close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2405307

код для вставки
All@ @E
-
w. H. HUTTER
-PHoNoGRAPH NEEDLE
Filed òct. 2s, 1943
2,4%„307`
Patented Àug'. 6, 1946
2,405,307
UNITED STATES PATENT-orner.
2,405,307
rHoNoGRAPH NEEDLE
William H. Hutter, Chicago, Ill.
Application october 23, 1943, Serial No. 507,354 8 Claims.
(o1. 274-38)
"
2
1
My invention relates generally to phonograph
needles and in particular to a phonograph needle
which possesses a very high reproduction fidelity
and long life, and which minimizes record wear.
Although it has always been an object of those
concerned with the development of the phono
graph and the record reproducing art to provide
a phonograph needle having the above character
istics, so far as I am aware, all currently used
because they are flexible in one direction, that is,
in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the
flattened portion. But as this flattened portion is
always perpendicular to the surface of the record,
there is no vertical flexibility inherent in such a
needle.
When it is realized that there is a tremendous
pressure applied to the tip of a needle, it will be
appreciated that rapid wear will result unless
needles incorporate compromises. In general, lit
some means is provided to ease the pressure when
tle attempt has been made to save the record
from wear when long needle life or high fidelity
was desired, because it has been thought that the
the record tends to cause rapid vertical changes
in the position of the pickup. Ordinarily, a pho
nograph needle used with a two ounce pickup im
poses a load of approximately thirty-one thous
characteristics of long needle life and high fidel-ity were incompatible with long record life, and
that one must be sacrificed to gain the other.
Under ordinary circumstances of record usage
it is desirable to have both the record and the
needle last as long as possible while retaining a
high degree of reproduction fidelity. So far as I
and pounds per square inch upon a record sur
face. It is apparent, therefore, that some relative
wear between the needle and record must be ex
pected. In order to introduce flexibility inv all
planes, so as to protect the record against up and
down as Well as lateral shocks, some needles have
to the same degree as the needle forming the sub
been developed which are flexible in all directions,
but in all of these prior art needles with which I
am familiar, a shoulder has been provided be
ject of the present invention. As an example, all
hard tip needles that I have tested, capable of
the needle, and this shoulder filters out the high
am aware, however, no needles presently obtain
able incorporate these desirable characteristics
playing from one thousand to four thousand rec
ords, seriouslyr affect the fidelity of records in
from fifty to one hundred plays, while under ac
tual conditions my improved needle plays the
same record ñfteen hundred times before the ii
delity of the record is affected.
«
tween the flexible portion and the stiff portion of
tones and destroys the fidelity of reproduction.
My improved phonograph needle provides for
flexibility in all directions, while at the same time
retaining fidelity of reproduction to a greater ex
30 tent than any prior needles with which I am
acquainted.
Still another’problem is caused by the fact that
Up to the present time it has been thought that
a record groove does not have a constant width,
for a phonograph needle to have high fidelity
but at those points where the groove makes a
characteristics it must necessarily be very stiff
and hard. This belief is based upon the desire to 35 sharp angle relative to the radius of the record,
the transverse dimension is less, and thus, there
avoid needle resonance, one of the primary causes
is a pinching effect. The pinching effect tends to
of sound distortion. Needle resonance is the in
force the needle and the pickup upwardly. Be
herent needle vibration superposed upon the vi
cause of the high pressure applied to the tip of
bration picked up from the record. This causes
the pure tone of the record to be muddied and 40 the needle, as has heretofore been pointed out,
the record groove at these places is worn to a
to be ampliñed out of proportion within the range
greater extent than the groove at the wider places
of the needle resonance-usually at high fre
and, therefore, record wear is accentuated at
quencies. These stiff needles, however, wear out
these points. My improved needle, because of its
the record surfaces comparatively rapidly, and
the tone then becomes fuzzy and scratchy. This 45 flexibility, is not required to move the pickup rap
idly to any great extent ina vertical direction and
effect is particularly apparent when such needles
thus, the record wear at these points is minimized.“
are used with automatic phonographs, wherein
»the records are played over and over again with
out the attention of an operator.
The flexibility of my needle also permits the easy
This condition led to the development of the
flattened section in the spike type of needle in an
attempt to reduce needle and record wear. Such
needles are comparatively successful in that they
groove at those points where the direction of the
groove changes sharply, il e., where an “explosive”
and accurate tracing of the needle through the
sound occurs in the recording.
