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Патент USA US2405278

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2,405,278
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
UNI-rec STATES PATENT“). OFFICE
FERROALLOY BRIQUETTE AND MANUFAC
TUBE OF SAME
Galbert L. Vance, Zanesville, Ohio, assignor'to
Ohio Ferro-Alloys Corporation, Canton, Ohio, a
corporation of Ohio
No Drawing. Application December 11, 1943,
Serial No. 513,953
7 Claims.
1
s
‘
-
(01. 75—44)
2
Y
The invention relates to briquettes of metals or
ferro alloys for use as additions, deoxidizers, and
the like, in the making of iron and steel, as Well
as to the manufacture of such briquettes. .
Another object is the formation of a, briquette
of such metalliferousproducts bound together
with pitch or tar under extreme pressure.
A still further object is to provide a method of
It is customary in the manufacture of iron and
steel to make additions of various metals or ferro
alloys such as chromium, silicon, manganese,
producing a briquette of this character by mixing
ferro alloy material with a small amount of hot
pitch or tar and subjecting the same to a suitable
phosphorus, and the like, to the charge or melt,
pressure to form a briquette.
Still another object of the invention is the pro
In order to producethe desired results it is 10 vision of a ferro-alloy briquette for use as a fur
nace addition, which comprises ferro~alloy frag
necessary that a de?nite quantity of the desired
ments bound together into a briquette with a
metal product or ferro alloy be added to the
binder of‘ tar or pitch which is reinforced by small
charge or melt and it is therefore necessary that
paper strips, leather shavings or the like, so that
each piece or lump of the metal or ferro alloy
the briquette may withstand rough handling at
addition will have a de?nite metallic content.
To this end it has long been common practice
The above objects, together with others appar
to form briquettes of a de?nite known weight of
the desired metal or ferro alloy, in ?nely divided
ent to those skilled in the art, or which may be
later referred to, may be attained-by carrying out
form, mixed with a binder such as Portland ce
ment, clay, lime or similar materia1.~
20 the invention in the manner hereinafter described
either as alloys or deoxidizers.
low
temperatures.
‘
.
‘
.
.
.
in» detail.
"
' \
The use of. pitch, tar, or a mixture thereof, as
a binder in the production of briquettes of various
‘In carrying out the invention to produce the
' briquettes from any desired ferro alloy such as
materials is not new, but to the best of my knowl
edge neither. of these .m'aterials has ever been
' silicon, manganese, chromium, phosphorus, or the
actually'used as a binderfor briquettesof metals 25 like, the desired alloy or alloys mayv be in small
or ferro alloys that are subjected to temperatures
pieces, or in ?nely divided condition, or a mixture
higher than the melting or fusion point of the
of the two. To this I add a small amount, usual
ly about 3 to 5 per cent by weight of pitch or tar
pitch ortar, and it has been generally believed by
or a mixture of the two, preferably having a high
the steel industry that pitch or ‘tar. do not form
‘ ,
'
I
suitable binding agents for such use because .of 30 melting point, and preferably hot.
the erroneous belief that they would immediately
burn away in the furnace Permitting the bri
quettes to disintegrate and exposing the readily
oxidizable alloys to the oxidizing ?amesvv of the
The ferro alloy and binder are intermixed and
may be placed in a mold, of suitable size and shape
to produce the briquette desired and subjectedto
extreme pressure, preferably about two tons per
furnace so that they are lost intwhole or at‘ least 35 square inch or the briquette may be formed in
part.
:
'
f
>
,
an extruding press with less pressure.
As an example of the erroneous belief that pitch
Briquettes made in this manner have su?icient
or tar is not a suitable binder for ferro alloy bri
strength ,to withstand severe abuse at normal,
in
and at even higher, handling and transportation
quettes attention is‘called to‘ Greiner PatentNo.
1,551,554 of September 1, 1925, for av Process for 40 temperatures. However, at temperatures well
smelting iron alloys.
,
. '
below freezing such briquettes may lose a portion
‘Pitch or tar were not regarded‘ as suitable ma
of their strength.
terials for binding ferro-alloy briquettes as it was ’
1 Therefore, in cases where severe abuse is called
believed that they wouldimmediately burn ‘away
in the furnace and thus would not protect the al
for‘ at low'temperatures the briquettes can be
loys against the hot air in the furnace.
_
I have found by actual experience however that
such theories were erroneousand that. pitch or
tar is not only a suitable binding agent but that
briquettes of a mixture of ferro-alloy fragments
and pitch or tar, formed under su?icient pressure,
give very satisfactory results.
