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Ä„ 6, 21%., A. D. SMH-FH ICE MANUFAGTURE Filed July 29, 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet l @N È ‘ INVENTOR. ART/wf? D. gSM/m/ @ga ig, 34° I ICE A, MANÚFACTURE D_ SMITH _ Filed July’ 29, 1945 A ~ / ' 4 Sheets-$119.81', >2 , Y , ` INVENTOR ARTHUR D. swf/ï# 69 -fëfë ‘ A. D. sMrrl-ll 2,405,272 ICE MANUFACTURE Filed July 29, _1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ‘r 7 //’// /////// //// //////,// l / /// /// //// ///////// //////// L] J IN VEN TOR. 2,405,272 Patented Aug. 6, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,272 ICE MANUFACTURE Arthur D. Smith, Canton, Ohio, assigner to Bari um Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, a corpora tion of Delaware Application `luly 29, 1943, Serial No. 496,564 4 Claims. (c1. ca_-172') 1 2 The invention relates to the manufacture of ice and more particularly to a method of making blocks of ice for commercial use- of any desired size and weight convenient for handling and use. Heretofore, a large number of special cans filled with water and suspended in a large tank in ' which cold brine is circulated have been used and required in the common practice of making blocks Finally, no satisfactory way has ever been _pro vided for making ice blocks of a desired or se lected weight for any one installation, say any weight within the approximate range of 50 to 300 pounds, by a relatively simple or mino-r change in the design of an ice manufacturing unit. In referring to “commercial ice blocks” herein, the term includes blocks weighing any desired or of ice (11” x 22" x 43”) for commercial use ordi selected _weight within the approximate range of narily weighing about 300 pounds, Compressed 10 50 to 300 pounds, as distinguished from ice cubes air is forced through the water in the cans while ' which are relatively diminutive in size. the freezing progresses from the outside inward - Accordingly, it isa primary object of the pres to eliminate air bubbles from the ice and to center ent invention to provide a method of making com_ impurities and the like in the center or core of mercial ice blocks without using ice cans, and each ice block. When the freezing is nearly com f without using or requiring such auxiliary equip pleted, the impure water in the center or core of ment as overhead cranes, huge'brine circulating each ice block is drawn off and the center core is tanks, compressed air equipment, thawing dump refilled with clean water after which- the freezing equipment, core processing equipment and the of the blocks is completed. The cans are then like, which are required in the manufacture of ice transferred from the large tank to a thawing sta 20 in accordance with common practice. K _ tion, where the ice blocks are removed from the «Another object of 4the present invention is to cans and stored or shipped to the ultimate place provide a method of making _commercial ice of use. blocks which greatly reduce the initial plant> The manufacture of commercial ice blocks in cost, the cost of production, and consequently the accordance with prior common practice involves a .25 cost per ton of ice manufactured. . very large investment and a great deal of expen- ' Also, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method of producing commercial ice blocks of purer quality than ice produced in ac air equipment, overhead cranes, thawing dump cordance With common practice. equip-ment, core pumps, core suckers, core fillers, Further, it is an object of the present invention 30 water and air filters, brine agitators, and numer to provide a method of making commercial ice ous other accessories and piping. Such equip blocks utilizing direct expansion of the primary ment is in addition to the refrigerating equip refrigerant and eliminating the necessity of using ment necessary for supplying brine at the proper and circulating a large volume of brine or salt temperature for circulation in the large tanks. ' No satisfactory way has ever been provided for SO Cu water. Also it is an object of the present invention to the manufacture of commercial ‘ice blocks using provide a method of making commercial ice direct expansion of the primary refrigerant-and blocks free of air cells and foreign substances eliminating the use of brine as an intermediate without the use of any core or sucking or aera cr secondary cooling medium or refrigerant. tion processing equipment` , y Also, no satisfactory way has ever been pro In addition,` it is an object of the present inven vided for the manufacture of commercial ice tion to provide a method of making commercial blocks very rapidly and with a relatively small icekblccks withv materially less freezing surface capital investment in equipment, as compared than is required in accordance with common with the investment in equipment required in f practice. conventional practice. A further object of the present invention is to Moreover, no satisfactory