Патент USA US2405307код для вставки
All@ @E - w. H. HUTTER -PHoNoGRAPH NEEDLE Filed òct. 2s, 1943 2,4%„307` Patented Àug'. 6, 1946 2,405,307 UNITED STATES PATENT-orner. 2,405,307 rHoNoGRAPH NEEDLE William H. Hutter, Chicago, Ill. Application october 23, 1943, Serial No. 507,354 8 Claims. (o1. 274-38) " 2 1 My invention relates generally to phonograph needles and in particular to a phonograph needle which possesses a very high reproduction fidelity and long life, and which minimizes record wear. Although it has always been an object of those concerned with the development of the phono graph and the record reproducing art to provide a phonograph needle having the above character istics, so far as I am aware, all currently used because they are flexible in one direction, that is, in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the flattened portion. But as this flattened portion is always perpendicular to the surface of the record, there is no vertical flexibility inherent in such a needle. When it is realized that there is a tremendous pressure applied to the tip of a needle, it will be appreciated that rapid wear will result unless needles incorporate compromises. In general, lit some means is provided to ease the pressure when tle attempt has been made to save the record from wear when long needle life or high fidelity was desired, because it has been thought that the the record tends to cause rapid vertical changes in the position of the pickup. Ordinarily, a pho nograph needle used with a two ounce pickup im poses a load of approximately thirty-one thous characteristics of long needle life and high fidel-ity were incompatible with long record life, and that one must be sacrificed to gain the other. Under ordinary circumstances of record usage it is desirable to have both the record and the needle last as long as possible while retaining a high degree of reproduction fidelity. So far as I and pounds per square inch upon a record sur face. It is apparent, therefore, that some relative wear between the needle and record must be ex pected. In order to introduce flexibility inv all planes, so as to protect the record against up and down as Well as lateral shocks, some needles have to the same degree as the needle forming the sub been developed which are flexible in all directions, but in all of these prior art needles with which I am familiar, a shoulder has been provided be ject of the present invention. As an example, all hard tip needles that I have tested, capable of the needle, and this shoulder filters out the high am aware, however, no needles presently obtain able incorporate these desirable characteristics playing from one thousand to four thousand rec ords, seriouslyr affect the fidelity of records in from fifty to one hundred plays, while under ac tual conditions my improved needle plays the same record ñfteen hundred times before the ii delity of the record is affected. « tween the flexible portion and the stiff portion of tones and destroys the fidelity of reproduction. My improved phonograph needle provides for flexibility in all directions, while at the same time retaining fidelity of reproduction to a greater ex 30 tent than any prior needles with which I am acquainted. Still another’problem is caused by the fact that Up to the present time it has been thought that a record groove does not have a constant width, for a phonograph needle to have high fidelity but at those points where the groove makes a characteristics it must necessarily be very stiff and hard. This belief is based upon the desire to 35 sharp angle relative to the radius of the record, the transverse dimension is less, and thus, there avoid needle resonance, one of the primary causes is a pinching effect. The pinching effect tends to of sound distortion. Needle resonance is the in force the needle and the pickup upwardly. Be herent needle vibration superposed upon the vi cause of the high pressure applied to the tip of bration picked up from the record. This causes the pure tone of the record to be muddied and 40 the needle, as has heretofore been pointed out, the record groove at these places is worn to a to be ampliñed out of proportion within the range greater extent than the groove at the wider places of the needle resonance-usually at high fre and, therefore, record wear is accentuated at quencies. These stiff needles, however, wear out these points. My improved needle, because of its the record surfaces comparatively rapidly, and the tone then becomes fuzzy and scratchy. This 45 flexibility, is not required to move the pickup rap idly to any great extent ina vertical direction and effect is particularly apparent when such needles thus, the record wear at these points is minimized.