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Патент USA US2405289

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6, 1946.
a... CARDWELL
‘
2,405,28g
RETAINING WALL
Filed Ma'rch 7,’ 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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, 146,
L- CARDWELL
2,405,239
RETAINING WALL
’ Filed March 7, 1945
s Sheets-Sheet 2
'
L. CARDWELL
2,405,289 ‘
RETAINING WALL
_ Filed March 7, 1945
> 3 Sheets-Sheet 3
jiofd- lléra/we/l
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,289
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,289‘ .
RETAINING WALL
'
1
Lloyd Cardwell, Oak Park, Ill.
Application March 7, 1945, Serial No. 581,429
.
,
,.
11 Claims.
l
(Cl. 61-39)
,
Attempts to devise retaining walls made of
metal have run to complications, unnecessary
weight, and multiple fastenings to such an ex~
tent as to fairly defeat the purpose because of
the cost of manufacture, the cost of shipping
and handling, and the cost of erecting.
The principal object of this invention is to
overcome the inherent objections to prior con
Y
>
2
,
ing side ?anges l3.v In assembling, they are
placed back to back, as shown in Fig. 3, with their
?anges l3 projecting in opposite directions along
the line of the wall.
- I
.
The back member II has its side portions
turned into hook-shaped ?anges it, which re
ceive, interlock with, and make fast the rear
?anges it of the two side members I 2.
structions; and, generally speaking, this is ac
The front member 10 has its sides turned to
complished by making the columns of readily 10 form
similar ?anges I 5, which in like manner
formed,'interlocking members interlocked with a
readily formed stringers and top members, all of
receive, interlock, and make fast the front ?anges
i3 of the two side members l2. This assembly is
made by sliding the respective parts endwise
with respect to those with which they are to be
ings.
16 interlocked.
In the drawings, illustrating the preferred em
Each stringer B, as appears most clearly in
bodiment of the invention:
Fig. 2, has a top ?ange l6 and a bottom ?ange
Fig. 1 is a front elevation of a portion of the
I1 substantially horizontal. Adjacent to these
retaining wall;
'
which are light, strong, easily assembled on the
site and made fast by a few simple, handy fasten
Fig. 2 is a vertical section taken on the line
?anges are a top flat portion l8 and a bottom
?at portion l9 at the-front of each stringer. Be
2—2 of Fig. 1;
tween those portions and at the back of each
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section taken on the line
stringer is a third?at portion 20 connected to
s_3 of Fig. 1;
the portions l8 and I9 by inclined portions 2|,
Fig. 4 is a somewhat diagrammatic section il
here shown as at 45 degrees with respect to them.
lustrating the general arrangement of the re 25 Thus each stringer B is a ?at plate forming a
taining wall, the anchor system, and the fill to
longitudinal channel, the channel having a bot
be retained;
tom 20 and two inclined sides 2 I.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of portions of the
' In assembly with adjacent columns, the ends
column members and the top members slightly
of the stringers are brought into the relation
displaced to indicate their relations in assem 30 shown best in'Fig. 3, where end portions, marked
bling;
_
generally 22, of adjacent stringers are shown in
Fig. 6 is a similar view of portions of the bottom
the channel spaces 23 of the columns and resting
of the column members;
against the ?anges IE on the front column mem
Fig. 7 is a section on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2,
ber.
showing the single fastening between column
The stringers are made fast in this position by
members, top members, and anchor systems;
cutting away or recessing'each ?at portion 20
Fig. 8 is an elevation of an end of a stringer;
adjacent to the end of the stringer preferably to
Fig-9 is a slight modi?cation of one of the
form a slot 24 through which projects an arm or
arms on the front column members; and
tongue 25 formed by an intermediate portion of
' Fig. 10 is a modi?ed form of wedge key used 40
the metal'otherwise used ‘to form the ?anges l5,
with the arms shown in Fig. 9 to make the
and a key 26, shown as wedge shaped, is insert
stringers fast.
’ But these particular drawings and the speci?c
description hereafter made are used for the pur
pose of disclosure only, and are not intended to
impose unnecessary limitations on the claims.
Referring to Fig. 1, it will appear that the re-'
taining wall is made of columns generally indi
cated by A, with stringers generally indicated by
B, and top members generally indicated by C ex 50
tending between adjacent columns.
‘
Referring to Figs. 3 and 5, it will be seen that
each column A includes a front member Ill, a
back member II, and two side members [2. The
ed through an opening 21 in that portion of the
arm 25 that passes through the stringer toward
the inside of the retaining wall.