way has ever been provided for manufacturing commercial ice blocks provide a method of freezing commercial ice in Small plants at or near to the place of ultimate blocks of a selected Weight in materially less time, use of the ice, as distinguished from large central say one-quarter toene-eighth of the time _re plants where the ice is made and stored and quired in acccordance with common practice to shipped at substantial cost to the place of ulti produce a block of the same Weight with the same sive equipment, including large brine circulation tanks, ice cans, covers for the cans, compressed mate use. ' ` temperature of refrigerant. _ Also, no satisfactory way has ever been provided for making commercial ice blocks in a portable or mobile unit. « y Another object of the-present inventionv is to provide a method of making commercial ice ,55 blocks,_ which may 'be voperated .intermittently 2,405,272 3 4 ice blocks manufactured by the improved appa ratus; without substantial power loss during shut-down periods by one man to produce ice required by a Fig. 4 is an end view of the freezing apparatus user of say 50 tons per day. shown in Fig, 1; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional Also, it is an object ofthe present invention to provide a method whereby a relatively large amount of ice, say 5 t0 10 tons perI day may be view taken as on the line 5---5, Fig. 6, illustrating made with a relatively small amount of equip the improved freezing apparatus; ment and within a small space such as on a trailer or automobile truck. Fig. 5; and Fig. 6 is a sectional view -taken on the line 6_5, A further object of the present invention is to` 10' Fig. 7 is an enlarged View of one of the freez ing pipes illustrating a portion of a block of ice provide a method of making commercial ice blocks under conditions for obtaining a maximum` ' formed thereon. rate of heat transfer enabling quick freezing of » iSimilar numerals refer to similar parts throughout the drawings. Referring ñrst to Fig. 1 wherein improved ap Also it is an object of the present invention 15 to provide a method of making commercial ice . paratus for manufacturing ice in accordance with the present invention is illustrated diagram blocks in which the freezing >progresses out matically, the freezing unit is generally indicated wardly from a plurality of central freezing zones at 8, represented by dot-dash outline. The in by progressively freezing thin films of water on the ice. ' - the outside of growing cores or cylinders of ice, 20 stallation may also include amotor or prime mover I0 driving a gas compressor || having a as distinguished from freezing from.the outside hot compressed gas discharge line |2 and a gas inward to a central hollow core in accordance with intake line >2li. The compressor is cooled pref common practice. f Y erably by water introduced to a cooling jacket Furthermore, it is an object of the present in vention to provide a method of freezing commer 25 through a water intake line 29 supplied by main supply 3| and discharged through the water out cial ice lblocks in which the water is constantly let pipe 38. _ Y being agitated to form air free ice as the freezing The hot compressed gas Vpasses along line I2 progresses outward on growing cylinders of ice. through a heat exchanger |‘9 for a purpose to Also, it is an object of the present invention to provide -al method „of freezing commercial 30 be hereinafter described, and thence through an blocks of ice in which pure ice is continuously . oil trap 2| to condenser coils or tubesl I2' in the evaporative-condenser generally indicated at 9 being formed from water containing-impurities from whence the condensed liquid refrigerant or precipitates as the freezing progresses outward collects in a receiving tank 34. . ' on growing `cylinders rather than being trapped The condenser 9 has a pit maintained ñlled in the core as freezing progresses from the out 35 with water to a_ level 3U', supplied fromV main side inward in accordance with common practice. water supply 3| ,and drained at 3|’. The water Also, it is an object of thepresent invention level 30’ in the pit is maintained in the usual to provide a method of making commercial ice _ blocks of anyV desired weight. ~Such desired manner by a ñoat valve indicated at I6. -A water weight may be selected for any installation with 40 circulating -pump I5 is located in the condenser pit-and supplies Water fom the pit to the dis in the _range of say approximately 50 to 300 charge spray pipes I5' for spraying and dropping pounds. ‘_The time _of freezing the blocks may on and around the coils or condenser tubes i2’ be'approximately constant,-other conditions be to assist in absorbing the heat from the hot ing the same, irrespective of the selected weight. Moreover, it is an objectof -the present inven 45 tion to provide a -methodof making commercial gas being condensed therein. ‘ The condenser 9 is also provided with an irl coming air duct