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Патент USA US2405246

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Filed May 21, 1943
¿sheets-sheet 1
256M. WQIS*
Aug. 6, ìäêë, I
Filed Mayv 21, 1943
, 5 Sheets-Sheet 2
, 2,4@51242
Filed May 21, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Ff @A T5
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
- e UNITED _STATES ’APlrrENrV oFrlcEri, jijg
Edward F. Watson, Larchmont, N. Y., assignor to l
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application May 21, 1943, Serial No. 487,890 l -
sclaims. loins-100er n
sound and more particularly to the recording of
The invention may be understood from the >fol
lowing description when readvwith reference to
sound on film for use inconjunction with motion
the drawings in'which:
picture `iilm. More Specifically the invention per
tains to the production of av control corresponding
to the volume variations of sound as said sound
` Fig.,1 discloses the means for translating each
This invention pertains .to îthe 'recording of
is varied in the production of sound ñlm. .
` An object of the invention is the improvement
of thirty-two settings of .apotentiometer or vol->
ume control intoa different one of thirty-two vdii
ferent code combinations .of contact settings in
accordance with a five-elementpermutation code.
It includes a circuit by means of which the per
of controls employed to reproduce variations in
Sound volume in the manufacture of sound film. 10 mutation eode signals, are impressed on a set of
five magnets which set in turn controls a set of
In the sound motion picture industry at the
live punches in a tape perforating device. Per
present time it isthe v,practice to combine the
mutation code signals corresponding to the set
sounds produced in a number of sound sources
into a single sound record. For instance, a rec
ting of the control instrument'are thus punched
l »
ord of the speech sounds occurring during the 15 in a continuous tape...
Fig. 2 is an arrangement for retranslating the
filming of a sequence will have added to it other
permutation code signals punched .in the tape
sound effects such as music, etc. The picture film
produced in theappar'atus per Fig. linto settings
is projected and the various sound effects are in
of a Sound volume control device.
tegrated into a single sound tract at a rehearsal
Refer now to Fig. 1. A sound head I compris-l
or a number of rehearsals. The volume of the 20
sound from the separate sources is adjusted man
ually by an attendant or a number of attendants
ing a sound track 2 and an electro-optical system,
which sound from a number of sources has been '
of potentiometer 4. Rotatable contact arm 5 of
not Shown but well> known, is shown at theupper
left of the figure.> Electric currents corresponding
who operate controls, such as potentiometers or
to the variations in the sound track are impressed
other volume controls, on what are known as
sound mixer panels. Until recently, when it was 25 on amplifier 3. 'I'he full voltage of the output of
amplifier 3 is impressed across the full resistance
foundnecessary to modify a sound track into
integrated. there were no means other than the
potentiometer 4 impresses gradations> of the full
memory and experience of the mixer attendants
for reproducing exactly the original control set
tings and there was no record of such settings
changes found necessary in the volume of the
voltage on amplifiers 6 and 1 in parallel, the out-.
puts of which~ are connected respectively to »,a
monitoring sound reproducer 8 Aand a sound re
cording device 9. Multiple branches 8l and 82
extend from the connections to the inputs of am
sounds from the various sources.
pliñers ß. and 1. These connect to Potentiome
which might have been used as a reference for
-Recently means have been provided in the art 35 ters such as 4 in as many other Sound sources as
are being integrated into a single record» It is
for improving this situation. Record is made of
emphasizedthat any number of sound'sources
the patent to Wolfe, 2,279,018, April 7, 1942, which
provides a magnetic tape record of _the control
without limit may be connected to a single re
settings which is used to reproduce the settings, .
cordel', Arm 5 is controlledvby knob- Il) through
Experience has shown that the magnetic tape
shaft ilV to which shaft the knob I0 and arm-5
method of reproducing the settings of sound vol
are rigidly secured. Rigidly secured also to the
ume control apparatus is not entirely satisfactory.
shaft Il are live cams I2 to I6. The cams I2 to
r The invention herein affords certain advan
i6 are conditioned to actuate their followers to
tages over presently known arrangements, among
control contacts I1 to 2l , respectively. Rotatable
the most important of which are its accuracy, its 45 arm 5 is conditioned to be rotated through anarc
stability, and its economy and even more import
of 270 degrees.. The arc is divided into thirty.
ant, its ease of 4operation and its simplicity, as
twn ecual segments. The cams | I6 are cut
compared with presently known devices for per
in a manner to provide thirty-two diñ'erent per
forming the same function.
~ mutative settings of contacts l1 to 2| each corre
A feature of the invention is apparatus for
sponding to a different oneof the thirty-two seg
translating control settings into permutation
ments. .The control knob IB is operated manually
code signals which are recorded aspunchings in
to vary the settings-of .potentiometer armv 5 yand
a continuous tape. The tape is thereafter used
thus to regulatethe input into ampliñersïß and]
to reproduce the original settings of thel con
which are connected'across Athefoutput of theY
65 potentiometer. The volume of the sound is re
trol instrument..