The arms 25 are inherently somewhat yielding
and, the parts of the wall being somewhat free
to move, there is no dif?culty in getting the
stringers into the position shown with the arms
25 projecting through the slots 24.
The width of the channels 23 in the post and
the length'to which the stringers extend into it
is a variable depending on design. They will have
to be such as to permit the stringers to be assem
bled in the channels and-on the arms 24. In
side members are of general channel form hav-v 55 some instances,‘ it willbe necessary to tilt the
2,405,289
3
The number of stringers between adjacent col
umns is a matter of choice as well as the form of
them.
As illustrated, they are in what may be
called corrugated form, which gives considerable
strength'for relatively thin gauge material. The
particular arrangement of the portionsv of the
10 some, for reasons of their own,'will wish to assem
stringers gives a pleasing appearance in addition
to the strength. Designers will vary these things
ble these parts on the job because they may see
_ some advantage in shipping the column parts in
nested packages somewhat like the panels and
topmembers will form.
to suit particular conditions and personal prefer‘
I claim:
1. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each
ence without departing from the spirit of the 15
invention.
..
~
~
including ?anged front, back, and side members
'
As a ?nish and a protection at the top. there
is a top member C extending between adjacent
columns. It includes a flat portion 28, sloping
?anges 29, and vertical flanges 30, giving the top
’ with adjacent ?anges interlocked, corrugated
member a form consistent with and blending into'
‘ the appearance given by the stringers and col
umns. -At each end, the top member 28 has a
down turned ?ange 3|, which is received in a
pocket 32 in the adjacent side member 12 of the
column formed by a slight offset-ting of the upper
portion of the web. . (See Fig, 5.)
As appears from Fig. 2, the flanges 30 of the
top member ?t down on each side of the columns
and overlap the topmost stringers B.
The top members in the columns may be se
cured together in a variety of ways, but, consistent
with the simple scheme of construction, it is pre
ferred to make them fast by a single bolt or rivet,
which is also used to fasten the anchor system 35
or guy.
4
the stringers is indicated in Figs. 9 and 10, where
the arms 250 are shown provided with curved
slots 240 to receive curved keys 260, made by cut
ting a section of cylindrical forms, as indicated
in Fig. 10.
Preferably, the columns will be assembled at
the factory where, with the aid of presses and
such like, the parts can be put together with the
interlocking ?anges tightly ?tted. ’ But, of course,
stringers relative to the post, or, in the case of
an end post, to turn the post.
When the keys 2B are entered and driven home,
they make a tight, springy sort of connection
between the stringers and the columns.
7
As shown in Figs. 2 and 4, the anchor system
includes anearth anchor 33 of frusto-conical
shape having an axial opening to receive arod
stringers between and overlapping adjacent col
umns, means to fasten the stringers to the col
umns, top members between adjacent columns
having ?anges overlapping column members, a
guy, and a single fastener securing adjacent top
members and column members and guy together.
2. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each
having a rearwardly directed face and each hav
ing a plurality of vertically spaced arms extend
ing rearwardly of said face, a plurality of string
ers extending between each pair of consecutive
columns, each of said stringers abutting said rear
_Wardly presented faces of the columns and being
cut away to clear said arms, and means rearward
of said stringers acting between said arms and
said stringers to secure the stringers to the
columns.
3. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each
having a rearwardly directed face and each hav
ing a plurality of vertically spaced arms extend
ing rearwardly of said face, a plurality of stringers
34 made fast by a nut 35 on the inside, of the" 40 extending between each pair of consecutive col
umns, each of said stringers at its ends abutting
anchor. The rod 34 is connected to another rod
said rearwardly presented faces of the columns
36 by a turn buckle 31 by means of which the
and being recessed to receive said arms, and key
anchor system can be put under appropriate ten
means engaging said arms and abutting said
sion and adjusted. The rod 36, has an eye 38
stringers from the rear to retain the stringers
receiving a shackle or clevis 319 including a bolt
48, (Figs. 2 and 7), which preferably not only
completes the fastening of the anchor system to
the wall‘ but passes through the flanges 3| von top
members C, the webs of the side column mem
bers I42, and the arms of the clevis 39, and makes
the whole fast. The bolt 40 is then made fast by
a cotter M or any other suitable expedient.
Each column is provided with a relatively large‘
base plate 42, shown here as a rectangular sheet
having a slot 43 in the middle to, receive perfo
rated projections 44 at the bottom of the webs
of the side column members l2. The base plate
is made fast to the columns by a key 45 passed
‘ in place.
,
4. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each
having a rearwardly directed face and each hav
ing a plurality of vertically spaced arms extend
ing rearwardly of said face, said arms having
apertures, a plurality of stringers extending be
tween each pair of consecutive columns, each of
said stringers at its ends abutting said rearwardly
presented faces of the columns and being recessed
to receive said arms, and tapered keys wedged
into said arm apertures against the rear surfaces
of said stringers to secure the stringers in place.
5.,In a retaining wall, spaced columns and a
plurality of stringers extending between each
the projections 44. The key is preferably wedge 60 successive pair of said columns, each of said
stringers forming a longitudinal channel with
shaped. in order to be self securing when driven
through the perforation or opening 46 in each’ of
into place.
From the foregoing, taken in connection with
the drawings, it will be apparent that the wall is
made up of simple forms that may be readily
pressed out of galvanized sheet metal or the like
in which the stringers rest upon each other and
extend between adjacent columns with easily in
serted fastenings holding them yieldingly in place
until the earth makes them?nally fast, while the
top members ?nish off. the upper portion of the
wall andthe preferably single bolt makes them
fast to the columns, at the same time securing
the upper end of the guy or ‘anchor system.
A‘ slight variation in the wedge fastening for
side walls, said columns having rearwardly pre
sented faces abutted by the forward surfaces of
‘said stringers and having tongues extending
.- rearward into said channels to the rear of the
stringers, the bottoms of said channels being cut
away to clear said tongues, and key means en
gaging said tongues and abutting said stringers
from the rear to hold the stringers in place.
6. In a retaining wall, spaced columns and a
plurality of stringers interconnecting said col
umns, each of said stringers forming a longitu
dinal channel with convergent side walls, said
having rearwardly presented faces
abutted by the forward surfaces of said stringers
’ columns
2,405,289
and having tongues extending rearward into
said channels to the rear of the stringers, the
bottoms of said channels being cut away to clear
said tongues, said tongues having convergent
edges abutting said channel side walls, and means
engaging said tongues and engaging said stringers
from the rear to hold the stringers in place.
6
members in each of said columns, each of said
front column members having ?anged marginal
portions for holding column members in assem
bled relationship, each of said front column
members also having a plurality of spaced mar
ginal portions in the form of rearwardly extend
ing tongues, a plurality of stringers extending
7. In a retaining wall, spaced columns and
between each pair of consecutive columns, each
stringers interconnecting said columns, each 'of
said stringers ‘forming a longitudinal channel 10 of said stringers having a forward surface at
each end abutting the columns, each of said
with convergent side walls and a bottom wall,
stringers having an aperture at each end to re
said columns having rearwardly presented faces
ceive said tongues, and tapered keys extending
abutted by the forward surfaces of said stringers
through said tongues rearward of said stringers ,
and having tongues extending rearward into said
to hold the stringers in place.
channels, the bottom walls of said channels hav 15
10. In a retaining wall, groups of column mem
ing slots to receive said tongues, said tongues
bers having lateral ?anges for interengagement 1
having apertures rearward of said stringers, and
whereby the members of the groups may be as
key means extending through said tongue aper
sembled into interlocked column units by relative
tures rearward of the stringers to hold the
longitudinal movement, at least one column
stringers in place.
8. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each 20 member in each group having a plurality of arms,
plurality of stringer members having apertures
comprising a plurality of column members, a
near their ends to receive said arms with the
front column member included in said column
ends of the arms extending to the rear of the
members in each of said columns, each of said
stringer members and the ends of the stringer
front column members having ?anged marginal
portions for holding the column members in as 25 members abutting assembled columns, and means
to engage said arms rearward of the stringer
sembled relationship, each of said front column
members to hold the stringer members in place.
members also having a plurality of spaced mar
11. In a retaining Wall, groups of column mem
ginal portions in the form of rearwardly extend~
bers having lateral flanges for interengagement
ing tongues, a plurality of stringers extending
between each pair of consecutive columns, each 30 whereby the members of the groups may be as
sembled into interlocked column units by relative
of said stringers having a forward surface at
longitudinal movement, a plurality of stringer
each end abutting the columns, each of said
members interconnecting said column units, top
stringers having an aperture to receive said
tongues, and means engaging said tongues and 35 members between adjacent column units, and
means having the dual function of locking column
engaging said stringers from the rear to hold the
members in each assembled column unit against
stringers in place.
relative longitudinal movement and connecting
9. In a retaining wall, spaced columns each
the ends of top members to the column unit.
comprising a plurality of column members, .a
front column member included in said column 40
LLOYD CARDWELL,
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