I8 and an outgoing air duct Il, ice blocks in any desired time for any installation each of which .may be provided with a fan or selected within therrange ofY lsay approximately blower operated by a motor 3'! or circulating air two to eight hours, irrespective of the selected weight of block, other _conditions being the same. 50 through the condenser 9 around the condenser And finally, it isV an object of the present in vention to provide a‘method of Imanufacturing ice radically different from common practice,»which tubes l2’ to carry away the heat of condensation of the refrigerant. ‘ ’ The level of the liquid refrigerant in receiving tank 34 may be observed by sight glass 35 and is much quicker, more economical, and produces purer ice in muchless space, at a much less oost 55 the condensed liquid refrigerant normally passes from the receiving tank 34 to the freezing unit 8 of equipmentand of ice produced therein and through liquid refrigerant line I3 and automatic with much less labor, attention, power, equip expansion valve I4 to freezing unit connector ment and overhead than in accorance with com mon or conventional practice. f. _ 54. A by-pass line I3’ equipped with a valve also These and other objects may be obtained by 60 communicates between receiving tank ‘34 and freezing connector 54 for a purpose to be later the methods'procedures, steps, and operations described. ' hereinafter described in detail, and _setforth- in Expanded or spent refrigerant gas leaves the the appendedY claims, certain steps` of which may freezing unit 8 through a similar connector 54a be best understood by reference to the drawings of improved apparatus for carrying out the 65 and passes through gas return line 24 to an ac cumulator 2l' equipped with baffles 3B, wherein method, in which ¿` ‘ entrained refrigerant liquid is separated from Figure V1 is va diagrammatic view illustrating an the gas and collects in accumulator 21 and the .installation of improved apparatus for carrying Vliquid maybe returned to the freezing unit 8 out the improved method; . Fig. ,2 is adiagrammaticview of parts ofthe ” through by-pass line 25. The level of liquid in the accumulator may be observed by gauge or apparatusl shown in lï'ig.` 1, illustrating'the con sight glass 25. The refrigerant gas returns from nections and arrangement for thawing'icef blocks accumulator` «21 through line 28 to the com made ,by .the . 'improved method ' and apparatus; pressor H. ` ' ' _ .. fïFig.,3‘Íis'a fragmentary diagrammatic view fur ther illustrating the arrangement' .for thawing 75 Referring particularly to Figs. 4, 5, 6 and?, 2,405,272 5 6 wherein the freezing »unit generally lindicated at 8 is shown in detail, the freezing unit 8 may in clude supports 5S for bearings 52, in which the and 61 form a seriesl of shallow rectangular pro jecting ledges around and segregate each group of freezing tubes 46. The outer surfaces of the -hollow shaft 4'! is journaled. A sprocket 54’ may be ñxed to one end of shaft 4l, and the sprocket 54' may be driven by chain belt 55, speed re ducer 62, belt 63 and motor 64 for rotating hol low shaft 4l, Shaft 4l' may be provided near each end with a partition 5l and with openings 48 adjacent the outer side of each partition. A refrigerant inlet pipe 48’ insulated at El’ may .be mounted with channel members 56 and 61 are preferably cov ered with insulation >material 5l). Thus, the channel members 5S and 61 form a series of cir culation passages diagrammatically indicated in Figs. 2 and'3 as ingoing passages 42, cross pas sages 42’ and outgoing passages 43. The center flange or partition 43’ of each longitudinal dou ble channel £55 serves to form the passages 4Z and 43 within each double channel 66. in one end of the hollow shaft 4l’ and a similar Referring to Fig. 5, each flat drum plate 41' refrigerant gas outlet pipe 48" insulated at 5l’ has a number of groups, such as 4, 5 or 6 groups (or more or less) of freezing tubes 46 mounted may be mounted within the other end of hollow shaft 4l. Inlet connector 5d and outlet con nector 54a are mounted on and connected re thereon; and each group of freezing tubes serves to form one block of ice, as will be later described. The several groups of freezing tubes located lon gitudinally on one fiat drum wall 4l" are referred spectively to inlet and outlet pipes 43’ and 4S” by stulîing boxes 53. The freezing unit B further preferably com 20 to as a bank of groups. prises an outer preferably cylindrical stationary Now referring to Figs. 3 and 4, each bank of groups has a separate circulation system within shell or drum 8a comprising side and end walls formed by outer sheet metal walls 5l, inner sheet metal walls 58 and intervening insulation ma terial 59. Referring particularly tol Fig. 5, shaft 4l yis adapted to rotate within the aperture 59a formed passages 42, 42’ and 43. An inlet tube 68 (Fig. 3) connects the ingoing passage 42 of each bank through inlet valve 44 with circular inlet header 