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Патент USA US2405272

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Ä„ 6, 21%.,
Filed July 29, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet l
ART/wf? D. gSM/m/
@ga ig, 34°
Filed July’ 29, 1945
4 Sheets-$119.81', >2
ARTHUR D. swf/ï#
-fëfë ‘
A. D. sMrrl-ll
Filed July 29, _1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
//// //////,//
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Arthur D. Smith, Canton, Ohio, assigner to Bari
um Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application `luly 29, 1943, Serial No. 496,564
4 Claims.
(c1. ca_-172')
The invention relates to the manufacture of ice
and more particularly to a method of making
blocks of ice for commercial use- of any desired
size and weight convenient for handling and use.
Heretofore, a large number of special cans filled
with water and suspended in a large tank in '
which cold brine is circulated have been used and
required in the common practice of making blocks
Finally, no satisfactory way has ever been _pro
vided for making ice blocks of a desired or se
lected weight for any one installation, say any
weight within the approximate range of 50 to 300
pounds, by a relatively simple or mino-r change
in the design of an ice manufacturing unit.
In referring to “commercial ice blocks” herein,
the term includes blocks weighing any desired or
of ice (11” x 22" x 43”) for commercial use ordi
selected _weight within the approximate range of
narily weighing about 300 pounds, Compressed 10 50 to 300 pounds, as distinguished from ice cubes
air is forced through the water in the cans while
' which are relatively diminutive in size.
the freezing progresses from the outside inward -
Accordingly, it isa primary object of the pres
to eliminate air bubbles from the ice and to center
ent invention to provide a method of making com_
impurities and the like in the center or core of
mercial ice blocks without using ice cans, and
each ice block. When the freezing is nearly com
f without using or requiring such auxiliary equip
pleted, the impure water in the center or core of
ment as overhead cranes, huge'brine circulating
each ice block is drawn off and the center core is
tanks, compressed air equipment, thawing dump
refilled with clean water after which- the freezing
equipment, core processing equipment and the
of the blocks is completed. The cans are then
like, which are required in the manufacture of ice
transferred from the large tank to a thawing sta 20 in accordance with common practice.
K _
tion, where the ice blocks are removed from the
«Another object of 4the present invention is to
cans and stored or shipped to the ultimate place
provide a method of making _commercial ice
of use.
blocks which greatly reduce the initial plant>
The manufacture of commercial ice blocks in
cost, the cost of production, and consequently the
accordance with prior common practice involves a .25 cost per ton of ice manufactured.
very large investment and a great deal of expen- '
Also, it is an object of the present invention to
provide a method of producing commercial ice
blocks of purer quality than ice produced in ac
air equipment, overhead cranes, thawing dump
cordance With common practice.
equip-ment, core pumps, core suckers, core fillers,
Further, it is an object of the present invention
water and air filters, brine agitators, and numer
to provide a method of making commercial ice
ous other accessories and piping. Such equip
blocks utilizing direct expansion of the primary
ment is in addition to the refrigerating equip
refrigerant and eliminating the necessity of using
ment necessary for supplying brine at the proper
and circulating a large volume of brine or salt
temperature for circulation in the large tanks.
No satisfactory way has ever been provided for SO Cu water.
of the present invention to
the manufacture of commercial ‘ice blocks using
provide a method of making commercial ice
direct expansion of the primary refrigerant-and
blocks free of air cells and foreign substances
eliminating the use of brine as an intermediate
without the use of any core or sucking or aera
cr secondary cooling medium or refrigerant.
tion processing equipment` ,
Also, no satisfactory way has ever been pro
In addition,` it is an object of the present inven
vided for the manufacture of commercial ice
tion to provide a method of making commercial
blocks very rapidly and with a relatively small
icekblccks withv materially less freezing surface
capital investment in equipment, as compared
than is required in accordance with common
with the investment in equipment required in
f practice.
conventional practice.
A further object of the present invention is to
Moreover, no satisfactory way has ever been
provided for manufacturing commercial ice blocks
provide a method of freezing commercial ice
in Small plants at or near to the place of ultimate
blocks of a selected Weight in materially less time,
use of the ice, as distinguished from large central
say one-quarter toene-eighth of the time _re
plants where the ice is made and stored and
quired in acccordance with common practice to
shipped at substantial cost to the place of ulti
produce a block of the same Weight with the same
sive equipment, including large brine circulation
tanks, ice cans, covers for the cans, compressed
mate use.
temperature of refrigerant.