“ are used with automatic phonographs, wherein »the records are played over and over again with out the attention of an operator. The flexibility of my needle also permits the easy This condition led to the development of the flattened section in the spike type of needle in an attempt to reduce needle and record wear. Such needles are comparatively successful in that they groove at those points where the direction of the groove changes sharply, il e., where an “explosive” and accurate tracing of the needle through the sound occurs in the recording. , It will be apparent from the above that prior needles do not effect a solution to the real prob tended its life to some extent. They are far from 55 lem faced by the phonograph and record repro duction art, but in general compromisein favor perfect, however, because they do not remove of long life in theneedles at the expense‘of the‘ needle resonance, and the sharp edges bounding recordings. the connection of the flattened section with the In my experiments with phonograph needles I barrel section of the needle tended to filter out reduce wear on the record and, therefore, ex .the high tones. Such needles reduce record wear 60 ‘have discovered that the' compromise Vbetween - >2,465,305? 3 4 high ñdelity of reproduction and long life in the out. Furthermore, the tapered section does not needle and in the record need not be made. My improved needle forming the subject matter of present an abrupt shoulder which I have found has a blocking effect upon the higher. frequencies; the present invention ,possesses extremely. high.. ndeiity and1qng4iife~characterisncs orb'oth?eedie and record. TQgiYßmrf needle flexibility ’Uhr .1er/,er por tion,_ I provide, it- with*A the cylindrical end I4 which is integral with the tapered portion I6. The section I4 is preferably less than one-half of the ~ I have combined these desirable qualities in one needle by shaping it in such a manner as to give - diameter of the shank I2 and, consequently, has it a iiexing and cushioning action du1f_in„g¿~,_itsY travel in the record groove, which action copi“-~ pensates for variations in the groove width and veryklittlemass or inertia in itself. It is desirable l that „this portion of the needle be made as small as is compatible with the strength necessary to assists in properly controlling and overcornipgätha support‘íthe‘eiîective weight of the pickup and inertia in the tone arm and pickup. I have also eliminated objectionablewneedle resonance by» giving that portion of the needle below what I tone arm and to absorb the thrusts which are im posed-upon it by the vibration and the oscillating groove for operating mechanical trip means fre term the fulcrumv `a. shape. which» willJ not-_- have » quently` usedAA toy set y ~ automatic. record changing naturalresonance withinthe audi-ble range; the. mechanism -into operation-.fA material from which-the-„needle ismade-.also Because thetip 4section I4i'is .of comparatively assists f in eliminating. needle resonance. small diameter; itfhas aspringy or cushioning. From the foregoingit is L.clearly apparentthat 20 action -whiclr permits «it to follow.- the. groove. .in it is an object of my invention to provide anim.-Y provedphonograph. needle which possesses a high the record.` accurately , and. whip.- around `the sharp . angles „ corresponding to i the,> .explosive-_ sounds.; reproductionñdelity and> also long life, andwhich Probablythe major. portion` of. this .cushioning or . does not wear .the record surface with Which-the springing action takes place at .theljunctionâiliofe.` needle- may be. used to any appreciable extent 25 the tapered "section I6.; with» portion.. IM The when comparedv with priorart needles. Itis alsolan» object ofY my Ainvention vto provide a novell .phonograph needle possessing the 4de sirable characteristics fof. high» .ñdelity andv 4long life both-ofthe needleand the record. and which 30 is economical to manufacture. ' Other objects and advantages will become ap parent >from y the »following «description taken in cushioning or-springing action of. theiend section» is of the universal Vtype and permits the needle .tof follow the record .grooveac'curately and; con tinuously. At vthe narrowest> points where.. the groove pinches theneedle and. impartsatendency to ride out, the cushioning-actioncompensates forï` the inertia .of -theftone arm and. thepickup, there byr minimizing record wear,` andV consequently conjunction with .the drawing, in which record scratch; ` The vend. section I4 possesses-no . Fig. l *isa` greatly enlargedielevational view of 35 needle -.resonance,f- or.-> atleast none *.within> the»`~ a preferred embodiment -~ of - iny- »improvedf and ~ audible range, _because off its short-:length andl low . novel phonograph `needle and; Figs. Zand 3 .illustrate modiñed andimproved formssof phonograph needle Shanks-_` Referring to Fig. '1,- my-Aimproved phonograph mass.-v . It I will~ also appear = from the «drawingf-thatemy improved phonograph' needle vis f slightlyélongerU 40 than most prior.. art needles. 'I‘heaincr'easedr` needle I0» maybe Vdivided -into ïthree sections `for length‘is further important tomaintainlfidelity» convenience of referenceand description of «func tion. The needle is «formedof- conical _andcylin whip action is imparted tothe needle as it passes . and long -record wear `~in- those passages f where « drical integral sections and its-- diameter «- is around the. sharper angles »of- agroove since»less« greatest at shank-portion I2 which is `received by-v the needle chuck in a manner'well knowninthe pickup art.; Connecting the shank portion I2~w~ith~end portion Ill is a tapered sectionV _I 6V. At the-lower weight will I suffice to - prevent f groovel jumping4 or chattering-‘when` thisilexibilityds present. - ' y. It is important to note therapproximate relative~ end of the end portion I4_-is a long-wearing, hard » sizes ofthe shank I2,l the tapered section» IB-ian'd. alloy tip I8,- which is preferably welded -to theY 50 end portionvv I4.: The combined -lengthof the por» portion Iii.A nous man@ ls iisgreater than .that oftnesháak l The tip I8 is extremely small and possesses aY I2 to provide a lever below the »ralorum-which# rounded `end having a radius of curvature prefer will transmit more accuratelyethe vibrations ably not greater than 0.002 inch: Abovethe tip picked Vupfrorn the record.> The'positioning-of»> I8 the lowerend of the portion I4 is tapered »down 55 the hinge> or junction 20~between _the ~tapered~` to the. tip at an‘included angle of between 25O section IIì,` and the'end portion I4~must~be suchf and 60°. It will be noted from the `drawing that the long. est of these sections is the tapered section I6;v It is well known in the needle art that the danger point or needleY resonance lies between _the~ fulcrum point and the tipcontacting theY record. 1 Itn this portion be of a length sufñcient vto beñoperable that the reactance'ofe-the' needle ~is substantiallyA less thai-¿the reactance Vof- the pickup. if'_ the portion I 4 be’tooshort-withrespect- to the vîsection I6,_the needle .compliance would betoo little and the effect ofthe _hinging orcushioning action-would be completely lost.;Y `On> the other. hand; if the portion I4 be wtoo \long,¿ _theltapered and act as a lever to transmit _the vibrations from section I6 must be appreciably_shortened,¿which the record to the pickup, _then it necessarily is of 65.; .would _result in» a needle having too `much ilexi suiiicient length to possess» periodic ~ resonance within the audible range; and if'this needle be of constant diameter throughoutthegreater part bilityvor compliance, andthe taper'wouldfbeso-~ great that an appreciable percentage-of the highV pitch tones thaving shorter yperiods of vibration of its length below the fulcrum; the tendency/to would -beñlteredoum and because of theexces-v ~ ward needle »resonance is enhanced.~` Buti?-this 70 .siveflexibilitm some of »thebase tones would also portion ofthe needle beof aconstantly-changing be lost. As exemplitive of‘a'typicalneedle -em diameter presenting a Vregular taper, » the »reson bodying my=invention, the ñguresin -thelaccom-» panying, drawing.-are.made to scale.. The-total» lengthY ofthe `needles illustrated >is -actually Áthree- ance of the needle at each point on the-tapered section i . is . different . and` . whateverA4 resonance. -is _possessed byfthe needle int-hat section` is damped» 75 .quarters of4 an inch;-l thedimension Anf the .5 2,405,307 VI' 2 is one-quarter of an inch; the dimension ‘.B, the length of the tapered section, five-sixteenths of an inch; and dimension C, the length of the tip portion I4, is three-sixteenths of an inch (in of said shank, and a substantially conically shaped tapered portion connecting said shank with said end portion and integral therewith, said tapered portion being longer than said end por cluding the tip I8). The shank has a diameter tion and merging at either end with said shank portion and said end portion, respectively. D of 0.061 inch, and the end portion III has a diameter d of 0.029 inch. It is thus seen that the 3. As a new article of manufacture, a phono tapered section is nearly twice as long as the end graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end portion I4 and that the shank is only one-third portion having a diameter not greater than one of the entire length of the needle. These propor half the diameter of said shank, and a tapered end portion connecting said shank with said por tions appear best for ordinary use, but may be modified if the compliance and resistance ratios tion and integral and merging with both, said tapered portion being longer than said end por of the pickup are known accurately. If it is found tion, and the angle included by the surfaces of necessary to shorten the over-all length of the needle, I have found that the reduction may be 15 said shank and said tapered portion being not less than 170°. made by shorteningr the shank portion I2 the requisite amount, retaining the relative length Il. As a new article of manufacture, a phono graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end of the sections Ill and I6. portion having a diameter not greater than one In order further to reduce needle resonance, I prefer to make my improved needle from a soft 20 half the diameter of said shank, and a tapered portion connecting said shank with said end por steel having high internal resistance. As an ex tion and integral and merging with both, the ample, I have found that a steel possessing a ratio of the length of the tapered portion to the Rockwell hardness of 25 is ideal for the manufac- ' length of the cylindrical