,
It will be apparent from the above that prior
needles do not effect a solution to the real prob
tended its life to some extent. They are far from 55 lem faced by the phonograph and record repro
duction art, but in general compromisein favor
perfect, however, because they do not remove
of long life in theneedles at the expense‘of the‘
needle resonance, and the sharp edges bounding
recordings.
the connection of the flattened section with the
In my experiments with phonograph needles I
barrel section of the needle tended to filter out
reduce wear on the record and, therefore, ex
.the high tones. Such needles reduce record wear 60 ‘have discovered that the' compromise Vbetween
-
>2,465,305?
3
4
high ñdelity of reproduction and long life in the
out. Furthermore, the tapered section does not
needle and in the record need not be made. My
improved needle forming the subject matter of
present an abrupt shoulder which I have found
has a blocking effect upon the higher. frequencies;
the present invention ,possesses extremely. high..
ndeiity and1qng4iife~characterisncs orb'oth?eedie
and record.
TQgiYßmrf needle flexibility
’Uhr .1er/,er por
tion,_ I provide, it- with*A the cylindrical end I4
which is integral with the tapered portion I6. The
section I4 is preferably less than one-half of the
~
I have combined these desirable qualities in one
needle by shaping it in such a manner as to give -
diameter of the shank I2 and, consequently, has
it a iiexing and cushioning action du1f_in„g¿~,_itsY
travel in the record groove, which action copi“-~
pensates for variations in the groove width and
veryklittlemass or inertia in itself. It is desirable
l that „this portion of the needle be made as small
as is compatible with the strength necessary to
assists in properly controlling and overcornipgätha
support‘íthe‘eiîective weight of the pickup and
inertia in the tone arm and pickup. I have also
eliminated objectionablewneedle resonance by»
giving that portion of the needle below what I
tone arm and to absorb the thrusts which are im
posed-upon it by the vibration and the oscillating
groove for operating mechanical trip means fre
term the fulcrumv `a. shape. which» willJ not-_- have »
quently` usedAA toy set y ~ automatic. record changing
naturalresonance withinthe audi-ble range; the.
mechanism -into operation-.fA
material from which-the-„needle ismade-.also
Because thetip 4section I4i'is .of comparatively
assists f in eliminating. needle resonance.
small diameter; itfhas aspringy or cushioning.
From the foregoingit is L.clearly apparentthat 20 action -whiclr permits «it to follow.- the. groove. .in
it is an object of my invention to provide anim.-Y
provedphonograph. needle which possesses a high
the record.` accurately , and. whip.- around `the sharp .
angles „ corresponding to i the,> .explosive-_ sounds.;
reproductionñdelity and> also long life, andwhich
Probablythe major. portion` of. this .cushioning or .
does not wear .the record surface with Which-the
springing action takes place at .theljunctionâiliofe.`
needle- may be. used to any appreciable extent 25 the tapered "section I6.; with» portion.. IM The
when comparedv with priorart needles.
Itis alsolan» object ofY my Ainvention vto provide
a novell .phonograph needle possessing the 4de
sirable characteristics fof. high» .ñdelity andv 4long
life both-ofthe needleand the record. and which 30
is economical to manufacture. '
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent >from y the »following «description taken in
cushioning or-springing action of. theiend section»
is of the universal Vtype and permits the needle .tof
follow the record .grooveac'curately and; con
tinuously. At vthe narrowest> points where.. the
groove pinches theneedle and. impartsatendency
to ride out, the cushioning-actioncompensates forï`
the inertia .of -theftone arm and. thepickup, there
byr minimizing record wear,` andV consequently
conjunction with .the drawing, in which
record scratch; ` The vend. section I4 possesses-no .
Fig. l *isa` greatly enlargedielevational view of 35 needle -.resonance,f- or.-> atleast none *.within> the»`~
a preferred embodiment -~ of - iny- »improvedf and ~
audible range, _because off its short-:length andl low .
novel phonograph `needle and;
Figs. Zand 3 .illustrate modiñed andimproved
formssof phonograph needle Shanks-_`
Referring to Fig. '1,- my-Aimproved phonograph
mass.-v
.
It I will~ also appear = from the «drawingf-thatemy
improved phonograph' needle vis f slightlyélongerU
40 than most prior.. art needles. 'I‘heaincr'easedr`
needle I0» maybe Vdivided -into ïthree sections `for
length‘is further important tomaintainlfidelity»
convenience of referenceand description of «func
tion. The needle is «formedof- conical _andcylin
whip action is imparted tothe needle as it passes .
and long -record wear `~in- those passages f where «
drical integral sections and its-- diameter «- is
around the. sharper angles »of- agroove since»less«
greatest at shank-portion I2 which is `received by-v
the needle chuck in a manner'well knowninthe
pickup
art.; Connecting the shank portion I2~w~ith~end
portion Ill is a tapered sectionV _I 6V. At the-lower
weight
will I suffice to - prevent f groovel
jumping4 or chattering-‘when` thisilexibilityds
present.
