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Патент USA US2405319

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A118- 5,1946-
A. J. McMAsTl-:R ET AL
Filed March 10, 1943
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A. J. McMAs'rER ET A1.
Filed March l0, 1943
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Aug. 6, 1946.
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Archie J. McMaster, Deerfield, and Larry Jacob
son, Chicago, Ill., assignors to G-M Labora
tories, Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illi
Application March 10, 1943, Serial No. 478,620
10 Claims.
(Cl. 20G-8.7)
Our invention relates to electrical relays.
The principal object of our invention is the
provision of an improved relay.
it is suitably in the general shape of a cube, that
is to say, box-like, and has to a pronounced de
gree the strength and rigidity as well as resist
ance to vibration and other characteristics of
this form of construction.
Another object is the provision of a relay par
ticularly adapted for and meeting the high stand
Among the principal features and advantages
ard of` performance required in mobile military '
.equipment such as combat airplane installations
and the like, but having features and character
of the relay 0f our invention is the ability to seat
the armature ñush with the core of the coil, re
istics which make it particularly desirable for
gardless of the fact that unfavorable tolerances
use in the electrical fields generally.
10 of assembled parts will pile up in such a way as
to require adjustment. The necessary parallel
The several unusual features and characteris
tics of the relay of our invention will be brought
ism is obtained without affecting the magnetic
eiiiciency of the relay. The parallelism of the
out more clearly in the specification which fol
armature with the core is maintained, regardless
In the drawings
15 of a pile up of unfavorable tolerances, by ad
justing the position of the armature pivot in such
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a relay con
a Way as not to affect the path of the magnetic
structed in accordance with our invention,
flux as it' passes. through the frame, armature
Fig. 2 is an elevational view, partly broken
away to show construction, looking from the
and cores.
I'. l
right hand side of Fig. 1,
This feature is obtained Without _affecting the
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the relay shown in
boX-likeconstruction heretofore referred to, and,
Fig. 1,
in the specific construction shown, by the utili
zation of a desirable and advantageous construc
Fig. 4 is an irregular bottom plan view looking
upwardly along the line 4_4 of Fig. 1,
tion and relation of relay frame and trunnion
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary plan sectional view of l.2:5 bracket, the latter providing the bearing for the
armature assembly. We also have been able to
the movable contact members,
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the Yline
incorporate in the relay, `to a remarkable extent,
5_6 of Fig. 2 looking in the direction of the
a condition of near static balance of the arma
ture assembly, sov that even under conditions of
Fig. 'î is an elevational view, partly in section, 30. severe vibration or rapid acceleration, the sus
ceptibility of the relay. to fail because of lack of
.looking at the left hand side of Fig. 1,
balance in any part is greatly reduced. Addi
Fig. 8 is an irregular sectional view taken on
tional features involve an unusual arrangement
the line 8-8 of Fig. 7, looking in the direction of
of armature restoring spring, and an improved
the arrows,
Fig. 9 is an irregular sectional view taken on 35 coil and core construction.
Still another feature involves an improved
the line 5-9 of Fig. 6 looking in the direction of
method of and means for adjusting the moving
-_the arrows,
Fig. 10 is a perspective view showing one of
Contact plates, whereby the usual procedure of
bending the plates to adjust the contacts is
the coils before being mounted in the frame,
Fig. l1 is a plan sectional view taken on the 40 avoided and the loss of Aadjustment _due to the
tendency of the bent plates to relax is obviated.
line II-II of Fig. 6,
'I‘he various features and advantages of our
Figs. 12, 13 and 14 are perspective views, re
spectively, of the relay frame, trunnion bracket
invention will be brought out in connection with
and armature,
Fig. 15 is a sectional view of a modified con
struction, the view being similar t0 Fig. 6 but
the embodiment shown having a different ar
rangement of contacts and terminal lugs, and
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary elevational view look
ing from the left hand side of Fig. 15.
the description of the embodiment comprising
Figs. 1 to 1_3, inclusive.
The frame 2|, shown in perspective in Fig. 12,
braced by a trunnion bracket 22 (Fig. 13), in the
manner shown in the several figures, forms the
principal support for the relay parts. In addi
50 tion to comprising a support, the frame 2|, being
magnetic, forms a part of the magnetic path in
The relay of our invention, as embodied in the
drawings, was primarily designed for the purpose
a manner common to relays; but the trunnion
bracket 22 is formed of non-magnetic material
of meeting the severe demands of mobile mili
tary equipment. It may take various forms and
such as brass.
some of the novel features still maintained, but 55 The trunnion bracket 22 has two generally V
shaped side pieces Z3, each shown with an inte
frame 2|. The stop screw 59 is adjustable as
appears clear from Fig. 6, and suitable locking
gral cross bar 24 with openings 26 aligning gen
erally with screw openings 21 in the frame mem
ber. The openings 21 may rather snugly receive
flat-headed counter-sunk machine screws 28 (see
Figs. 6 to 9, inclusive) but the openings 26 are
made large enough to permit adjustments for
reasons to be pointed out. A clamping bar 29
is threaded to receive the machine screws 26, thus
to hold the cross bar 24 of the trunnion bracket
in iirm engagement with the associated portion
of the frame 2|.