Also, no satisfactory way has ever been provided
for making commercial ice blocks in a portable
or mobile unit.
Another object of the-present inventionv is to
provide a method of making commercial ice
,55 blocks,_ which may 'be voperated .intermittently
ice blocks manufactured by the improved appa
without substantial power loss during shut-down
periods by one man to produce ice required by a
Fig. 4 is an end view of the freezing apparatus
user of say 50 tons per day.
shown in Fig, 1;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional
Also, it is an object ofthe present invention to
provide a method whereby a relatively large
amount of ice, say 5 t0 10 tons perI day may be
view taken as on the line 5---5, Fig. 6, illustrating
made with a relatively small amount of equip
the improved freezing apparatus;
ment and within a small space such as on a trailer
or automobile truck.
Fig. 5; and
Fig. 6 is a sectional view -taken on the line 6_5,
A further object of the present invention is to` 10' Fig. 7 is an enlarged View of one of the freez
ing pipes illustrating a portion of a block of ice
provide a method of making commercial ice
blocks under conditions for obtaining a maximum`
' formed thereon.
rate of heat transfer enabling quick freezing of
» iSimilar
throughout the drawings.
Referring ñrst to Fig. 1 wherein improved ap
Also it is an object of the present invention 15
to provide a method of making commercial ice . paratus for manufacturing ice in accordance
with the present invention is illustrated diagram
blocks in which the freezing >progresses out
matically, the freezing unit is generally indicated
wardly from a plurality of central freezing zones
at 8, represented by dot-dash outline. The in
by progressively freezing thin films of water on
the ice.
the outside of growing cores or cylinders of ice, 20 stallation may also include amotor or prime
mover I0 driving a gas compressor || having a
as distinguished from freezing from.the outside
hot compressed gas discharge line |2 and a gas
inward to a central hollow core in accordance with
intake line >2li. The compressor is cooled pref
common practice.
f Y
erably by water introduced to a cooling jacket
Furthermore, it is an object of the present in
vention to provide a method of freezing commer 25 through a water intake line 29 supplied by main
supply 3| and discharged through the water out
cial ice lblocks in which the water is constantly
let pipe 38. _
being agitated to form air free ice as the freezing
The hot compressed gas Vpasses along line I2
progresses outward on growing cylinders of ice.
through a heat exchanger |‘9 for a purpose to
Also, it is an object of the present invention
to provide -al method „of freezing commercial 30 be hereinafter described, and thence through an
blocks of ice in which pure ice is continuously . oil trap 2| to condenser coils or tubesl I2' in the
evaporative-condenser generally indicated at 9
being formed from water containing-impurities
from whence the condensed liquid refrigerant
or precipitates as the freezing progresses outward
collects in a receiving tank 34. .
on growing `cylinders rather than being trapped
The condenser 9 has a pit maintained ñlled
in the core as freezing progresses from the out 35
with water to a_ level 3U', supplied fromV main
side inward in accordance with common practice.
water supply 3| ,and drained at 3|’. The water
Also, it is an object of thepresent invention
level 30’ in the pit is maintained in the usual
to provide a method of making commercial ice
_ blocks of anyV desired weight. ~Such desired
manner by a ñoat valve indicated at I6. -A water
weight may be selected for any installation with 40 circulating -pump I5 is located in the condenser
pit-and supplies Water fom the pit to the dis
in the _range of say approximately 50 to 300
charge spray pipes I5' for spraying and dropping
pounds. ‘_The time _of freezing the blocks may
on and around the coils or condenser tubes i2’
be'approximately constant,-other conditions be
to assist in absorbing the heat from the hot
ing the same, irrespective of the selected weight.
Moreover, it is an objectof -the present inven 45
tion to provide a -methodof making commercial
gas being condensed therein.
The condenser 9 is also provided with an irl
coming air duct I8 and an outgoing air duct Il,
ice blocks in any desired time for any installation
each of which .may be provided with a fan or
selected within therrange ofY lsay approximately
blower operated by a motor 3'! or circulating air
two to eight hours, irrespective of the selected
weight of block, other _conditions being the same. 50 through the condenser 9 around the condenser
And finally, it isV an object of the present in
vention to provide a‘method of Imanufacturing ice
radically different from common practice,»which
tubes l2’ to carry away the heat of condensation
of the refrigerant.
