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Патент USA US2405243

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Aug., @9 E46.,
_L_ F. SPEARE
¿£59243 l
OIL BURNER
Filedqune 19, 1944
2 sheets-sheet 1
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ATTOR N E Y S
Aug, 6? NM26»,
l LyFQsPEARE
,45,243
OIL BURNER
Filed June 19., 1944 A
2 Sheets-Shawl*l 2
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,243
UNITED STATES MTENTy VoFElcE ' y
2,405,243
v OIL BURNER
Leolyn F. Spearc, Westfield, Mass., assigner to Gil
bert & Barker
Manufacturing Company, West
Springfield, Mass., a corporation of Massachu
setts
Application June 19, 1944, Serial No. 540,957
2 Claims. (Cl. 158-28)
l
This invention relates to improvements in oil
burners of the so-called gun type, such as are
adapted for use in residential heating and are
started and stopped many times each day during
the heating season.
A gun type burner utilizes a so-called mechan
ical or pressure-atomizing nozzle, located near
the outlet end of a tube, through which the air for
combustion is supplied by a fan, usually driven by
2
Accordingly, when the burner motor is started,
the fan produces the desired flow of air at an
earlier time in the starting period than hereto
fore and, after the selected predetermined speed
has been exceeded, the damper opens and by
passes excess air, maintaining the pressure and
velocity of the air supplied to the tube constant.
Also, during the stopping interval of the burner
an electric motor. The oil is supplied by a pump, 10 the flow of air is maintained for a longer interval.
As the fan slows down, the damper moves toward
also driven by the motor. Oil is admitted under
closed position and the air flow to the combustion
the control of a cut-ofi' valve to the nozzle only
tube is maintained at the proper pressure and
after it has been placed under a predetermined
velocity for a substantial part of the stopping
minimum pressure suiiîcient for atomization.
This pump is positive in action. Furthermore, it 15 interval. By fixing the predetermined speed, at
which the damper opens and'closes, to correspond
usually has aV capacity in excess of normal re
with that at which the oil cut-'olf valve opens and
quirements for combustion and excess oil is by
closes, good combustion conditions can be had
passed after a certain predetermined maximum
during the starting and stopping intervals.
Y
pressure has been reached. The fan, howevenis
not positive in action. Consequently, when the 20 As a desirable additional feature, the invention
provides an oil control valve, such as an-electro
burner motor is started, the pump will place the
magnetically operated valve, connected so as to
oil under atomizing pressure before the fan has
open only when the damper in the air by-pass
established flow of air at proper pressure and ve
opens and to close coincidentally with the cutting
locity at the outlet end of the air tube. Poor
off of current from the driving motor. This oil
combustion results and the smoky llame deposits
soot in the combustion chamber and passes of
the boiler. On stopping of the burner motor, the
air flow drops c-if rapidly and before the cut-off
valve closes, the rate of flow of air at the nozzle .
is too low for the proper combustion.
This invention has for its general object the
provision of means for improving combustion
conditions during the starting and stopping in
tervals of operation of a burner of the class de
scribed.
A
25 control valve insures that, on starting up the
burner, oil cannot be admitted to the nozzle of
the burner until air at properI pressure and ve
locity is being supplied to the burner nozzle and
that, on stopping the burner, oil ñow to the noz
zle will be cut off before the pressure and velocity
of the air supplied to the combustion tube de
creases below the desired values.
The invention will be disclosed with reference
to the accompanying drawings in which
Figs. 1 and 2 are small-scale side elevational
and top plan views respectively of an oil burner
The' invention has for one particular object to
provide in a burner of the class described, means
embodying the invention;
'
l
,
.
whereby flow of air at the desired pressure and
Fig.
3
is
a
fragmentary
sectional
plan
view
velocity is established at the burner nozzle at an
taken on the line 3_3 of Fig. 1 and drawn'to a
earlier time in the starting period and sustained 40 larger
scale;
'
,
for a longer time in the stopping period than has
Fig.
4
is
a
cross
sectional
view
taken
on
the
line
heretofore been possible in an ordinary gun type
4_4 of Fig, 3;
burner.
'
Fig. 5 is a view taken similarly to Fig, 3 and
According to this feature of the invention, a by
pass is provided from the outlet of the fan to 45 showing a modiñcation of the invention;
Fig. 6 is a cross sectional view taken on the
gether with a damper to control the by-pass and
line 6_6 of Fig. 5; and
the damper is arranged to open when the air
Fig. 7 is a diagram showing electrical connec
supplied to the tube attains the required pres
tions used with the form of burner shown in Fig. 5.
sure and velocity. The shutter or air valve asso
ciated either with the inlet or outlet of the fan is 50 Referring to these drawings; the invention isy
shown, by way of illustrative example,- in connec
adjusted to admit to the tube all the air that is
tion with a so-called gun-type oil burner of well
needed for combustion when the fan is revolving
known form. The combustion tube is shown -at l
at some speed less than its normal full speed, say
(Figs. 1 and 2), fixed to the outlet end 2 of a fan
for example, three-quarters speed. The damper
is set to open at the required static pressure. 55 housing 3, in which is rotatably mounted a> fan
4, driven by an electric motor 5. As shown, the
v2,405,243
3
nected to the cylindrical tube I by a sec-tion 2',
which changes from square to circular cross Sec
` tion. The parts I, 2’ and 2 provide an air-supply
conduit communicating with the discharge open
ing of the fan housing. In the outlet end of the
air tube I there is located a suitable. nozzle 5 (Fig.
2), such as a pressure-atomizing nozzle for ex’
ample, to which oil is supplied by a pump 1, con
nected by a shaft 'I' to the fan and thus also
driven by motor 5. The suction pipe for the pump.l
is shown at 8.. The outlet of the pump is con
predetermined speed and thereafter during the
remainder of the starting interval, as well as dur
ing the normal running interval and during the
initialA part of the stopping interval. According
nected by piping 9 to the nozzle support I0~and
thus to nozzle 6. Interposed inthis;V piping is» a
unit II containing a cut-oi?v valve and' a by-pass ‘
valve of usual or any suitable form. The cut-ofi
valve closes the outlet to the burner nozzle Iiuntilthe oil has reached a predetermined minimum
pressure and the by-pass valve subsequentlyby-
4
tained. When the fan is revolving at full speed it
would supply air at a greater rate of flow than
is needed except for the by-pass valve or damper
24 which opens as much as is required to main
tain the pressure and velocity of the air in tube I
substantially constant at the desired values. In
.this-way,> it is insured vthat air,` will be flowing
through the tube I past the burner nozzle at the
desired rate after the motor reaches the selected
outlet 2 is square in cross section and it is con
to> former practice, maximum air flow was not
reached until the'fan attained full speed. With
the present invention maximum air ñow is se
cured> when` the fan reaches '75% of its normal
speed and, of course, an even lower speed may
-be
selected, if desired. The object is to get full
Y
air
flow at or about the time that the oil cut-off
20
passes oil by way of a pipe I2, to any lsuitable
valve- opens and allows nozzle 6 to emit a spray
point,` such as vthe tank or the suction sideof
of atomized oil. The particular speed at which
pump 1, whenever the oil reaches a predetermined
damper 24 opens is a matter of choice, and may
maximum pressure.
be-varied- as is necessary or desired.
The adjustment for varying the volume of air
As an added feature of reiinement` to. secure
entering- tube I from the fan may be elîected in 25 and insure closer coordination between proper
any suitable way and on the discharge as well as
oil flow and airflow, a valve Sù is interposed in
on the intake side of the fan. In this particular
the oil piping 9 between the cut-oir valve and
case, the adjustment i5 onthe intake side. Fixed
nozzle 6 and is suitably arranged to prevent flow
to» one side of theifan housing is a casing i3 af
of oil to nozzle B until the proper flow of air has
fording a chamber I4v in communication with the 30 been established during- the starting interval of
inlet side of the fan. Openings I5 provide for
operation of the burner and before the air flow
communication of the chamber I4 with the at-~
drops below the desired rate during the stopping
mosphere. A Valve» or damper I6 is mounted for
interval of operation of the burner. The valve
adjustment axially of shaft 'I' on which it is slid
may for example, be al solenoid valveopening only
able, and controls the amount of air tha-t can
when the solenoid is energized and remaining
enter- chamber I4 by way of openings I5 to. the
open for so longas `the solenoid remains ener
fan. As shown, theY hub ofthe damper is thread
gized. The damper> 24 may serve, as indicated, to
ed on a screwy I1, having its outerI end. rotatably
move a mercury tube switch 3I from openl to
mounted in theend of casing i3 and itsrinner end
position as the damper- opens and from
similarly‘mounted in a .lugA I1', depending from 40 closed
closed‘to
open position as the damper closes. The
the «top of the casing I3'.` The »screw is heldagainst
electric circuits are indicated in Fig. ’7. The
axial movement, as indicated in Fig; 3.
`
burner vmotor 5 and the ignition means 40 are
The oil‘is ignited by spark electrodes I8, mount
connected in parallel in a circuit including the
ed, _in insulators I9, in a member- 2t which also
wires'35 andv 3S. The room >thermostat switch
supports the member It*Y and nozzle @from tube I1.
32y is interposed between the wires Skand 3B'. The
This invention provides fora second and vent
wires 34 and 35 are adaptedv for connection> to a
ing outlet for the air-supply» conduit. Conven
suitable source of electricity. The solenoidr valve
iently, this venting outlet may connect with the
S0 is in a seriesl circuit which comprises the Wires
intake sidev of the fan, thereby providing a by
The ian housing` ,-1 31, 38 and 39» and is shunted across the wires 3:5Á
pass‘but this is not essential.
and 36. The room thermostat switch starts and
is constructed toprovide a chamber »2l 'above the
stops theburner» motor in the usual way. Ener
outlet 2 and an opening- 22' by meansV of which
gization of the burner motor will start thepump
communication between the outlet 2 and chamber
and fan-but, irrespective of when the pump builds
2l may be established'.v The chamber 2l is'con
~ up the necessary oil pressure, there will. be no.r
nectedloyY a tube 23Y to the inlet chamber- I4v at a
emission of oil fromnozzle S unless and until flow
location between the fan inlet and they innermost
or" air at the proper pressure and- velocity,v and
position which damper IS is likely to assume.
thus at the proper rate, has been established in
Controlling the openingY 22 is> a valve or damper
tube I. Then, and then only, will damper 2.4'
24 mounted on a pivot 25 located ofi centerl as
open. The closing of switch 3l and the opening
Cf)
shown.. A removable cover 26 provides-access to
of oil- valve Sil-»is conditioned on the opening of
the chamber 23. Fixed to the damper is an arm
damper 24;- When the burner motor is deener
21 on which is adjustably mounted aweight 28,
gized, the oil valve 30 will immediately close» and
tending-to hold the damper-- closed. Ailug 29 on
cut 01T- therflow» of oil to the nozzle before the air
one end of >the damper cooperates with the base
decreases at all'. The continuance of >air flow
wall of" chamberl 2 Il as a stop toprevent- counter-v - flow
afterroilY flow is-an advantage becauseofy the
clockwise movement (as viewed irl-Fig». 4s) beyond
the closedv position shown.
`
The damper-or air inlet valve I6 »is adjusted to
admit all the air that is required, for combustion
while the ian is revolving at some. predetermined
speed less than itsv normal and> full speed, such
for example as three-quarters speed. The-weight
- 28 is adjusted so» that the damper 24rwill openl
after the desired predeterminedY static pressure-ï
of the air in the combustion tube has beenvat
scavenging- effect.
The control of the oil howy by means> cuor'
dinated withA the byi-»pass Valve 24. may beraccom»
plish'ed': in any other suii‘ableway.` and> neednot
necessarily. be conñned tothe use of a solenoid
valve locatedn as shown. The important. thing»v is
to prevent the oil from issuing. from the». nozzle
except-»at vsuch- timestas air at. properpressure>
Y andïvelocity‘is availableat the outlet> of tube I1.
2,405,249
It will thus be seen that the invention provides
for the improvement of combustion conditions
during the starting and stopping intervals of op
eration of a burner of the type described. With
the use of the oil valve, the desired results may
be insured so that combustion cannot occur ex
cept when there is both a proper ñow of air and
a proper ñow of oil. The burner may be ad
justed for a higher CO2 reading, and thus for ma
6
ond outlet for opening and closing the same, and
a valve for one of said openings adjustable to
vary inñow of air to said conduit and adjusted
to admit all the air required for combustion when
the fan is revolving at a predetermined speed less
than its normal speed and the ñrst-named valve
is closed, said first-named valve closing and open
ing automatically accordingly as the fan revolves
or above said predetermined speed respec
terially increased efficiency, when the improve 10 below
tively.
ments of this invention are used.
,
It should also be noted that the coordinated
control of oil and air offers insurance against
operation of the burner under any conditions
2. In an oil burner, a casing providing a fan
housing having intake and discharge openings
and a conduit communicating at one end with
which cause less than the normal supply of air. 15 said discharge opening and having an outlet at
its other end, a fan in said housing between said
If the air openings I5 become stulïed up with dirt,
openings, an oil-atomizing nozzle in said conduit,
lint or anything else, or if for any other reason,
an oil pump connected to supply oil to said nozzle,
air at the desired rate cannot be supplied to the
a motor for driving the fan and pump, said con
combustion tube, then the oil valve 3l) will remain
duit having a second and venting outlet located
closed and prevent combustion.
20 between the fan and nozzle, a valve for the second
I claim:
outlet for opening and closing the same, a valve
1. In an oil burner, a casing providing a fan
for one of said openings adjustable to vary iniiow
housing having intake and discharge openings
of air to said conduit and adjusted to admit all
and a conduit communicating at one end with
said discharge opening and having an outlet at 25 the air required for combustion when the fan is
revolving at a predetermined speed less than its
its other end, a fan in said housing between said
normal speed and the first-named valve is closed,
openings, an oil-atomizing nozzle in said conduit,
and adjustable means for holding the ñrst-named
an oil pump connected to supply oil to said nozzle,
valve closed until the air reaches a predetermined
a motor for driving the fan and pump, said con~
pressure.
duit having a second and venting outlet located 30
LEOLYN F. SPEARE.
between the fan and nozzle, a valve for the sec
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