The V-shaped side members 23 _of the trunnion
bracket have inwardly extending projections 'ly
ing underneath forwardly extending portions 3|
means are provided such as the one shown on
the drawings involving the utilization of a lock
washer and lock nut. A residual shim 63 is se
cured _as by rivets 64 to that face of the armature
43 which is adjacent the pole pieces of the elec
tromagnets d4. This residual shim is formed of
suitable non-magnetic material such as nickel
It is understood, of course, that various types
of contacts _and contact blades may be controlled
by Ythe movement of the armature. In Figs. 1
>to 13, inclusive, 4.of the drawings, we show a pair
of stationary contact members 66 carried by the
of the frame member. Openings 32 in the trun
upper contact plate 38 and a pair of lower con
nion bracket align generally with elongated open
tac-ts v61 carried by the lower Contact plate 33.
Contact terminals 68 are provided for the upper
contacts 66 and contact terminals 69 for the
Fig. 2, openings 36 (Fig. 13) in the inwardly ex 20 lower contacts 61. The manner in which the
contacts and their terminals are constructed and
tending portions of the trunnion bracket receiving
mounted on the upper and lower contact plates
the rivets. The twin nuts are threaded to receive
appears clear from Fig. 8 and is also brought out
machine screws `31 which also extend through up
in part in the remaining ,iigures
per and lower Contact plates 38 and 3H, respec
ings 33 in the frame. Twin nuts 34 are rivetedto
the trunnion bracket in the manner indicated in
tively, a terminal lug mounting plate 4| (Fig. '8)
and insulating baiile plates 42, to thereby .sup
port . the stationary contact assembly on the
frame. The construction provides for adjustabil
ity _in `a manner and for a purpose to be pointed
An armature 43 (Fig. 14) is pivoted tothe trun
nien bracket and, in a usual manner, to be at,
tracted to the pole pieces of a pair of electromag
nets 44, some of the features of which will be ex
plained later. The armature is formed of ma
terial having suitable magnetic properties and
has associated with ita hinge-plate 46, preter
ably of non-magnetic material, into the ends of
which rare fitted trunníon or hinge pins .41, lthe
Contact blades 1|, in the embodiment shown,
comprising part of a U-shaped structure, carry
movable contacts 12 disposed between the upper
and lower contacts 66 and 61, respectively. Con
tact blades 1| are mounted on rthe armature con
tact bracket 53, shims 13 being disposed beneath
the contact blades, blade headers 14 being dis
posed above the contact blades, and lock washer
equipped machine screws 16 extending through
the entire assembly to maintain the contact
35 blades on the armature contact bracket 53.
The relay coils heretofore referred to as elec
tromagnets 44 comprise cores 11 having heads or
flanges 18 and 13, integral with the main shank of
the core and having an integral extension 8| ex
latter adapted to be engaged in openings 48 pro 40 tending through and riveted in an aperture pro
vided in the frame as shown in Figure 8. Wind
vided in the trunnion bracket. The hinge-plate
ings 82 of suitably selected copper wire are pro
46 lies along a generally, though not quite, right
tected by insulating headers v83, an insulating core
angular portion 4.9 of the armature and is suit
cover 84 ,and an outer suitably designed cover 86,
ably ,secured thereto. In the _draw-ings, we illus
the latter of which may follow conventional prac
trate va Ver-y desirable and simple constructionv
wherein yopenings >5| are provided in the angular'
The coils have leads 81 and 88, the former con
portion 49 of the >armature and `close, fitting .pro
nected and extending through a protecting insu
jections 52 (Fig. '7) formed by hal-f punches in
lating tube 89 and the latter leading to terminal
the hinge plate 46 extend into the openings .5|
thereby preventing relative movement between' 50 lugs 9| and y92 ,on the terminal lug mounting
plate 4|. Suitable conductors 93 and 64 connect
the hinge plate 46 and the armature so long as
the parts are held in face-to-face relation. An
armature contact bracket 53 is secured to the
top face of the angle portion 149 of .the armature,
and the hinge plate 46 and armature held in yas
sembled relation -by means of machine screws 54,
which machine screws extend through openings
the coils into a controlling .circuit such as in any
usual type of electrical equipment in which relays
are customarily employed.