The level of the liquid refrigerant in receiving
tank 34 may be observed by sight glass 35 and
is much quicker, more economical, and produces
purer ice in muchless space, at a much less oost 55 the condensed liquid refrigerant normally passes
from the receiving tank 34 to the freezing unit 8
of equipmentand of ice produced therein and
through liquid refrigerant line I3 and automatic
with much less labor, attention, power, equip
expansion valve I4 to freezing unit connector
ment and overhead than in accorance with com
mon or conventional practice. f.
A by-pass line I3’ equipped with a valve also
These and other objects may be obtained by 60 communicates between receiving tank ‘34 and
freezing connector 54 for a purpose to be later
the methods'procedures, steps, and operations
hereinafter described in detail, and _setforth- in
Expanded or spent refrigerant gas leaves the
the appendedY claims, certain steps` of which may
freezing unit 8 through a similar connector 54a
be best understood by reference to the drawings
of improved apparatus for carrying out the 65 and passes through gas return line 24 to an ac
cumulator 2l' equipped with baffles 3B, wherein
method, in which
¿` ‘
entrained refrigerant liquid is separated from
Figure V1 is va diagrammatic view illustrating an
the gas and collects in accumulator 21 and the
.installation of improved apparatus for carrying
Vliquid maybe returned to the freezing unit 8
out the improved method; .
Fig. ,2 is adiagrammaticview of parts ofthe ” through by-pass line 25. The level of liquid in
the accumulator may be observed by gauge or
apparatusl shown in lï'ig.` 1, illustrating'the con
sight glass 25. The refrigerant gas returns from
nections and arrangement for thawing'icef blocks
accumulator` «21 through line 28 to the com
made ,by .the . 'improved method ' and apparatus;
pressor H.
.. fïFig.,3‘Íis'a fragmentary diagrammatic view fur
ther illustrating the arrangement' .for thawing 75 Referring particularly to Figs. 4, 5, 6 and?,
wherein the freezing »unit generally lindicated at
8 is shown in detail, the freezing unit 8 may in
clude supports 5S for bearings 52, in which the
and 61 form a seriesl of shallow rectangular pro
jecting ledges around and segregate each group
of freezing tubes 46. The outer surfaces of the
-hollow shaft 4'! is journaled. A sprocket 54’ may
be ñxed to one end of shaft 4l, and the sprocket
54' may be driven by chain belt 55, speed re
ducer 62, belt 63 and motor 64 for rotating hol
low shaft 4l,
Shaft 4l' may be provided near each end with
a partition 5l and with openings 48 adjacent the
outer side of each partition. A refrigerant inlet
pipe 48’ insulated at El’ may .be mounted with
channel members 56 and 61 are preferably cov
ered with insulation >material 5l). Thus, the
channel members 5S and 61 form a series of cir
culation passages diagrammatically indicated in
Figs. 2 and'3 as ingoing passages 42, cross pas
sages 42’ and outgoing passages 43. The center
flange or partition 43’ of each longitudinal dou
ble channel £55 serves to form the passages 4Z
and 43 within each double channel 66.
in one end of the hollow shaft 4l’ and a similar
Referring to Fig. 5, each flat drum plate 41'
refrigerant gas outlet pipe 48" insulated at 5l’
has a number of groups, such as 4, 5 or 6 groups
(or more or less) of freezing tubes 46 mounted
may be mounted within the other end of hollow
shaft 4l. Inlet connector 5d and outlet con
nector 54a are mounted on and connected re
thereon; and each group of freezing tubes serves
to form one block of ice, as will be later described.
The several groups of freezing tubes located lon
gitudinally on one fiat drum wall 4l" are referred
spectively to inlet and outlet pipes 43’ and 4S”
by stulîing boxes 53.
The freezing unit B further preferably com
20 to as a bank of groups.
prises an outer preferably cylindrical stationary
Now referring to Figs. 3 and 4, each bank of
groups has a separate circulation system within
shell or drum 8a comprising side and end walls
formed by outer sheet metal walls 5l, inner sheet
metal walls 58 and intervening insulation ma
terial 59.
Referring particularly tol Fig. 5, shaft 4l yis
adapted to rotate within the aperture 59a formed
passages 42, 42’ and 43. An inlet tube 68 (Fig.
3) connects the ingoing passage 42 of each bank
through inlet valve 44 with circular inlet header
40; and an outlet tube 69 connects the outgoing
passage 43 of each bank through outlet valve 45
and circular outlet header 4|.
in the left hand or inlet end wall of the station
ary outer drum Se. The outlet end of shaft 4l
is provided with a circular header 4l surrounded
by another circular header 4e for a purpose to
Warm liquid such as water or other heat trans
fer medium, may be drawn from heat exchanger
i9 through warm liquid supply line 22 by liquid
circulating pump 39 to flexible pipe 22', detach-
be later described, which headers 4t and 4i are
rotatable along with shaft 4? within enlarged
aperture 55h provided in the inlet end wall of
outer drum 8a.
ably connected at 44' (Fig. 2) with a valve cou
pling communicating with circular inlet header
n" 4E. Another flexible pipe 23’ is detachably con
The freezing unit ß also includes a rotatable
nected at 45’ with a valve coupling of circular
outlet header 4l and leads to warm liquid return
line 23, also connected with heat exchanger I9.
The level of liquid in heat exchanger I9 may be
observed in sight glass 20.
The numeral I4’ in Figs. 1 and 6 indicates the
approximate level of liquid vrefrigerant in rotatable
multi-sided evaporator drum 8b during operation;
while the numeral 60’ indicates the approximate
Water level within the outer drum 8a of the freez
ing unit. Water is supplied to the drum 8a
through pipe 30 communicating with the main
water supply 3l, and the drum may be drained
at 32. The level 60' is preferably maintained by
multi-sided evaporator drum tb mounted on
shaft 47 within the outer drum iid; and the mul~
ti-sided evaporator drum 8b includes end walls
formed by outer plates 5l', inner plates 58’ and
intervening insulation material 59’. The side
walls of the multi-sided drum 8b are formed by
flat plates 47’. The polygonal cross sectional
shape of the multi-sided evaporator drum Bb'is
shown as being octagonal or eight sided, but the
polygon may have more or less sides if desired.
Each plate All' is formed with a number of
groups of holes 4Q, and hollow freezing tubes 4b
are connected to each plate 4l’ communicating
with each hole :i9 and project outwardly at right
angles to each plate 4‘5’ generally radially of
hollow shaft 4l.
an overflow opening 33.
The ice blocks which form on each group of
freezing tubes are diagrammatically indicated at
Referring particularly to Fig. '7, each freezing
in dot-dash lines, and may be removed in a
tube 4S may be mounted in any suitable manner
on the drum plates 4l’. As shown, the tubes 45
are preferably inserted in holes ‘iii and Welded to
the plates 4l’ as at t5. The outer end of each
manner to be hereinafter described by opening
air-tight hinged cover 3', whence> they may be
transferred to a place ofV storage, shipment or use
along chute 6i.
tube 46 may be closed in any suitable or conven
In operation, the cold liquid refrigerant, which
ient manner, as by threaded plugs 45’. The
may be ammonia or other refrigerant at the usual
freezingtubes 45 are shown as being and prefer (il) temperature of approximately 14° F. is introduced
ably are cylindrical tubes. l-lowever, if brine is
into the interior of the multi-sided drum 8by to
used as a secondary refrigerant as later ex
maintain a liquid refrigerant levelv i4’ approxi
plained, they may have any’other desired shape
mately as shown in Fig. 6. Water is maintained
in cross section, as for instance they may be
in the outer drum 3a at the approximate level 6G'.
square, rectangular-or oval in shape. Also,-the ' The multi-sided drum 3b is lrotated and during
tubes 45 may beslightly tapered. from their inner
rotation the banks of groups of freezing tubes 46
to their outer ends. Furthermore, the tubes 4t
on each flat drum wall 4l" successively dip down
are preferably made vof copper or brass for ob
into, pass through, and emerge from the water
taining the maximum rate of heat transfer
in the lower part of the outer drum 8a. Mean
_. through the walls thereof.
The flat drum walls 4l’ are provided at their
while, the liquid refrigeranty flows into and ñlls
outer faceswhere they meet the next adjacent
ñat drum wall 47' with longitudinal double chan
»nel members 66, and- with spaced peripherally
,extending channel membersr 6l'. Members S3
the interior of the freezing tubes 45 as each bank
of groups of tubes passes through the lower ap
proximate quarter arc of rotation of the multi
sided drum and as the banks> of groups swing
through the upper left hand quarter arc of rota
tion, the liquid refrigerant flows out of the freez
ing tubes and drains back into the interior of the
multi-sided drum, accompanied by evaporation
of some of the liquid refrigerant.