-
'
y.
It is important to note therapproximate relative~
end of the end portion I4_-is a long-wearing, hard »
sizes ofthe shank I2,l the tapered section» IB-ian'd.
alloy tip I8,- which is preferably welded -to theY 50 end portionvv I4.: The combined -lengthof the por»
portion Iii.A
nous man@ ls iisgreater than .that oftnesháak l
The tip I8 is extremely small and possesses aY
I2 to provide a lever below the »ralorum-which#
rounded `end having a radius of curvature prefer
will transmit more accuratelyethe vibrations
ably not greater than 0.002 inch: Abovethe tip
picked Vupfrorn the record.> The'positioning-of»>
I8 the lowerend of the portion I4 is tapered »down 55 the hinge> or junction 20~between _the ~tapered~`
to the. tip at an‘included angle of between 25O
section IIì,` and the'end portion I4~must~be suchf
and 60°.
It will be noted from the `drawing that the long.
est of these sections is the tapered section I6;v It is
well known in the needle art that the danger point
or needleY resonance lies between _the~ fulcrum
point and the tipcontacting theY record. 1 Itn this
portion be of a length sufñcient vto beñoperable
that the reactance'ofe-the' needle ~is substantiallyA
less thai-¿the reactance Vof- the pickup.
if'_
the portion I 4 be’tooshort-withrespect- to the
vîsection I6,_the needle .compliance would betoo
little and the effect ofthe _hinging orcushioning
action-would be completely lost.;Y `On> the other.
hand; if the portion I4 be wtoo \long,¿ _theltapered
and act as a lever to transmit _the vibrations from
section I6 must be appreciably_shortened,¿which
the record to the pickup, _then it necessarily is of 65.; .would _result in» a needle having too `much ilexi
suiiicient length to possess» periodic ~ resonance
within the audible range; and if'this needle be
of constant diameter throughoutthegreater part
bilityvor compliance, andthe taper'wouldfbeso-~
great that an appreciable percentage-of the highV
pitch tones thaving shorter yperiods of vibration
of its length below the fulcrum; the tendency/to
would -beñlteredoum and because of theexces-v ~
ward needle »resonance is enhanced.~` Buti?-this 70 .siveflexibilitm some of »thebase tones would also
portion ofthe needle beof aconstantly-changing
be lost. As exemplitive of‘a'typicalneedle -em
diameter presenting a Vregular taper, » the »reson
bodying my=invention, the ñguresin -thelaccom-»
panying, drawing.-are.made to scale.. The-total»
lengthY ofthe `needles illustrated >is -actually Áthree-
ance of the needle at each point on the-tapered
section i . is . different . and` . whateverA4 resonance. -is
_possessed byfthe needle int-hat section` is damped» 75 .quarters of4 an inch;-l thedimension Anf the
.5
2,405,307
VI' 2 is one-quarter of an inch; the dimension ‘.B,
the length of the tapered section, five-sixteenths
of an inch; and dimension C, the length of the
tip portion I4, is three-sixteenths of an inch (in
of said shank, and a substantially conically
shaped tapered portion connecting said shank
with said end portion and integral therewith, said
tapered portion being longer than said end por
cluding the tip I8). The shank has a diameter
tion and merging at either end with said shank
portion and said end portion, respectively.
D of 0.061 inch, and the end portion III has a
diameter d of 0.029 inch. It is thus seen that the
3. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
tapered section is nearly twice as long as the end
graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end
portion I4 and that the shank is only one-third
portion having a diameter not greater than one
of the entire length of the needle. These propor
half the diameter of said shank, and a tapered
end portion connecting said shank with said por
tions appear best for ordinary use, but may be
modified if the compliance and resistance ratios
tion and integral and merging with both, said
tapered portion being longer than said end por
of the pickup are known accurately. If it is found
tion, and the angle included by the surfaces of
necessary to shorten the over-all length of the
needle, I have found that the reduction may be 15 said shank and said tapered portion being not
less than 170°.
made by shorteningr the shank portion I2 the
requisite amount, retaining the relative length
Il. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end
of the sections Ill and I6.