40; and an outlet tube 69 connects the outgoing passage 43 of each bank through outlet valve 45 and circular outlet header 4|. in the left hand or inlet end wall of the station ary outer drum Se. The outlet end of shaft 4l is provided with a circular header 4l surrounded by another circular header 4e for a purpose to Warm liquid such as water or other heat trans fer medium, may be drawn from heat exchanger i9 through warm liquid supply line 22 by liquid circulating pump 39 to flexible pipe 22', detach- be later described, which headers 4t and 4i are rotatable along with shaft 4? within enlarged aperture 55h provided in the inlet end wall of outer drum 8a. ably connected at 44' (Fig. 2) with a valve cou pling communicating with circular inlet header I n" 4E. Another flexible pipe 23’ is detachably con The freezing unit ß also includes a rotatable nected at 45’ with a valve coupling of circular outlet header 4l and leads to warm liquid return line 23, also connected with heat exchanger I9. The level of liquid in heat exchanger I9 may be observed in sight glass 20. The numeral I4’ in Figs. 1 and 6 indicates the approximate level of liquid vrefrigerant in rotatable multi-sided evaporator drum 8b during operation; while the numeral 60’ indicates the approximate Water level within the outer drum 8a of the freez ing unit. Water is supplied to the drum 8a through pipe 30 communicating with the main water supply 3l, and the drum may be drained at 32. The level 60' is preferably maintained by multi-sided evaporator drum tb mounted on shaft 47 within the outer drum iid; and the mul~ ti-sided evaporator drum 8b includes end walls formed by outer plates 5l', inner plates 58’ and intervening insulation material 59’. The side walls of the multi-sided drum 8b are formed by flat plates 47’. The polygonal cross sectional shape of the multi-sided evaporator drum Bb'is shown as being octagonal or eight sided, but the polygon may have more or less sides if desired. Each plate All' is formed with a number of groups of holes 4Q, and hollow freezing tubes 4b are connected to each plate 4l’ communicating with each hole :i9 and project outwardly at right angles to each plate 4‘5’ generally radially of hollow shaft 4l. an overflow opening 33. The ice blocks which form on each group of ' freezing tubes are diagrammatically indicated at Referring particularly to Fig. '7, each freezing in dot-dash lines, and may be removed in a tube 4S may be mounted in any suitable manner on the drum plates 4l’. As shown, the tubes 45 are preferably inserted in holes ‘iii and Welded to the plates 4l’ as at t5. The outer end of each manner to be hereinafter described by opening air-tight hinged cover 3', whence> they may be transferred to a place ofV storage, shipment or use along chute 6i. tube 46 may be closed in any suitable or conven In operation, the cold liquid refrigerant, which ient manner, as by threaded plugs 45’. The may be ammonia or other refrigerant at the usual freezingtubes 45 are shown as being and prefer (il) temperature of approximately 14° F. is introduced ably are cylindrical tubes. l-lowever, if brine is into the interior of the multi-sided drum 8by to used as a secondary refrigerant as later ex maintain a liquid refrigerant levelv i4’ approxi plained, they may have any’other desired shape mately as shown in Fig. 6. Water is maintained in cross section, as for instance they may be in the outer drum 3a at the approximate level 6G'. square, rectangular-or oval in shape. Also,-the ' The multi-sided drum 3b is lrotated and during tubes 45 may beslightly tapered. from their inner rotation the banks of groups of freezing tubes 46 to their outer ends. Furthermore, the tubes 4t on each flat drum wall 4l" successively dip down are preferably made vof copper or brass for ob into, pass through, and emerge from the water taining the maximum rate of heat transfer in the lower part of the outer drum 8a. Mean _. through the walls thereof. The flat drum walls 4l’ are provided at their while, the liquid refrigeranty flows into and ñlls outer faceswhere they meet the next adjacent ñat drum wall 47' with longitudinal double chan »nel members 66, and- with spaced peripherally ,extending channel membersr 6l'. Members S3 ‘ the interior of the freezing tubes 45 as each bank of groups of tubes passes through the lower ap proximate quarter arc of rotation of the multi sided drum and as the banks> of groups swing through the upper left hand quarter arc of rota 2,405,272 7 tion, the liquid refrigerant flows out of the freez ing tubes and drains back into the interior of the multi-sided drum, accompanied by evaporation of some of the liquid refrigerant. Y Thus, as any one freezing tube 4S completes one revolution, the liquid refrigerant ñows or cir culates in and out of the tube; and ideal condi tions for a maximum rate of heat transfer are 8 place accompanied by some lowering in tempera ture. However, gas pressure within the multi sided drum 8b will be built up, because the gas return line 28 is closed and no gas can leave the interior of the drum. The result is that the liquid refrigerant in drum 8b will reach a temperature above freezingl Meanwhile, rotation of the multi-sided drum 8b is continued and the warm refrigerant liquid established because the liquid refrigerant is flow ing and because the small streams thereof present 10 now contained therein, in circulating back and forth through the freezing pipes 46, warms and a relatively large liquid surface for evaporation. gently thaws the ice immediately contacting the As a result of these operations, a thin film of outer surface of freezing tubes 4G. ice commences to form around the outer surface When such thawing operation has progressed of each freezing tube 46, under ideal conditions of to a sufficient degree, the rotation of the drum heat transfer. As each tube 46 dips into the water 8b is stopped. One flat drum wall 41' and the bath and emerges from the water, a further film of water is carried out of the water bath on the bank of blocks of ice 60 thereon are located op posite to hinge cover 8’ of the outer drum 8a, as shown in Fig. 6 when the drum is stopped. The door 8a is then opened, and inlet and out sided drum continues to rotate. Thus, the ice 20 let nexible pipes 22' and 23’ are connected re freezes progressively outwardly from the surface spectively at 44’ and 45' with the circular inlet of each freezing tube 46 by the successive freez and outlet headers 40 and 4I. Also inlet and out ing of thin films of water on the outside of the let valves 44 and 45 for the particular bank of ice growing core or cylinder of ice. blocks opposite door 8’ are opened. Circulation Operation of the unit is continued until each pump 39 is then started and the warm thawing ice cylinder grows in size to meet the ice cylinder liquid from heat exchanger i9 is circulated on and fill out the space between adjacent freez through pipe 22 and passages 42, 42’ and 43 for ing tubes 4S of the group, to ñnally form a block the particular bank, and back through pipe 23 of ice on each group of freezing tubes 46, sub Vwhereby each ice block is warmed slowly and stantially as shown in dot-dash lines at BD in Figs. gently to thaw the ice film immediately around 5 and 6. The shallow projecting ledges around the corner of the block adjacent the shallow rec each group of freezing tubes 46 formed by mem tangular projecting ledge formed by members 66 bers $5 and El, serve to segregate and separate and El. ' ' each block of ice from the next adjacent block of When the contacting surfaces of the ice blocks ice in each bank on one flat drum wall 4l" and to with freezing tubes 46 and plates 41' have been also segregate the blocks of each bank from the sufñciently thawed, the blocks 60 are removed blocks of the adjacent banks. from the freezing tubes 4S through the door 28' Meanwhile, the continuous movement of the and may be handled down chute BI to a place freezing tubes 4% through the bath of water serves to agitate the water, with the result that no 40 of storage, use, or transportation. Thereafter, the next bank of blocks is moved minute air bubbles are contained within the thin to a position opposite door 8' and. the thawing nlm of water successively picked up by each freez outer surface of the ice forming on each tube 46,> which further film in turn freezes as the multi :'ng tube 4E, Accordingly, cloudy ice is avoided and clear ice is formed on the freezing tubes, elim inating the necessity >of using special equipment for removing entrained air from the water being frozen, as is necessary in the common practice of making ice. Moreover, as impurities dissolved in water lower its freezing point, the thin ñlm of ice formed on each tube 46 during that part of its revolution when above the water is washed by the water on its immersion during the balance of the revolution and the impurities rejected to the surface of the nlm are washed off and concentrate in the water. Vlïhen the impurities become so concentrated in »the water as to exceed their solubilities the excess impurities precipitate to the bottom of the water operations just described are again carried out to harvest the blocks of ice on the next bank of the multi-sided drum 8b. These operations are repeated until all of the blocks of ice have been harvested, whereupon pump 39 is stopped, flexible pipes 22' and 23' are disconnected, and a new freezing cycle is commenced. As previously stated, if the freezing tubes 46 are slightly tapered, the thawing time for removing or harvesting the ice blocks from the freezing tubes will be shortened. ` As indicated in the foregoing description, the present invention enables the manufacture of commercial ice blocks by using direct expansion of the primary refrigerant and eliminates the use of brine as an intermediate or secondary cooling medium. However, it is to be understood If desired, a sterilizing lamp may vbe mounted 60 that the other features and advantageous results of the present invention (including rapid freez within the outer drum 8a to sterilize the water ing, elimination of separate aerating equipment, therein and enable the formation of sterile ice. purer ice formed, etc.) may be obtained, even When the freezing of the ice blocks is completed, though a brine or secondary refrigerant system the expansion valve I4 is closed, the compressor H is stopped, and valve 28’ is closed. Gate valve 65 is used in which the primary refrigerant is ex panded to cool the brine and the brine is then in by-pass line I3’ is then opened up wide per passed into and circulates within the interior of mitting a relatively large volume of warm refrig the multi-sided drum 8b and the freezing tubes erant liquid to flow by gravity from receiving tank 46. In event that brine is used, the liquid level 34 into the interior of multi-sided drum 8b. The of the brine refrigerant within the multi-sided y liquid refrigerant in receiving drum 34 is nor drum would have to cover tube 41 so that the mally at a temperature of between 8O to 100° F., outgoing brine would flow out of the multi-sided and as it flows into the interior of the multi-sided drum 8b, it will warm the liquid refrigerant there While the spacing of the tubes of each group in and in turn be cooled by the cold liquid refrig is not critical, the tube spacing is important from erant therein. Some evaporation will also take bath. - , ' drum. ` ’ Y ‘ 2,405,272 _ 9 -10 the standpoint> of productiomor rate at which it is desired to produce ice. Obviously, the closer freezing ~equipment without substantial power loss,`_and where a freezing cycle for freezing the the freezing tubes 46 are to each other, the» more ordinary'300 pounds commercial ice blocks is tons of ice per day can be produced in a. unit .of approximately forty-two hours with 14° F. brine. given size. However, the spacing must not be 5 It is pointed out that the ability to conñne too close, because the ratio of hole volume to ice primary direct expansion refrigerant within `the in any- block produced may be too high‘for some particular use for the ice. y > The presence of the holes in the ice, where the freezing tubes 146 werelocated during formation of the ice blocks', does> not detract in any man 10 ner from the usefulness of the ice, and in fact ' it may be beneficial in connection with certain uses for the ice. Thus, a great deal of ice is used in >relatively small vquantities at isolated places, such-as for Ypacking and shipping ñsh and vege tables.y In suchA instances, the ice is usually le multi-sided drum, the ability to use small round freezing tubes with thin walls which will with stand the internal pressure of the eXpansible refrigerant, and the ability to use the liquid re frigerant under different conditions of tempera ture and pressure for both freezing and suf iicie'nt. thawing >to release the formed ice blocks; enables the use of direct expansion of a primary refrigerant in the manufacture of commercial ice blocks, which has heretofore been believed and considered impossible. ‘ _ , crushed or broken up in small pieces and the pres ence of the holes in the ice blocks will assist in Accordingly, the present invention provides for -the manufacture of commercial ice blocks using enabling the ice to bereadily crushed or chipped. 20 direct expansion of the primary refrigerant; If the tubes are spaced, say two inches apart, four times as much ice per day can be made in the same unit under the same conditions as could be made if the freezing tube spacing were four inches apart. provides for the rapid manufacture of commer cial ice blocks with a relatively small capital in vestment; provides for the economical manufac ture of commercial ice blocks in small plants at This is because the rate of 25 or near to the place of ultimate use of the ice, or in portable or mobile units; provides for the the thickness of ice frozen. manufacture of ice blocks of any desired or se Accordingly, the production desired` from any lected weight for any one installation; eliminates particular unit and the frequency with which the the necessity of using ice cans and attendant ice may be harvested, determines to a large ex 30 crane, circulating tank, compressed air, thawing, tent, the spacing between the freezing tubes. and core processing equipment and the like; pro With any given spacing of freezing tubes, the size vides for the manufacture of very pure ice free of of the block of ice formed in a given time by any air cells and foreign substances without auxil group of tubes may be increased simply by in iary equipment for eliminating air and foreign creasing the number of tubes in the group while substances; provides for the intermittent manu maintaining the same spacing, facture of commercial ice b-locks without substan 'The freezing tubes 46 are preferably cylindri tial power loss during shut-down periods; and cal tubes in order to provide the necessary eliminates much of the equipment, labor atten strength to withstand the pressure of direct ex tion, power, and overhead required for the manu pansion refrigerating medium introduced within 40 facture of ice in accordance with common or con the tubes for freezing successive tubular ice films ventional practice. thereon. These tubes may be approximately 35" The new and improved apparatus for the long where it is desired to form a standard block manufacture of ice shown and described, but not of ice, although the tube length may be much claimed herein, is claimed in my copending ap shorter, say 8" to 10" in length if it is desired 45 plication entitled “Ice manufacturing appa to form ice blocks of other sizes. ratus,” filed of even date herewith, Serial No. The tubes may have an internal diameter of 496,565. from M3” to 1”; tubes having a 1/2” internal di Having now described the features of the in ameter being preferable. The tube wall should vention, the preferred steps used in carrying out be as thin as possible for the particular metal 50 the improved method, the advantages and re from which it is formed in order to cut down sults obtained by the use of .the same, and the power loss, but the tube wall must be thick enough prior art dili'iculties eliminated; the new and use to supply the necessary strength for resisting ful methods, steps, and operations, and reason pressure. I have found that 1/2" internal diam able mechanical equivalents thereof obvious to eter tubes with a TLS" wall thickness 35” long 55 those skilled in the art, are set forth in the ap and spaced 2" apart are preferable in the ordi pended claims. nary installation’for rapidly making commercial I claim: ` ice blocks. In every instance, the tubes having 1. The method of making an ice block which freezing is inversely proportional to the square of dimensions within the approximate ranges speci ñed may be characterized as “slender” or “fin ger-like” tubes because of their relatively small diameter with respect to their length; and the includes the steps of intermittently during the 60 freezing operation immersing a group of spaced parallel tubular bodies in a bath of water, in ternally refrigerating the bodies, to freeze the tube arrangement or grouping may be termed water to form ice entirely around the exterior of a porcupine arrangement. each body progressively outward from the outer It will be further understood that the improved 65 surface of each body until the ice formed on the freezing apparatus may be operated in accord group of bodies merges into one block. ance with the present invention, for say eight or 2. The method of making an ice block which twelve or sixteen hours a day to produce the de includes the steps of intermittently during the sired quantity of ice, and the unit may be shut freezing operation immersing a tubular body in down for the remaining time of a twenty-four 70 a bath of water to provide successive films of hour period or over week-ends without substan tial power loss during the shut-down period, in contrast with the normal operation of commer , water entirely around the exterior thereof, in troducing liquid refrigerant at a temperature be low 32° F. internally of the body to freeze suc cial ice plants in accordance with conventional cessive tubular ice ñlms from the successive wa practice, where it is difficult to shut down .-the 75 ter ñlms between successive immersions until a Ari1 desired blockof ice is formed entirely around the exterior of the tubular body, then introducing liquid refrigerant at a temperature above 32° F. internally of the body to thaw the ice film adja 4.»The method of- making an ice-block which includes the steps of intermittently during the freezing operation immersing a_ group of spaced parailei tubular bodies inV a bath 'of Water to provide successive ñlms of Water entirely'around the exterior thereof, introducing liquid refrig era-nt at a temperature below 32° F. internally cent the outer surface of the body, and then re moving the ice block from the body. 3. The method of making an ice block which of the tubular bodies to freeze successive tubular includes the steps of continuously moving a ice ñlms from the successive Water films between group of spaced parallel tubular bodies in a cir successive immersions until a desired block of 10 zcular path into and out of a bath of Water to ice is formed entirely around the exterior'of the >provide successive films of water entirely around tubular bodies, then introducing liquid refrig the exteriors of the tubular bodies and internal erant at a temperature above 32° F. internally of lly refrigerating the tubular bodies to freeze the the tubular bodies to thaw the ice film adjacent films of water to form ice entirely around the ex terior of each tubular body until the ice formed 15 the outer surfaces of the tubular bodies and then removing the ice block from the tubular bodies. ron the group of tubular bodies merges into one ARTHUR D. SMITH. block.