Thus, as any one freezing tube 4S completes
one revolution, the liquid refrigerant ñows or cir
culates in and out of the tube; and ideal condi
tions for a maximum rate of heat transfer are
place accompanied by some lowering in tempera
ture. However, gas pressure within the multi
sided drum 8b will be built up, because the gas
return line 28 is closed and no gas can leave the
interior of the drum. The result is that the liquid
refrigerant in drum 8b will reach a temperature
above freezingl
Meanwhile, rotation of the multi-sided drum
8b is continued and the warm refrigerant liquid
established because the liquid refrigerant is flow
ing and because the small streams thereof present 10 now contained therein, in circulating back and
forth through the freezing pipes 46, warms and
a relatively large liquid surface for evaporation.
gently thaws the ice immediately contacting the
As a result of these operations, a thin film of
outer surface of freezing tubes 4G.
ice commences to form around the outer surface
When such thawing operation has progressed
of each freezing tube 46, under ideal conditions of
to a sufficient degree, the rotation of the drum
heat transfer. As each tube 46 dips into the water
8b is stopped. One flat drum wall 41' and the
bath and emerges from the water, a further film
of water is carried out of the water bath on the
bank of blocks of ice 60 thereon are located op
posite to hinge cover 8’ of the outer drum 8a,
as shown in Fig. 6 when the drum is stopped.
The door 8a is then opened, and inlet and out
sided drum continues to rotate. Thus, the ice 20
let nexible pipes 22' and 23’ are connected re
freezes progressively outwardly from the surface
spectively at 44’ and 45' with the circular inlet
of each freezing tube 46 by the successive freez
and outlet headers 40 and 4I. Also inlet and out
ing of thin films of water on the outside of the
let valves 44 and 45 for the particular bank of ice
growing core or cylinder of ice.
blocks opposite door 8’ are opened. Circulation
Operation of the unit is continued until each
pump 39 is then started and the warm thawing
ice cylinder grows in size to meet the ice cylinder
liquid from heat exchanger i9 is circulated
on and fill out the space between adjacent freez
through pipe 22 and passages 42, 42’ and 43 for
ing tubes 4S of the group, to ñnally form a block
the particular bank, and back through pipe 23
of ice on each group of freezing tubes 46, sub
Vwhereby each ice block is warmed slowly and
stantially as shown in dot-dash lines at BD in Figs.
gently to thaw the ice film immediately around
5 and 6. The shallow projecting ledges around
the corner of the block adjacent the shallow rec
each group of freezing tubes 46 formed by mem
tangular projecting ledge formed by members 66
bers $5 and El, serve to segregate and separate
and El.
each block of ice from the next adjacent block of
When the contacting surfaces of the ice blocks
ice in each bank on one flat drum wall 4l" and to
with freezing tubes 46 and plates 41' have been
also segregate the blocks of each bank from the
sufñciently thawed, the blocks 60 are removed
blocks of the adjacent banks.
from the freezing tubes 4S through the door 28'
Meanwhile, the continuous movement of the
and may be handled down chute BI to a place
freezing tubes 4% through the bath of water serves
to agitate the water, with the result that no 40 of storage, use, or transportation.
Thereafter, the next bank of blocks is moved
minute air bubbles are contained within the thin
to a position opposite door 8' and. the thawing
nlm of water successively picked up by each freez
outer surface of the ice forming on each tube 46,>
which further film in turn freezes as the multi
:'ng tube 4E, Accordingly, cloudy ice is avoided
and clear ice is formed on the freezing tubes, elim
inating the necessity >of using special equipment
for removing entrained air from the water being
frozen, as is necessary in the common practice of
making ice.
Moreover, as impurities dissolved in water lower
its freezing point, the thin ñlm of ice formed on
each tube 46 during that part of its revolution
when above the water is washed by the water on
its immersion during the balance of the revolution
and the impurities rejected to the surface of the
nlm are washed off and concentrate in the water.
Vlïhen the impurities become so concentrated in
»the water as to exceed their solubilities the excess
impurities precipitate to the bottom of the water
operations just described are again carried out
to harvest the blocks of ice on the next bank of
the multi-sided drum 8b. These operations are
repeated until all of the blocks of ice have been
harvested, whereupon pump 39 is stopped, flexible
pipes 22' and 23' are disconnected, and a new
freezing cycle is commenced.
As previously stated, if the freezing tubes 46 are
slightly tapered, the thawing time for removing
or harvesting the ice blocks from the freezing
tubes will be shortened.
As indicated in the foregoing description, the
present invention enables the manufacture of
commercial ice blocks by using direct expansion
of the primary refrigerant and eliminates the
use of brine as an intermediate or secondary
cooling medium. However, it is to be understood
If desired, a sterilizing lamp may vbe mounted 60 that the other features and advantageous results
of the present invention (including rapid freez
within the outer drum 8a to sterilize the water
ing, elimination of separate aerating equipment,
therein and enable the formation of sterile ice.
purer ice formed, etc.) may be obtained, even
When the freezing of the ice blocks is completed,
though a brine or secondary refrigerant system
the expansion valve I4 is closed, the compressor
H is stopped, and valve 28’ is closed. Gate valve 65 is used in which the primary refrigerant is ex
panded to cool the brine and the brine is then
in by-pass line I3’ is then opened up wide per
passed into and circulates within the interior of
mitting a relatively large volume of warm refrig
the multi-sided drum 8b and the freezing tubes
erant liquid to flow by gravity from receiving tank
46. In event that brine is used, the liquid level
34 into the interior of multi-sided drum 8b. The
of the brine refrigerant within the multi-sided y
liquid refrigerant in receiving drum 34 is nor
drum would have to cover tube 41 so that the
mally at a temperature of between 8O to 100° F.,
outgoing brine would flow out of the multi-sided
and as it flows into the interior of the multi-sided
drum 8b, it will warm the liquid refrigerant there
While the spacing of the tubes of each group
in and in turn be cooled by the cold liquid refrig
is not critical, the tube spacing is important from
erant therein. Some evaporation will also take
2,405,272 _
the standpoint> of productiomor rate at which it
is desired to produce ice. Obviously, the closer
freezing ~equipment without substantial power
loss,`_and where a freezing cycle for freezing the
the freezing tubes 46 are to each other, the» more
ordinary'300 pounds commercial ice blocks is
tons of ice per day can be produced in a. unit .of
approximately forty-two hours with 14° F. brine.
given size. However, the spacing must not be 5
It is pointed out that the ability to conñne
too close, because the ratio of hole volume to ice
primary direct expansion refrigerant within `the
in any- block produced may be too high‘for some
particular use for the ice.
The presence of the holes in the ice, where the
freezing tubes 146 werelocated during formation
of the ice blocks', does> not detract in any man
ner from the usefulness of the ice, and in fact '
it may be beneficial in connection with certain
uses for the ice. Thus, a great deal of ice is used
in >relatively small vquantities at isolated places,
such-as for Ypacking and shipping ñsh and vege
tables.y In suchA instances, the ice is usually
multi-sided drum, the ability to use small round
freezing tubes with thin walls which will with
stand the internal pressure of the eXpansible
refrigerant, and the ability to use the liquid re
frigerant under different conditions of tempera
ture and pressure for both freezing and suf
iicie'nt. thawing >to release the formed ice blocks;
enables the use of direct expansion of a primary
refrigerant in the manufacture of commercial ice
blocks, which has heretofore been believed and
considered impossible.
crushed or broken up in small pieces and the pres
ence of the holes in the ice blocks will assist in
Accordingly, the present invention provides for
-the manufacture of commercial ice blocks using
enabling the ice to bereadily crushed or chipped. 20 direct expansion of the primary refrigerant;
If the tubes are spaced, say two inches apart,
four times as much ice per day can be made
in the same unit under the same conditions as
could be made if the freezing tube spacing were
four inches apart.
provides for the rapid manufacture of commer
cial ice blocks with a relatively small capital in
vestment; provides for the economical manufac
ture of commercial ice blocks in small plants at
This is because the rate of 25 or near to the place of ultimate use of the ice,
or in portable or mobile units; provides for the
the thickness of ice frozen.
manufacture of ice blocks of any desired or se
Accordingly, the production desired` from any
lected weight for any one installation; eliminates
particular unit and the frequency with which the
the necessity of using ice cans and attendant
ice may be harvested, determines to a large ex 30 crane, circulating tank, compressed air, thawing,
tent, the spacing between the freezing tubes.
and core processing equipment and the like; pro
With any given spacing of freezing tubes, the size
vides for the manufacture of very pure ice free of
of the block of ice formed in a given time by any
air cells and foreign substances without auxil
group of tubes may be increased simply by in
iary equipment for eliminating air and foreign
creasing the number of tubes in the group while
substances; provides for the intermittent manu
maintaining the same spacing,
facture of commercial ice b-locks without substan
'The freezing tubes 46 are preferably cylindri
tial power loss during shut-down periods; and
cal tubes in order to provide the necessary
eliminates much of the equipment, labor atten
strength to withstand the pressure of direct ex
tion, power, and overhead required for the manu
pansion refrigerating medium introduced within 40 facture of ice in accordance with common or con
the tubes for freezing successive tubular ice films
ventional practice.
thereon. These tubes may be approximately 35"
The new and improved apparatus for the
long where it is desired to form a standard block
of ice shown and described, but not
of ice, although the tube length may be much
claimed herein, is claimed in my copending ap
shorter, say 8" to 10" in length if it is desired 45 plication entitled “Ice manufacturing appa
to form ice blocks of other sizes.
ratus,” filed of even date herewith, Serial No.
The tubes may have an internal diameter of
from M3” to 1”; tubes having a 1/2” internal di
Having now described the features of the in
ameter being preferable. The tube wall should
the preferred steps used in carrying out
be as thin as possible for the particular metal 50
the improved method, the advantages and re
from which it is formed in order to cut down
sults obtained by the use of .the same, and the
power loss, but the tube wall must be thick enough
prior art dili'iculties eliminated; the new and use
to supply the necessary strength for resisting
ful methods, steps, and operations, and reason
pressure. I have found that 1/2" internal diam
able mechanical equivalents thereof obvious to
eter tubes with a TLS" wall thickness 35” long 55 those skilled in the art, are set forth in the ap
and spaced 2" apart are preferable in the ordi
pended claims.
nary installation’for rapidly making commercial
I claim:
ice blocks. In every instance, the tubes having
1. The method of making an ice block which
freezing is inversely proportional to the square of
dimensions within the approximate ranges speci
ñed may be characterized as “slender” or “fin
ger-like” tubes because of their relatively small
diameter with respect to their length; and the
includes the steps of intermittently during the
60 freezing operation immersing a group of spaced
parallel tubular bodies in a bath of water, in
ternally refrigerating the bodies, to freeze the
tube arrangement or grouping may be termed
water to form ice entirely around the exterior of
a porcupine arrangement.
each body progressively outward from the outer
It will be further understood that the improved 65 surface of each body until the ice formed on the
freezing apparatus may be operated in accord
group of bodies merges into one block.
ance with the present invention, for say eight or
2. The method of making an ice block which
twelve or sixteen hours a day to produce the de
includes the steps of intermittently during the
sired quantity of ice, and the unit may be shut
freezing operation immersing a tubular body in
down for the remaining time of a twenty-four 70 a bath of water to provide successive films of
hour period or over week-ends without substan
tial power loss during the shut-down period, in
contrast with the normal operation of commer
, water entirely around the exterior thereof, in
troducing liquid refrigerant at a temperature be
low 32° F. internally of the body to freeze suc
cial ice plants in accordance with conventional
cessive tubular ice ñlms from the successive wa
practice, where it is difficult to shut down .-the 75 ter ñlms between successive immersions until a
desired blockof ice is formed entirely around the
exterior of the tubular body, then introducing
liquid refrigerant at a temperature above 32° F.
internally of the body to thaw the ice film adja
4.»The method of- making an ice-block which
includes the steps of intermittently during the
freezing operation immersing a_ group of spaced
parailei tubular bodies inV a bath 'of Water to
provide successive ñlms of Water entirely'around
the exterior thereof, introducing liquid refrig
era-nt at a temperature below 32° F. internally
cent the outer surface of the body, and then re
moving the ice block from the body.
3. The method of making an ice block which
of the tubular bodies to freeze successive tubular
includes the steps of continuously moving a
ice ñlms from the successive Water films between
group of spaced parallel tubular bodies in a cir
successive immersions until a desired block of
zcular path into and out of a bath of Water to
ice is formed entirely around the exterior'of the
>provide successive films of water entirely around
tubular bodies, then introducing liquid refrig
the exteriors of the tubular bodies and internal
erant at a temperature above 32° F. internally of
lly refrigerating the tubular bodies to freeze the
the tubular bodies to thaw the ice film adjacent
films of water to form ice entirely around the ex
terior of each tubular body until the ice formed 15 the outer surfaces of the tubular bodies and then
removing the ice block from the tubular bodies.
ron the group of tubular bodies merges into one
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