end portion being of the ture of my needle. It is also possible to manu facture my improved needle from other metals 25 order of 5 to 3, and the angle of taper being sub stantially 3°. or metal alloys which possess the same desirable 5. As a new article of manufacture, a phono characteristics. graph needle made from soft steel and having a In Figs. 2 and 3 I have illustrated a further shank adapted to be received by a pickup, a tip modification of my improved needle in which the shank I2 is formed in a manner to prevent rela 30 formed of a long wearing, hard alloy adapted to follow in the groove of a record, and an inter tive angular and longitudinal movement between mediate portion connecting said shank with said the needle and the chuck when secured by the tip and having a point of greatest flexibility chuck set screw. It has heretofore been the prac therein, said point of greatest flexibility being tice to provide the shank with a flattened section to be engaged by the set screw, but the flattened 35 closer to said tip than to said shank, the upper part of said intermediate portion being tapered section has the deleterious effect of acting as a so that it merges both with said shank and with ñlter for the higher audible tones. I prefer to the lower part of said intermediate portion, said form the shank I2 of my needle with longitudinal lower part being of a lesser diameter than said or crossed knurling. Fig. 2 showsv longitudinal knurling 2li, and Fig. 3 shows crossed knurling 26. 40 shank. 6. As a new article of manufacture, a phono Forming the shank in this manner has no effect graph needle made from a metal or metal alloys on the transmission of the recorded vibrations having a high internal resistance and having a and provides a good surface to be engaged by the shank adapted to be received by a pickup, a tip tip of the set screw. « From the foregoing description of my invention, 45 formed of a long wearing, hard alloy adapted to it will be apparent to those skilled in the record reproducing art that I have invented a phono follow in the groove of a record, and an inter mediate portion connecting said shank with said tip and having a point of greatest flexibility graph needle which successfully combines high therein, said point of greatest flexibility being fidelity of tone reproduction and long needle life with long record life. This is accomplished 50 closer to said tip than to said shank, the upper part of said intermediate portion being tapered through the use of a longer and more flexible so that it merges both with said shank and with needle having a cushioned or hinged action and the lower part of said intermediate portion, said which is shaped to remove needle resonance, and lower part being of a lesser diameter than said through a choice of material, to assist in reduc shank. , 55 ing resonance. 7. As a new articleof manufacture, a phono In view of the fact that persons skilled in the graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end art can, from the teachings of the present speci portion and a tapered portion connecting said ñcation and drawing, make changes without de shank with said end portion and integral and parting from the spirit and scope of my inven with both, said shank having a knurled tion, I desire to be limited only by the appended 60 merging surface adapted to be engaged |by a needle re claims. taining means to prevent relative angular and What I claim as new and useful and desire to longitudinal movement between the needle and secure by United States Letters Patent is: the needle retaining means. y 1. As a new article of manufacture, a phono 8. In a phonograph needle having a shank, a graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end 65 tip adapted to follow in the groove of the record portion having a diameter less than the diameter and an intermediate portion connecting said of said shank, andY a substantially conically shaped tapered portion connecting said shank with said end portion and integral therewith, said tapered portion merging at either end with said shank portion and said end portion respectively. 2. As a new article of manufacture, a phono graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end portion having a diameter less than the diameter shank with said tip and providing a point of maximum flexibility therein, which point is equally flexible in all directions, a knurled sur face formed on said shank adapted to be engaged by a needle retaining means to prevent relative angular and longitudinal movement between the needle and the needle retaining means. WILLIAM'I-I. HU’I‘TER, Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,405,307. g August 6, 1946. WILLIAM H. HUTTER It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 6, line 1l, claim 3, strike out “end” before “portion” and insert the seme after “said” second occurrence, same line; and that the said Letters Patent should be read With this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the oase in the Patent Oñîce. Signed and sealed this 5th day of November, A. D. 1946. [Bw] LESLIE FRAZER, First Assistant ó'ommz'ssz'oner of Patents.