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Патент USA US2405308

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Aug» 6,1946.
‘ 2,405,308
Filed March 13, 1944
I 4
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Joe’ F. Jack, ArcadiayCalif.
Application March 13, 1944, Serial N0.'526,159
8 Claims.
(c1. s5_25)
The present invention relates generally to ?re
equivalent to that provided by the explosion of
arms and'more particularly to cartridges for use
the primer of a live cartridge of the same caliber.
in'practicing with ?rearms to improve the aim
An additional object is to provide a cartridge
ing and shooting of ‘them by persons such as
suitable for practicing dry ?ring that is satis
policemen, sportsmen, and members of the armed 5 factorily durable in service and economical to
forces. As is well known, it usually requires much
practice‘ in, aiming a ri?e or pistol and also in
A further object of my invention is to provide
actually pulling the-trigger of the same while the
a cartridge of a?xed caliber for practicing dry
sights. are held on the target to make one expert
?ring which can-be used satisfactorily in two or
inthe use of ?rearms. To use actual or live car
10 more ?rearms that ‘?re diiferent caliber bullets.
tridgesin practicing with such a firearm dis
Other objects and advantageous features of my
turbs- the‘ sight alignment and prevents the
invention will appear as the description proceeds.
shooter *from determining the cause of failure to
In the drawing:
hit his object.- When ?red dry the shooter knows
Figure 1 .is'a side view, broken away in part,
‘by the movement of the sighting plane whether 15 of a revolver shown with a dry ?ring cartridge
or not‘he pulled off, high, or iow or to either side.
that embodies my invention in ?ring position in
As it is well known, it is always helpful inbe
the revolver.
coming'pro?cient in the use of ?rearms to cook
Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional
the ?rearm, aim it at a target with no cartridge
view of the cartridge shown in Figure 1.
in the barrel or with the shell of a discharged 20
or exploded cartridge in the barrel, and pull the
trigger while the ?rearm is sighted at the target.
Figure 3 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional
view of a so-called rimless cartridge with a simu
lated bullet element shown in position in the car
There are some objections to thisway of prac
tridge (side view).
ticing or simulating the ?ring of pistols, etc.,
Figure 4 is an enlarged longitudinal section
commonly called “dry ?ring.” For one thing, the 25 through a simulated ri?e cartridge constructed
lack of the weight of live cartridges in the ?re
according to my invention for practicing dry
arm “makes the user get somewhat accustomed
to the feel, i. e. the lighter weight, of the ?rearm
with the blank cartridges or empty shells‘ in it
and‘ when several heavier live cartridges are in
the ?rearm it tends to make the quick and accu
rate shooting of the ?rearm less certain due to
Figure 5 is a partial longitudinal sectional view
through a simulated rifle cartridge constructed
according to my invention, a bullet element being
shown in side view.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary longitudinal section
through an automatic pistol which illustrates an
other form of?ring pin with which my dry ?ring
cartridge may beladvantageously used.
For purposes of illustration, in Figure 1, one
of my dry ?ring cartridges I0 is shown in a cham
ber :ll of a usual cylinderlZ of a revolver l3. In
a handle it, a main spring I 5 may be mounted to
swing a hammer l6 when a trigger H is pulled.
All of "these parts may be of usual construction
recoil. This may be a serious matter if it is a
case of a policeman’s pistol while he is dealing
with desperate criminals, or in warfare. There
are also other objections to the use of empty
shells‘ or noshells at all in the ?rearm. The ac
, I
curately made ?ring‘pin is-damaged' and often
broken by being driven farther through the re
coil plate than is usual, causing the shoulders of '
the ?ring pinor hammer to be damaged by strik
ing some unyielding metal parts of a revolver such
as a recoil'shoulder.
It is an important object of my invention to
as is found in a well ‘known make of revolver
It will be understood as the description proceeds
provide a cartridge device with which dry ?ring '
that my invention can be carried out with other
makes of revolvers.
can be practiced without causing any damage to
the ?rearm.
Another object of my ‘invention is the provision
of a cartridge for practicing dry ?ring which has
On the hammer 16, may be mounted a ?ring
pin member 20 integral with the hammer or'made
separately and fastened to the hammer in a well
known way for replacement purposes.
the. same weight as a live cartridge of the same 50
caliber which is made up with the usual shell,
powder charge, and lead or steel bullet.
Still another object is the provision of a car
tridge for practicing dry ?ring which provides a
yielding resistance to the ?ring pin approximately
The pin 25 may have a shoulder element 2 l , and
in ?ring a live cartridge in the revolver the pin
is projected forcibly through‘ a ?ring pin hole 22
ina recoil plate 23 ‘which usually forms an inte
gral part of a frame member 25 in which the cyl~
inder H is rotatably'mounted. Thepin 25 usually
?lls the hole 2| rather closely when the revolver
is ?red with a live cartridge. When the revolver
is snapped, i. e., the hammer is operated, and
there is no cartridge in the chamber in ?ring
position the pin 20 may be driven in so far that
the hole 22 is spread slightly or the shoulder 2|
may strike the metal rim around the hole. These
3 to 25 pounds. Therefore the spring 31 used in
one of my dry ?ring cartridges should be designed
for use with a ?rearm after determining accu
rately the strength of its main spring.