portion having a diameter not greater than one
In order further to reduce needle resonance, I
prefer to make my improved needle from a soft 20 half the diameter of said shank, and a tapered
portion connecting said shank with said end por
steel having high internal resistance. As an ex
tion and integral and merging with both, the
ample, I have found that a steel possessing a
ratio of the length of the tapered portion to the
Rockwell hardness of 25 is ideal for the manufac- '
length of the cylindrical end portion being of the
ture of my needle. It is also possible to manu
facture my improved needle from other metals 25 order of 5 to 3, and the angle of taper being sub
stantially 3°.
or metal alloys which possess the same desirable
5. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
characteristics.
graph needle made from soft steel and having a
In Figs. 2 and 3 I have illustrated a further
shank adapted to be received by a pickup, a tip
modification of my improved needle in which the
shank I2 is formed in a manner to prevent rela 30 formed of a long wearing, hard alloy adapted to
follow in the groove of a record, and an inter
tive angular and longitudinal movement between
mediate portion connecting said shank with said
the needle and the chuck when secured by the
tip and having a point of greatest flexibility
chuck set screw. It has heretofore been the prac
therein, said point of greatest flexibility being
tice to provide the shank with a flattened section
to be engaged by the set screw, but the flattened 35 closer to said tip than to said shank, the upper
part of said intermediate portion being tapered
section has the deleterious effect of acting as a
so that it merges both with said shank and with
ñlter for the higher audible tones. I prefer to
the lower part of said intermediate portion, said
form the shank I2 of my needle with longitudinal
lower part being of a lesser diameter than said
or crossed knurling. Fig. 2 showsv longitudinal
knurling 2li, and Fig. 3 shows crossed knurling 26. 40 shank.
6. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
Forming the shank in this manner has no effect
graph needle made from a metal or metal alloys
on the transmission of the recorded vibrations
having a high internal resistance and having a
and provides a good surface to be engaged by the
shank adapted to be received by a pickup, a tip
tip of the set screw.
«
From the foregoing description of my invention, 45 formed of a long wearing, hard alloy adapted to
it will be apparent to those skilled in the record
reproducing art that I have invented a phono
follow in the groove of a record, and an inter
mediate portion connecting said shank with said
tip and having a point of greatest flexibility
graph needle which successfully combines high
therein, said point of greatest flexibility being
fidelity of tone reproduction and long needle life
with long record life. This is accomplished 50 closer to said tip than to said shank, the upper
part of said intermediate portion being tapered
through the use of a longer and more flexible
so that it merges both with said shank and with
needle having a cushioned or hinged action and
the
lower part of said intermediate portion, said
which is shaped to remove needle resonance, and
lower part being of a lesser diameter than said
through a choice of material, to assist in reduc
shank.
,
55
ing resonance.
7. As a new articleof manufacture, a phono
In view of the fact that persons skilled in the
graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end
art can, from the teachings of the present speci
portion and a tapered portion connecting said
ñcation and drawing, make changes without de
shank with said end portion and integral and
parting from the spirit and scope of my inven
with both, said shank having a knurled
tion, I desire to be limited only by the appended 60 merging
surface adapted to be engaged |by a needle re
claims.
taining means to prevent relative angular and
What I claim as new and useful and desire to
longitudinal movement between the needle and
secure by United States Letters Patent is:
the needle retaining means.
y
1. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
8. In a phonograph needle having a shank, a
graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end 65 tip adapted to follow in the groove of the record
portion having a diameter less than the diameter
and an intermediate portion connecting said
of said shank, andY a substantially conically
shaped tapered portion connecting said shank
with said end portion and integral therewith, said
tapered portion merging at either end with said
shank portion and said end portion respectively.
2. As a new article of manufacture, a phono
graph needle having a shank, a cylindrical end
portion having a diameter less than the diameter
shank with said tip and providing a point of
maximum flexibility therein, which point is
equally flexible in all directions, a knurled sur
face formed on said shank adapted to be engaged
by a needle retaining means to prevent relative
angular and longitudinal movement between the
needle and the needle retaining means.
WILLIAM'I-I. HU’I‘TER,
Certificate of Correction
Patent No. 2,405,307.
g
August 6, 1946.
WILLIAM H. HUTTER
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 6, line 1l, claim 3, strike
out “end” before “portion” and insert the seme after “said” second occurrence, same
line; and that the said Letters Patent should be read With this correction therein that
the same may conform to the record of the oase in the Patent Oñîce.
Signed and sealed this 5th day of November, A. D. 1946.
[Bw]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant ó'ommz'ssz'oner of Patents.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
600 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа