube comes nearer to the unit length ca
end leads for theplate electrode and two sym~
pacity of the transmission line, the actual length
metrical end leads for. the, grid electrode, and
of the attached "tuned line becomes very short, 35 which can be sealed and manufacturedentirely
and better stability maybe obtained by an opene
ended line, i. e. a half wave line, whose actual
length may, howevennot be'much larger thana
Frequency stability in these oscillation circuits
depends to, a large extent on the ratio ofthe
capacitive reactance- o?ered by the tube leads
and electrodes to theunit length capacity of the
with the standard equipment used for the ‘pro-_
duction of ordinary radio receiving tubes.
1 Finally, it is a main objectof the invention, to
build a ‘doubleeended transmission line circuit, in
which two',_tuned lines ‘can be 1 simultaneously
tuned ‘to anydesired frequency .within limits.v
A feature of the invention refers ,tothe cone»
struction of a quadruple gang tuning‘ device coh
transmission line. Better stability, or stability
sisting of four, parallel metal rods or tubes, which
at high frequencies for a given tube may, there 45 can
be telescoped into or over'four otherpieces
fore, be obtainedrif two transmission lines are
of tubing," which form the two branches ,of' two
attached to opposite ends of the tube elements
symmetrically. In the case of two quarter vwave
Another feature of the invention refers tothe'
lines, the tube is placed into the center of a half
mutual or what may he termed “folded over”
wave line, closed at both ends by a short circuit, 50 positionof thetwo tuned lines of a double-ended
and in'order practically to divide the tube capac
transmission line circuit.
' , r
ity into two halves, it is necessary to provide a
A feature of the invention refers to the spacing
tube'with'symmetrical leads atth'etwo ends of
the grid and at the two ends of theanode. This
of, the. different ,wires or tubings adapted to ?t
directly into'the, twof grid andthetwo plate lead
known arrangement of doubleeended connection, 455 pins of radio tube base headers. 3 -
taneously away from the plate, depending on the
phase. The currents in the two grid leads ‘I and
8 now also at any given instant away from the
grid or toward the grid, but opposite to the cur
A further feature of the invention refers to
the perfect balancing of the various tube elec
trodes and elements used in a double-ended single
tube transmission line circuit.
, The invention {will ‘now, be describedimconnece. 5
tion with-tliyejldjawing'sjiwhich show
' made]
rent inthe plate, leads-.. __C_urrent.;maxima and
V°lt?:€e;¥19.dQS,i.°§¢l1r ailthewpointsli sighted by
the four arrows.
up with two'smnmetrical tuned“"h'alf ‘wave lines,”
a ,From the foregoing, it will be seen that in order
it being understood that the invention may be 1.
to" tune the system, the members l3 and I4 must
"-beiisimultaneously moved in unison in opposite
For obvious reasons, the plate voltage isrvalii »’directions. Not onlyr does this require precision
plied to a. point of the transmission line in which _ adjustment apparatus for both ends of the sys
carried out for two symmetrical
quarter wav'e' "
lines with certain modi?cations.
f I:
tem', but it-falso requires considerable space be
the high frequency voltage is here, andltlie-high ' . '
frequency current is a maximum; , In {the case
_ cause. allowance must be made for the maximum
of a. half wave line, one high frequency voltage
maximum is at the open end of the line, another __ _‘
Fmore, the __sys_tem requires a special constructed
outward movement of members l5-l 8. Further
tube-‘wherein the lead-in pins or wires are spe
nearer to the tube end, is a current maximum, '2 . ciallyand individually sealed through the tube
at the tube itself. .Between“ these ' two" points, -
and. a. voltage node, andfthe D. C. plate voltage
‘v In'the
is, therefore,~
case-of the
eline' whic'hi‘sI
tlinedsvs’?eiilioifig-l 15' 1111.813“. “folded. over”
on itself'ywhereby the’ tuning, of‘ both: line sec?
. ‘scan 'belaqbiei'éd ,frbxnJiheQsjame end and
with. asingle‘dir'eetion of movement ofjthe ad
short circuit'eda
, In accordance withpthe present invention, the
eiéndxr'émqvéd?frbmfihe tube,
the. voltage] node“ is at the, short ,circuit'ed’ end
In‘orde'r to block ‘,the, grid ofth '_ riodefromjfthe;
D. C. voltage,v a D; Cfblockin'g 0b, _ enser,must_be‘_ 25 justing mechanism. Furthermore, a radio tube
standard. farm, of base. or header may ‘be
introduced. This, blocking: c"o'_ 'den‘se‘r i'may be" with
used with all the, lead-in members sealed through
placed at an ' convenie' tjpoint‘,‘butis preferably
the same end: of ‘the tube. The ‘foldediover ar
introduced at the 1 far end?of , the‘ quarter. wave
rangement is diagrammatically illustrated iilFig,
line, where it may serve the‘ purpose ofg'a high‘
frequency short: circuit at thejsamer time,‘ The so 2,,_wherein only the plate 2H2Qand. grid 23 of‘ian
ultra-high frequency oscillator tube are shown.
D. ‘C. voltage leadis'themconnected to the plate
side of the blocking condenser. ,_
Plate 22 is providedatopposite'endsjwith sym- '
metric, lead-lin wires‘,or.,pins. v24, ‘25 (it being
Fig. 1 shows aschematicdiagram of iaconvena
understood ,that thebulb' of thetube and the
tional double-ended ,circuit ;for operation of‘ a 35 cathode
are‘ omitted 'forjpurposes‘of explana
single'tube withtwo half wave lines‘,
likewise grid'23 is provided‘ at opposite
Fig. 2 showsa sch yt'cv ‘diagram itheinew
ends with lead-in wires'olrvpins 26,, _21_. The four,
double-ended circuit; .1 .. .
lead-‘in wires'are. connected directly to‘ the tun
. Fig. 3 shows'a perspective viewj’of'fthe new.
double-ended circuit, including the mounting;
. Figs.‘ 4 ends show. details of, a triodetube _c_on-‘
ing transmissionline eXtensi0ns‘Z8-—3l, all of
assembly andrarallsl to Teasih. Other; Extent/mus
28-4!‘ are. Provided with s0ri¢s1>¢indihafsi1iig1y
Fig. 6 is a detail View of the tube and socket‘
, nttedttelescqping ,metjal manger, which- are
'Fig. .7 is
of ‘aflsrecti
.the system.
nail ' view ofjE‘ig. eitakén ‘along '
theline 14-1 thereof; .
rigidly united ,attheirremotefends by theinsu'la-l
tion block‘36. ‘ The system of‘FigQZ can'th'cn be
considered "as that‘ _of Fig.‘ l_ ‘if ' the "latter ‘were
' ‘Fig. '8 is a schematicv diagram to"explain cer
tain features of theinvention.
which are'of tubular conductive.‘materialjand
extendv in the same direction from, the electrode
struction adapted for operation infthe, newfcire
"1 In:the"‘folded-_ove_rf"P°i¥1t$'5‘f—‘1fwd
position, the twoHhalfhwave
, '1
Referring to Fig.5 1' Qwhich',‘ represents sche- ,1.
matically adouble-e'nded oscillator-jgeneratorcir
cuitthenumeral l zrepresents,airelectron dis-.
lines 7 do not‘ extend, in‘ opposite directions from
tween, 51am}; ‘Landbetween?, 8, are equal to each
the upper frequency, limit‘jover that of a single
half wave line; is however still obtained, while the
thev tube Theyrfgmiriqwaifour wire system. ter
minaiinsat Q11? and in the tenable open‘tndji?
and on the ‘tube side, into .‘the four double end
The plate lead-inlconductors 5 and ,6 are sealed
leads of} grid and'plateof the’ oscillator'tube‘at
through the wall'oftubeI atoppositelends of they
plate electrode, andyparallelft'o‘ them are sealed 55 the other end.‘ The principal advantage of the
> double-ended circuit‘ of Fig.1}, viz'i~,'a_n increase of
in the gridleads?'l'land.
Thedistances ,be
charge tube'with plate “2,, grid 3.and»,cath_0de 4.
other ‘and to- the; distance . between , the parallel
conductor tubings 5, and, i0 ‘and, of the?con
duct'o'r tubingsll' and J2, respectively, these tub
main, disadvantages ofthe doubleqendedbpelfa
tion ‘ofFigJ are eliminated.
' ‘
-' "
ings being directly, connected to'the ‘correspond
. The
‘length of the sy‘stem is the'sameas
v overall
the transmission line. , They, consist _of pairs of
ing. spacer .36‘, which may telescopically engage
the stationary parts 28—..-3l of- the two lines con
forrsingle-ended transmission line operation. The
ing lead-in conductors.g,,.
tuning-of the two lines canbe carried .outwbya
’ Tuning extensiona?xed'iniIlSulating spacers:
l3 and 14 _-are telescoped into~ thetwo farends of 65
.. singleslidable vfour rod gang. attached to insulate
metal rods l5, l6, H, l8, which‘slide snugly inside
the tubings 9. l0, and H,‘ I.2_ respectively.’ The
nected- to the two endspof grid-andplate of the
D- Qconnection, toplate 2 from the positive D. C.
highvolt'age terminal. [9, and from grid 3 to
tube. - Finally,-it is not necessaryto use a tube vin
grid leak 20 and to ground, andfrom the cathode
4. over choke, coilfz‘l, to -ground,_ are indicated in
I It will be noted, ‘that the ultrafhigh irequency
currents in‘ the twee-lat lsaiislil that flow §i—,
multaneously either towards‘the plate, ‘or simul
which-individual seals through the-envelope are
provided ‘for obtaining two symmetrical leads
from‘each of 'the tube electrodesl‘to which' the
quarter wave lines‘ are'ponnectedr " These‘ expéni
sive; ‘tubes ‘ may‘ still ‘be ‘used, if desired, but the
new circuit permits‘thé use of tubes in‘ which Sim;
‘ 72,405,229
metrical double leads from the ends of each elec
’ "trode are carried through the single header at one
end of the radio tube.
The actual working embodiment of the'inven
‘ tion shown in Fig. 3 consists of an L-shape'd‘metal
base 31, with a long horizontal part 38 and a short
vertical leg 39. _ In the shortil’eg ‘is mounted a
“lockein” tube base 40, carrying a “lock-in!’ tube
’4l, ‘with double-ended grid = connections and
‘ double-‘ended vplate'connec‘tions as-will'be 'de;
scribed in‘ connectioniwith Figs. 4-8'and as cov
' ered'in 'copend-in'g application Serial No. 416,440
’ Patent '#'2,301,914,' granted ‘Nov. 17, 1942.v The
"four'lead-pins'of grid and plate are arranged al
ternately in the corners of a' square.
The tube is arranged to be plugged into a spring
socket 42 of' any well-known construction; such
‘ 'for'example as the well-known "‘0ctal”‘s0cket.
Preferably however, the socket is as shown in‘Figs.
f6 and] '7 consisting of‘ an insulation button or.
' wafer 43 into the periphery of which is molded a
thin'm'etal mount ring 44 for attachmentto the
' plate 39. Button 43 has a series of eight openings
therethrough arranged around the center thereof
and in each of these openings is mounted a con- tact member. Into four of these openings are fas
tened the ends of the tubular metal members
' 6
‘this purpose, member '33 is formed on its edge
‘with two guiding lugs 50, 5|, which are slidable in
parallel grooves 52, 53, in member138.
Spacer 36 can be moved back and forth in the
direction of the transmission lines, by means of a
screw 54 and a‘ threaded block 55 ' fastene'd'to
member 38', whereby the tuning of the two trans
mission lines by equal amounts is simultaneously
‘ By employing a tube such as shown in Figs. 4-6,
as a part of the circuit the advantage is obtained
' that the two pairs of lead pins of the grid'and
"plate electrodes are straight, direct continuations
> 'of theattached transmission lines, thus di?‘ering
,a’s vlittle as possible in unit length capacity and
‘inductance from the transmission line constants.