My dry ?ring cartridges can be inserted in the
cylinder of a revolver one at a time by hand as
is done with live cartridges.
objectionable results are cumulative and after re
peated use of a revolver or ri?e in this way the
For loading my dry ?ring cartridges conven
iently into an automatic'p-istol and into some
in a ?rearm since the ?ring pin will soon punch
a hole deep into or entirely through an exploded
" cap element in the cartridge shell. Also there is
' To meet this condition, I’ provide a dry ?ring
consequences may be serious and require some 10 automatic ri?es it is necessaryto ?rst load them
into a usual clip (not shown) which is an essen
expensive repairs. Or they may cause a ?rearm
tial element of those kinds of ?rearms. For any
to fail to function properly at a time when such
cartridge to be handled by such clips satisfac
a failure is a very serious matter, The above
torily it must have substantially the same com
noted undesirable consequences will often result
from the repeated use of exploded cartridge shells 15 plete form outwardly as that of a live cartridge.
cartridge 40 illustrated in Figure 3. In this form
of my invention, ‘the parts 4|, 45, 45 and 41 of
the Figure 3 structure have the same functions
no recoil force from the already exploded cap .
which helps to cushion the impact shock on the 20 as the parts 3|, 35, 36 and 31, respectively, of
the Figure 2 structure, and a further explana
small ?ring pin and the hammer caused by the
tion of these parts of the Figure 3 structure is
pin striking the cap.
deemed unnecessary for an understanding of my
A cartridge generally designated as H! and con
invention. So that the cartridge 40 may be han
structed according to my invention will permit
dled by a usual spring clip (not shown) or used
. “dry ?ring” to be practiced without causing the
in a ?rearm such as is shown in Figure 6, a simu
objectionable consequences to a ?rearm explained
lated :bullet 40b has a reduced neck portion 48
above. Its total weight may be substantially the
which will ?t tightly in the open ven'd of the
same as ‘the weight of a corresponding live car
shell part 4| and. may be fastened securely in
tridge. This cartridge includes a shell 3| the
outside dimensions of which are preferably sub 30 such position by means as described above for
the plug 38. It will be understood by those fa
stantially the same as those of a shell of a live
miliar with the use of automatic pistols that the
cartridge of the same caliber and length. The
cartridge illustrated in Figure‘ 3 is these-called
shell 3! ‘has a rim 32 and a forward end portion
rimless kind, and they will understand the rea
of solid metal, except for a small round hole
34 instead of being hollow as in a live cartridge.v 35 son for the different construction of the shell
The solid portion 33 helps to give ‘the dry ?ring
4| at Ithe end adjacent the plunger 45 from ‘the
cartridge the same weight as that of a live car
tridge of the same size having a usual lead bullet.
The extra thickness of the solid portion provides
In Figure 4 is illustrated how my invention may
be'embodied in a so-called rimless rifle cartridge
another-advantage in that a satisfactorily long 40 5|), which includes parts 5|, 53, 55, 56, 51 and 58
that correspond to and function like the parts
bearing or guiding means is provided for the body
3|, 33V, 35, 36, 31, and 38, respectively, of the
of a rod ‘or plunger 35 slidably mounted with
a snug ?t in the hole 34 which is concentric with '
Figure 2 cartridge.
It will be readily understood by those familiar
ably made of soft metal such as copper, brass or 45 with modern ri?e construction thatrthe shell 5|
may be of the same size and shape outwardly as
aluminum, and its outer end terminates a very
that of several shells of several different live
short distance back or inwardly from the face of
cartridges each of which has a bullet of different
the rim portion 32 of the shell, approximately
caliber and weight but all have the same size
positioned as is the face in a primer of a live
cartridge of the same diameter or the end may 50 of shell. Such different live cartridges will have
to be ,?red in different ri?es each ofwhich has
be flush with the face of the shell and slightly
a bore beyond the usual shell receiving chamber
rounded. On the rear end of the rod is provided
to ?t the diameter of the bullet to be ?red from
an integral ?ange-like piston member 35 which
it. One size of the shell 5| will ?t in any of
has a loose Working ?t in the hollow space of
the shell 3|. To provide a yielding resistance of 55 several shell receiving chambers. The spring 51 ,
is preferably made at least ten pounds stronger
an amount to appear hereinafter a coil spring 31
than the strongest main spring of the rifle the
is positioned in the shell 3| and a tight-?tting
cartridge 50 is to be used in.