>permutatior'i codes punched in the tapeîl |0 which
relays >|05 'and' ,I 00 are .operated and4 relays |01
is, the tape .44- modified asv desired. The tape H0
is drawn oiï supply‘reel ||| by a sprocket inthe
tape transmitter driven'from lmotor |_|2` syn
to |09 are released, a .circuit maybe traced from
conductor |34 through contacts |4|, |41, |48, |49
chronous with `motor drive for lsound head |00,
of the other »taps of potentiometer |02 there is
a single selecting path'extending `through the
relay contact fan circuitwhich is closed through
_the operationjof the proper combination' of re-f
and ' |50 to junction point |5|.
and wound on a take-upv reel, not shown, secured
by suitablegearing to shaft |20. `When switch
||3 is closed power is supplied from power source
H4 to motor H2 and the winding of magnet H5
in parallel.'` Normally` the transmitter feed
For each _one
It has been pointed out above thatthe final
sound track is ordinarily made ‘bycontrollin'gthe
volume of sound Lfrom a number ofsources." ÍAny
sprocket is driven -from a cam on shaft |20 -and
is‘prevented from'rotation by means of the-right
hand end of armature'lever H6 whichis inter
number of separate sources may be employedfor
posed in the path of a projecting shoulder on cam
this purpose.
||9 rigidly secured- >to shaft |20. Spur gear »|2| 15
The mechanism which has been described'in
is rigidly secured to shaft |20 and engages worm
detail is arranged to provide a record of the `vari-y
gear |22 which is connected through friction
ations in the volume of one sound source only.
clutch |23'to motor H2.;
" '
If more than one source is employed, which will
Magnet ||5 when energized attracts the _left
almost invariably be the case, it will be necessary
hand end of lever magnet H6 rotating it in a 20 to provide a separate mechanism such as has been
clockwise direction about fixed pin H1 against
described for the production ofv a record corre
the inñuence of `spring | I8. The right-hand end
to the variations of each sound source.
of lever | |ß is thus disengaged from the shoulder
.Attention is'particularly called tothe fact. that
on the periphery of cam ||9,'permitting shaft
a. separate tape, such asY 44, is prepared to ¿record
|20 to rotate. ì
the potentiometer or .volume control settings of
Tape | |0 is drawn over iive sensing pins.
each potentiometer or volume control which con
Where any of the ñve lateral positions in a trans
trols the output of the sound from each sound
verse section of tape I |0‘is punched a sensing pin
head, such as |, which is connected -to record
in a corresponding position is admitted through
head 9. .The multiple leads 8| and 82Y which
the opening and a corresponding one of contacts
connect to the input of the common sound re
|24 to '|28 is closed in a well-known manner. A ,
producer 8 and common sound recorder- 9 are
circuit may thereupon be traced from battery
multipled to as manyseparate potentiometers,
|29 through such of the contacts |24 to |28 as
such as 4, as there are separate sound heads, such
are closed and thewindin'gs of the corresponding
relays I 05 to |09 operating the corresponding re 35 asv |. Voltages'corresponding tol thev combined
sounds are impressed on the inputof ampliiiersiì
lays. The contacts of relays |05 to |09 will be
and 1. An individual record of the settings kof
closed in various patterns to establish a diiîerent
each potentiometer, such as I0, is recorded simul
one of each of thirty-two paths through the re
taneously inv separate tapes, such as 44, by means
lay contacts for each'of »the thirty-two different
code combinations which may be punched in the 40 of an individual tape perforating mechanism con
trolled by an individual set of permutation cams
tape H0. Whenever a relay is operated it is
and contacts for each separate sound source.
locked over a path which may be traced from
If it is found desirable to modify the sound re
battery |30 through resistance |3| and contact
cording produced by the mechanism of Fig. 1,
|32 which is connected in parallel to an arma
ture on each of relays |05 to | 09 which cooperates ' ' such of the individual tapes corresponding to 44
as -are unsatisfactory are modified as desired.
with a locking contact on each of these relays to
extend the path through the relay winding to
Then the original' sound tracks usedy in, prepar
ground. Contact |32 is under control of cam
|33. The cam is arranged so that once in each
revolution contact |32 is opened for a short in- r.
ing the original tapes are run through their re
spective sound heads. This time instead of con
necting each sound head through a manually ad
terval, thus unlocking those of relays |05 to |09
which may have been operated by the particular
justed potentiometer, such as 4, to the recording
head, each separate sound head is connected
through a potentiometer, such as |02, which is
code combination for an interval just sufficient
controlled by a relay fan >circuit in response to
for them to release so that the relays may re
spond to the next code combination. This inter- .7'. the modified codes in its respective tape.
Only one sound head and its associated tape
controlled potentiometer are shown in detail.