Duev to the neighborhood of the'cathode and
' heater leads in the tube, the capacities of the plate
' and grid leads in the tube with respect to the
cathode is, however, different from the ground
capacities of- the rods and tubings forming the
‘ transmission lines themselves, and it is necessary
to balance cathode and heater with respect to
ground." It has been found by experiment ‘that
this balancing may be carried out much easier by
providing two cathode leads in the tube. - The two
‘cathode pins of tube 4| are connectedto the two
of the cathode, similarly to‘ the two pins
openings in button 43 in any suitable manner. 7'- ends
connected to the two ends of the grid and the two
' These four tubular members connect respective-F :20" pins connected to the two ends of the anode;
j lyjw'ith thetw'o'e'nds of the grid electrode and the
Fig. 8'shows schematically oneway of ‘carrying
28-3l which are held in place in the respective
' two ends'of the plate electrode which are sym
' ‘metrical with respect to the center of the‘tube. In
""the ‘case of triode, threeadditional pinsare pro
vided on theltube, ‘namely the cathode pinvand the ‘x ‘
‘two heater pins‘which plug'in' to corresponding
spring contacts mounted'i'n'thei-button'43. .The
ends of‘the’tubular members 28-31 which engage
the pins on the plugged-in tube may bevsplit or
1 otherwise radially expansible so as to vgrip resil
- 'iently the corresponding tube pins 24-21‘. If the
tube is of the'well-known “lockéinwtype, the base
of the tube also has a central locating and look
ing‘ member 45 which is adapted to contact with a
metal sleeve 46 fastened in the button“, one end '
of sleeve 46 being split or otherwise radially re
silient and‘having an inwardly extending lip or
?ange'541 to ‘engage the corresponding peripheral
groove on the end of the locking member 45 of
The contact sleeve 46 is connected in '
any suitable way, for example by a short metal
the tube.
strap 48 to the grounded metal plate 39.
Instead of making the tuning extensions 28-3I
an integral part of the socket, any conventional
“Octal” socket can be employed with the mem
bers 28—3| soldered or otherwise fastened to the
contact springs of the socket so as to form electri
cal elongations thereof. The members 28—3| in
e?ect therefore, form continuations of the respec
tive tube pins and they are preferably of copper
tubing, and extend parallel to each other at the
distances ?xed by the pin leads. At the end of
these tubings 28-3l remote from the oscillator
> out this balancing, parts of ‘this ?gure correspond
ing ‘to the parts of Figs. 2,‘ 3, f1 and 5, bearing the
same numerals. The opposite ends of the cathode
55 are connected to their respective pins'56, 51.
"@Pin .56 is connected to ground through a series
‘inductance 58 while pin 51 is connected‘through a
series capacitor 59 to a proper point on- the leg 30
r of the transmission line connected to one end of
the'grid' 23. -While Fig. 9 shows the 'four leg's'of
; the transmission line in the same plane, it ‘will be
understood of course that it is intended to repre
sent ‘the symmetrical arrangement of ‘the legs as
actually shown in Fig. 3.
The positive-D.- ‘C.
potential supply is connected to the plate leg '29
‘of the tuned transmission line at the ‘potential
' node point v(5i). Likewise grid leak'6l is connected
‘to potential‘ node point 62 on leg‘30 and to mem
ber 38. With the proper potentials applied to the
heater and with the proper bias applied to the
cathode, all that is necessary to tune the circuit is
to adjust the screw 54 whereby the eifective
length of the transmission line is varied. If de
sired, additional metal removable side walls and
top walls may be applied to the member 31 to
constitute a closed box for the variable trans
mission line, it being understood that suitable
insulated lead-in connections are provided.
desired,‘ the L-shaped member 31 may be supple
mented by metal plates on all sides so as to form
a closed box with the adjusting screw 54 extend- ,
ing through one end wall for adjustment pur
tube there are provided the four tuning rods
Preferably, the tube is of a structure such as
32-35 which are rigidly ?xed parallel to each 65 illustrated and claimed in copending application
other in the insulating spacer block 36. The tun~
of Harry M. Gaun-Nathaniel L. Kiser, Serial No.
ing rods which are rigidly mounted in insulating
416,440, ?led October 25, 1941, and to which ap
spacer 36 are spaced so as to be in axial alignment
plication reference may be made for a detailed
with the corresponding members 28—3l so that
description of the tube.
they snugly ?t and telescope simultaneously into
poses of completing the present disclosure, a
typical tube of this construction is illustrated in
the said members.
Spacer 36 also serves as a
support of the transmission line array on the long
leg 38 of the base plate, and provides a uniform
spacing of the lines parallel to member 38. For
However, for the pur
Figs. 4 and 5 and comprises for example a glass
bulb 62 closed off at its lower end by a header 63
which is substantially ?attened in a plane trans
verse to the vertical axis of the tube.
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