plug 38 is pressed into the open end of the shell
In Figure 5 is illustrateda dry ?ring Cartridge
3| and fastened securely in place by friction or
threading, or other suitable well known devices. 60 60 embodying my invention and constructed to
be loaded into a clip (not shown) preparatory to
The size of the wire in the spring 31, its diameter
being brought to a ?ring relation with the ?ring
and length are designed to provide a pressure on
pin of a rifle (not shown). The cartridge 60
the piston member 36 which considerably exceeds
includes parts SI, 63, 65, B6, and 61 which are
the pressure on the end of the plunger 35 caused
by the ?ring pin 2!! striking the latter under action 65 similar in construction and function to the parts
5|, 53, 55, 56, and 51, respectively. The dry ?r
of the hammer l6 and main spring I5. I have
ing cartridge 6|] is shown with a simulated bullet
found after much research and testing that the
element 6% of a certain caliber and length. It
spring 31 should be approximately ten pounds
will be understood from the foregoing descrip
stronger than the main spring IE to have the
plunger 35 satisfactorily absorb or cushion the 70 tion that bullet elements of different calibers from
that indicated in Figure 5 can be assembled with
blow of the ?ring pin which should not push the
shell members 5|].
plunger into the shell 2| materially more than.
In Figure 6 there is illustrated another form
the usual travel of the ?ring pin. The main
of ?ring pin which is often used in automatic
springs of various kinds of commonly used ?re
arms vary in strength (rating in pounds) from 75 pistols and ri?es and which is well suited for use
the axis of the shell 3|.
This plunger is prefer
with my dry ?ring cartridge. A ?ring pin ‘Ill is
propelled through a hole ‘H in a plate member 12
to strike a plunger 13 of a dry ?ring cartridge 14
ing approximately the same size and weight as
a live cartridge suitable for use in said ?rearm.
5. A dry ?ring cartridge for use in an auto
which may be constructed substantially as is illus
matic ?rearm having a chamber, a ?ring pin and
trated in Figure 3. A shoulder 15 on the pin CI a cartridge clip from which live cartridges may
in is provided and if the pin should be driven too
be fed into said chamber, said dry ?ring cartridge
far through the hole ‘II, when the cartridge 14
having the same size and shape and weight ap
proximately ‘as one of said live cartridges and
or a live cartridge is not in ?ring relation to the
including a spring pressed, yieldingly mounted
pin, the shoulder would strike the plate 12 which
is objectionable in that the shock caused by the 10 member for cushioning the blow of said ?ring pin
on said dry ?ring cartridge.
hammer or shoulder hitting the recoil shoulder
causes the ?ring pin to break.
6. A non-explosive cartridge for a ?re-arm hav
Although I have herein shown and described
ing a chamber, a main spring, a ?ring pin and a
recoil plate provided with a, ?ring pin aperture,
my invention in what I have conceived to be the
most practical and preferred embodiment, it is 15 said cartridge comprising a metallic shell element
recognized that departures may be madethere
provided with a bore,. a plunger in said bore
adapted to be engaged by said ?ring pin, an abut
from within the scope of my invention, which is
not to be limited to the details disclosed herein
ment in said bore for a shouldered portion of said
plunger, a spring in said bore to bias said plunger
but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims
so as to embrace any and all equivalent devices. 20 toward said ?ring pin, and a plug and nose ele
ment for said bore and cartridge adapted to seat
Having described my invention, what I claim
said spring, said cartridge having substantially
as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. The combination with a ?rearm having a
cylinder or chamber and a ?ring pin; of a car
tridge-like device ?tting in said cylinder or cham
ber and having a resiliently mounted member
the same size, shape and weight as a live cartridge
and said spring adapted to absorb the impact of
25 said ?ring pin without damage thereto during dry
?ring of the ?re arm.
for receiving and cushioning blows of said pin,
the weight of said cartridge-like device being ap
proximately equal to that of a live cartridge of
7. For use in a ?rearm having a main spring,
a ?ring pin and means for transmitting the op
erative force of said spring to said pin; a dry ?r
the same caliber.
30 ing cartridge of approximately the same weight
2. The combination with a ?rearm having a
as a live cartridge of the same calibre, said dry
cylinder or chamber, a main spring, a ?ring pin,
?ring cartridge including a shell, a yielding mem
and a recoil plate device constructed with an
ber softer than said pin mounted in said shell for
aperture through which said pin may be moved;
receiving blows of said pin while dry ?ring is
of a cartridge-like device in said chamber, said 35 practiced with said ?rearm and said dry ?ring
cartridge device including a metallic shell ele
cartridge, and a spring in said shell pressing
ment, a plunger member positioned in said shell
against said yielding member with a force ma
to be struck by said ?ring pin and a spring in
terially greater than the force of said main spring
said shell pressing against said plunger to cause
and in an opposite direction to that of the move
it to resist being moved by action of said ?ring 40 ment of said ?ring pin.
8. The structure described in claim 7 char
3. The structure described in claim 2 character
ized by said spring in said shell being stronger
than said mainspring.
4. The combination of a ?rearm and a dry ?r
ing cartridge in said ?rearm, said cartridge hav
acterized by said spring in said shell being ap
proximately ten pounds stronger than said main
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