C'onductors |34 and |60 which interconnect po
tentiometer |02 associated with sound head |00'
nected to the bottom terminal of potentiometer
|02 and the bottom terminal of ampliñer |03. 60 and the common recorder |04 are multipled
val is timed to correspond with the stepping of
the tape from one code combination to the next.
The bottom terminal of ampliñer |0| is con
The top terminal of amplifier |0| is connected
to the top terminal of potentiometer |02. Each
of the thirty-two taps connected to the junctions
of the resistance elements of potentiometer |02
extends through a different path through the
contacts of relays |05 to |09 to conductor |34
which connects to the top terminal of amplifier
|03. When relays |95 to |09 are each in the
released condition, as shown in the drawings, up
per conductor |34 extends through contacts |35,
|36, |31, |38 and |39 to junction point |40 of
potentiometer |02. If relay |05 is operated and
through conductors |10 and | 1| to other poten
tiometers, such as |02 and |00, each of which is
individually controlled by its respective tape, such
as H0, and its own individual fan relay circuit
Y corresponding to relays |05 to |09.
An amplifier |12 and a sound reproducer |13
serve for monitoring the production of the final
sound record.
If it is desired, a permutation code of a larger
number of elements may be used to provide finer
adjustment. It would also be feasible to set a
single group of a larger number of contacts per
mutatively to integrate the settings of a number
relays |06 to |09 are released, a circuit may be
traced from conductor |34 through contacts |4|,
of volume controls and thus provide a punched
|42, |43, |44 and |45 to junction point |46. If 75 Vtape in which a single code having a larger
I _ _of
*Y . lements y.defines.thesettingfof allfof`
the.petentiometers.,simultaneously.y¿Wl-iat isclaimed is:
' ,.„V ,i
a volume, of ,sound characteristic _of a ,smallmorv‘V
tion -of saidtrack.
_ K
'l ' l v
A .r5._jrl2n` afsoundfrecordingsystem, ,a sound .track
.„_1,_.}Inl valso'und recording> system, means for
recorded upon a medium, f ia sound vreproducer,
varying sound volume, and means controlled in
accordancegwith successive sound >varying -acl
justrnents >,of said ñrst named f means for pro
vidìng a visible permutation code record of said
Ysound volume'V so varied, said record comprising
means intermediate said :track and said »repro-v
visible permutationvcode combinations, at succes
sive equal interiials, `each individual _combination
ducer for varying the volume of sound, and means
responsive to changes in thesetting of said «sound
varying vmeans for producing .a visible v.rer'zord- of
said -settingsdn> a medium separate> from Ísaid
sound mediumúsaidrecord»being a succession of
permutation ¿code combinations of visible ele
ments, eaclrof said, code combinations- corre
corresponding `tothe~ full _amplitude Vof said vol
unie `so lva?ed,v to _facilitate the V.reading interè.
spondingftova particular setting of ysaid vary!v
p'r'etation and modification of said record.
` '
`2. Inasound recording system, a volume con
' V6. In a sound recordingsystem, a soundtrack,
trOI, means for varying the settings _of said vol
unie control, and means directly responsive to _the
operation' of saidy varying Vmeans for perforating
termediate said track and vsaid reproducer, for
varying the volrune of sound,-a setfofcamsfaßset
permutation code signals defining said variations
a sound reproducer, a sound ivolume coni‘frOL’in-vr
of contacts »controlled bysaid cams, means'for
varying the setting ïof said volume control,` and
~ f3. In Lasoun'cl recording system, Qa sound track,
means »for controlling said contacts so as to set
ar sound' 'reproducerl connected thereto, a ¿sound
volur’necontrol intermediate said 'track and said
reproducen means for varying tnefsettings of said
controlÍmeanswf/or recording a Icontinuous series
o'f permutation 'code -signals- defining said set
up a multielement -permutation code signal-'cor-`
responding Pto settings of said volume control...
157. In asound recordingtsystemta »sound track,
25 a sound recording device, a volume control iti-1
termediate said trackand said device, a medium,
t'ings, ‘said’ last means comprising a> continuous
tape,` separate/from said track, said tape having
code lcombinations corresponding to said settings
capable of -assuming successive permutative con
visibly impressed~ thereon yat' snort equally spaced
30 ditions under control v,of'said medium for selec
4. Tn a sound recording system, 'a -.sound track,
a. lsound reproducer, "means intermediate said
track, an‘d said’reproducer 4for varying the volume
of sound, means -responsive' to >said variationsfor
permuta/tively controlling ya plurality of contacts,
and means Vconnected to said contacts vfor produc
ing'a visible permutation >code record having a
sequence )of permutation codesV each representing
a succession-sof;'permutation code combinations
of ¿visible conditions 'in `said medium, and means
tively :setting said -volume control in accordance
with said conditions.
8: An, elongated flexibleV medium, a sound vol
. urne control, and means directly responsive to.
changes i-nrthe'fsetting of said control for physi-l
cally impressing> said medium with successive per-?
mutation code :combinations representing sound
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