It is therefore the object of the present inven
tion to provide a briquette for furnace additions
reinforced by incorporating small strips of heavy
paper such as wrapping paper,>leatherrshavings,
or the like, during the binding or briquette form
ing stage. .Thesestrips of paper or leather act
like reinforcing rods in a concrete structure and
suf?ciently strengthen the briquettes to permit
rough handling of the same at temperatures well
below
freezing.
-
>
~
1
'
Actual commercial tests" of the ferro‘ alloy
quettes described herein were made under vary
55
composed of one or more ferro alloys in ?nely. .
ing conditions to determine the silicon recovery
divided condition bound together by pitch or tar
as" compared to the silicon recoveryfrom stand
or a mixture thereof.
'
‘
ard silvery iron.v These tests are as follows: ,
2,405,278
3
4
EXAMPLE No. l
EXAMPLE No. 3
Cupolaj72fv’; using l'l-ounce pressure; opera
Cupola 48”_—blast pressure 9 ounces .
.
.
~
. ..
.
.
tlon
eight
.hours
w1th. a continuous
stream of
metal from the cupola.
2.8lbs. Si added
The test covers three 5
days’ operation and on the second day ferro-y
.
. a . 1
..
.
- 40 lbs.
Regular charge
10 1,500 lbs.
100 $8.s. 11111;etul'n
ironscrap
2.55%1. gizyué
_____
0
i_
gig-1E3.
g1
.
s. 1
__ 12501118. 81
—
1,000 lbs-
p
7
-
1. 45% s1
1- 57% Si
~
A30;lbs. Briquettes(OFA)46.5‘7 s1 _____ __
1 98,7 S. 15
a
‘
Bnquette charge
1.471b5' Si
13.95 lbs. 81
40 lbs. Spiegel iron 1.23% s1._.f7________ __
.4911). 81
3801bs. Return scrap 1.50% Si __________ _-
5. 70 lbs. Si
1,500Ibs.
'I‘otal _____________________ __ 21. 51 lbs. s1
2.551115. 81
240018.81
'
20
20.11 lbs. 81
_.
1,40% 81
~__.
1 52% S1
- 745 '- lb's; Purchased scrap ‘1.70% Si.
1. 12.67 lbs. S1
5.5 lbs. Briquettes 116.5% Si ____________ _. 2.55 lbs. _S1
.
~
1,0501b5_ Steel-Scrap 014% Si _____________ __
-
'
1,000.51bs.
S1
’
Emmett‘? "on Charge
.
19-811“ S‘
100 lberig iron 2.557 s1__>_.
150 lbs. Return scrap i802; s1
.
4_
Total ..................... -- 21 05
.
151135‘ sllvery “on 15‘75% 8‘ ---------- '7..- 2L36 lbs‘ s}
——
"
.54
Splegel lI‘GD 1.23% S1___
3151“ Return map 150% Si __________ __
735 lbs. Purchased 80181115021. s1
.127
.95lbs- S11Yery_1ron15-75% $1.
.
iron on the basis of contamed slhcon.
150
_'i__;
11,050“ steels...” 1.11mi ______________ __ 1,471,]. 8;
silicon briquettes were substituted for silvery
.
p er'toninthe ladle=.12
Silvery iron charge
_‘
Test NO-
Sicharge
Analysis
0111211192188
1 2111% S1
0
Si
22
a. 11
1.50
$8
‘ 5
8
P
M11
Per ce’ntrsilicon in ladle metal
.
.
.
Re‘v ‘ al-
i , Tune 01 test
chg‘rlée
________________________ _.
_
.
Silvery ______ -.
Bri uette
ch‘iuge
Re
SB1111iquettes-___
‘ VerY<-'~—'-~-
ar
Chg];
Briquettes__-.
.~ 1.80
1.88
1.83
1, 10
1.81
r 1. 1;
.-_.._::::::::::::"
it?
i351’
1:36 30
_______________________ _-
1. 83
1.80
1.98
________ __
'
.
_.
.,
_
I,
_,
3.08
p
84
1‘. 40
.068
090
.82
V
5. 8.1.’
EXAMPLE No. 2
.
22
Tensile
Test“
__________ ..
51 1'1. 241 '07
.012 099
108 "89
.84
Transverse
Memo.“
2. 123 ------ “8"15‘
,0
44,000
2,835
.330
.279
50,890
.391
3,005
.\ jcufpola melting 16 tons per hour made four 35
test runs‘ as' follows: Tesjts?h” and ‘_‘C” with
silvery iron and f‘B” and V“_D” ‘replacing silvery
The above tests prove that recovery of silicon
from the product made according to this inven
iron ‘with fe'rroésilicon briquettes as “described
tion successfully meet the requirements for a
above. Two types of iron were made each day
ferro-alloy briquette for use in the cupola.
‘111101118’ Tcharges useewere as follows:
' ‘
40
In actual use when ferro alloy ‘briquettes made
, l
,
,
v
in
Po?nds .Regmar . Pounds
_ -.,Si1WY.imn .
.mix,
s1 .
mix, lbs.
81
_‘
1,025
‘Returns 612.10%) ~ 0 .1 1,820
21; 10
Steel scrap (Si_().15
. 75
0,10 .
-
.
rsilvery 1118(S110-47%)--___- “.80
.
1,025
“910
61 23
_
p
7
I
co es and contmues to
as desired.
,
V
S1
_ “11X, 113-
scrap
16011
“6
8
orm
7g
.
1,025
29.20
5
;'
q
1,042
(1x15
422
‘
4
T°Pa1 -------------- -“ i
{25.10
1, 802
ol?zdfuui-
1'1
(m
or steel making additions which consistsin mix
S1
ing ferro-alloy fragments with a binder taken
55 from a group consisting of tar and pitch in
Bessemer pig (Si 2.45%)..._ 1,025
1
'
7
1. The method of making a. briquette for iron
7
-
0d the brlquette to
until they are melted, alloyed, combined 01‘ used
.50
_' iron“ 118001108 ‘Regular Pounds
Returns (s12.10%)___..____
2,500
__
62-41
25.10
21.00
r
"
fzorporatmg. Small Stnps 0f.remforcm.g matelflal
mto the mixture and forming the mixture into
a briquette‘
.
,
2,500
' '
.
.
A
B
o
'1)
Sample #1 Sample #2 Sample #1 Sample #2 Sample #1 Sample #2 Sample #1 Sample #2
Transverse-.-
.
2.32
8-60
‘22,930
.
8,.
1.11
.
2.82
3.33
.
30,090
. 4,300
De?ection (in
.
. 188
.. 183
Brinnel _ _ _ _ _ _
. . . __
140
8-191
- 1.88
2.31
I 1.00
‘ 2.31
#202
a. 55
3.39
3.56
3.41
3.65
"25,050
29,110
23,380
20, 800
v11, 550
20, 850
.~a,480
4,090.
. 100
~
‘
I
-.
_
ing ferro-alloy fragments with-a binder‘ taken
~Test
Totalcarbon...
.
55-63 60 or steel making additionswhich consists in' mix
Analysis of heats
'Tensile, p. s. 1
‘
2. The method of making a brlquette for non
'
'..Si_l_i0011-,per cent _______ ._
a
gether protecting the readily oxidizable alloys
54,51
»
“soft,
Silicon briquettes
into
o kp m tt g t. e bnq at}??? to d S,nt.egrate’ but
.Ma
I claim:
H
charged
45 noted but the pitch or tar binder does not burn
10
if er i in
h 1 ‘ u
i 1
. .8-38
2,500
r
p
20:40
425
3-3.3. .. 1.139..
Tom] ______________ __ ' 2-500
»
are
?ame, some burning of Volatile gases will be
‘
,
Bessemer-pig (Si 2.457)."
-
manner described
lime or ladle, in either an oxidizing or reducing
lbs.
~
the
cupola, or into a bath of molten metal in a fur
‘163
.
"119'
.
3,920
. 10
150
4,010 .
8.55,
2,020
4,210
,200
. 112
;,119
‘110
131
187
2,405,278
5
from a group consisting of tar and pitch in
corporating small strips of paper into the mix
ture, and forming the mixture into a briquette.
.3. The method of making a briquette for iron
or steel making additions which consists in mix
ing ‘ferro-alloy fragments with a binder taken
from a group consisting of tar and pitch in
corporating leather shavings into the mixture
6
5. A briquette for iron or steel'making addi
tions composed of ferro-alloy fragments and a
binder taken from a group consisting of tar and ' '
pitch and small strips of reinforcing material
incorporated in the briquette.
6. A briquette for iron or steel making addi
tions composed of ferro-alloy fragments and a
binder taken from a group consisting of tar and
pitch and. smallstrips of paper incorporated in
and forming the mixture into a briquette.
.
4. The method of making a briquette for iron 10 the Ibriquette.
'7. A briquette for iron or steel making addi
or steel making additions which consists in mix
tions composed of ferro-alloy fragments and a
ing ferro-alloy fragments with a binder of hot,
high melting point pitch incorporating small
' binder taken from a group consisting of tar and
{pitch and leather shavings incorporated in the
strips of reinforcing material into the mixture
.
and applying suitable pressure to form the mix 15 ?oriquette.
CALBERT L. VANCE.
ture into a briquette.
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