Figs. 15 and 16 .show a modification. In this
form of the device, the construction is identical
with the previously described embodiment except
that the iirst described embodiment comprises a
provided in both the armature contact bracket
two _pole relay assembly with the moving poles
53 and armature angle portion 49 and .engage in
threaded apertures provided in the hinge-»plate 60 common and the latter is a three Pole relay con
taining certain modiiications with respect to the
`contacts and terminals only. In Figs. 15 and 16,
A restoring spring V56 has one end supported in
the parts identical with those in the previous iig
the frame as shown in Fig. 6 and the other end
ures bear identical numerals, but the correspond
looped around an annular recess provided near
the head of a restoring spring adjusting screw `51 65 ing parts bear the same numerals as in the iirst
described embodiment with the prefix “1” to indi
extending through a tail piece 58 on the angular
cate modiiication. There is a further modifica
»portion 49 of the armature. Adjustment of the
tion in that the upper contact plate |38 contains
screw 51 has very little or no eiîect upon the
a portion |33’ _extending over to a position above
actual tension in the spring 56, but its adjust
ment changes the point at which the force re- ”m O the armature contact bracket |53 and is provided
with terminal lugs 56, two of which are in elec
sulting from the spring tension is applied with
trical contact with leads |68 running to the coils,
respect to the `pivot points of the armature. A
and the .remainder of which are connected by
stop screw 59 extends through an extending por
means of conductors 91 to lugs 98 forming a con
tion .6| of the armature 43 and is adapted to ’have
its head engaged behind a stop portion 62 on the
tinuation of contact blades |1|.
The general manner of producing and assem
bling the relay of our invention will be apparent
from the drawings and the specific description thereof. Some of the novel details of construc
tion will also at once be recognized by those
skilled in the art. We invite attention particu
larly to the unusual compactness, ruggedness and
simplicity of design which is made possible by the
such as occur frequently with mobile military
equipment, relative movements of the parts of the
frames have occurred due to resonance and
forced vibrations. We have found that our con
struction is substantially free of the objection
pointed out, and, moreover, the advantages ob
tained with a minimum amount of weight as con
trasted with maximum rigidity. It will be noted
utilization of the various features, particularly
that the trunnion bracket is wedged between the
those stressed in the opening paragraphs of the 10 legs of the U-shaped frame to form a part of the
specification. For the assistance of those skilled
frame structure proper, with the coils on the web
in the art, however, we wish particularly to point
of the U, the armature pivot aligned with one leg
out some of the features which we believe to be
of the U, the stationary contact assembly car
particularly desirable and important.
ried by such leg of the U, and the movable con
A very important feature of our invention is 15 tact assembly carried by the armature. The re
the accurate location of the armature hinge with
storing spring is protected but accessible. A
respect to the cores of the coils, using features of
practical box results, very rugged and compact,
construction which will assure the manufacturer,
but still capable of many variations in electrical
independently of the position to which the hinge
design, as required by different demands of elec
pins are adjusted, of a uniformly high magnetic
20 trical circuits,
efliciency. Using the construction shown in the
Another feature of construction of the em
drawings, the following method of assembly may
bodiments shown is the distribution of the weight
be used: The twin nuts are riveted to the trun
of the armature assembly around the axis of rota
nion bracket; the trunnion bracket is placed in
tion in such a way as to approach a condition 0f
the frame and held loosely in place by the clamp
static balance. This construction also reduces
ing bar and screws 28. The coils are staked in 25 the susceptibility of the relay to fail under con
place, and the upper and lower contact plate sub
ditions of severe vibration, unusual shock due to
assemblies are mounted loosely on the frame by
jolting, rapid acceleration and deceleration, etc.
screws 31. The armature is now snapped into
We call attention to the structure and posi
place. The relay is then placed in a fixture which
tion of the restoring spring and the manner of
properly centers the armature with respect to the
adjusting it. It will be noted that the leverage 0f
frame and the sides of the trunnion bracket are
the spring is adjusted by moving one end of it
held in their proper positions. A pressure pad
closer to or further away from the axis of rota
presses down on the armature, moving the trun
tion of the armature rather than by changing the
nion bracket to such a, position as to allow the
tension of the spring as in the usual construc
amature to seat flush against both pole faces, or
in place of a pressure pad, the coils may be ener
gized during the process of assembling. While
tion. This is important-«because the compactness
of construction utilized for the purpose of secur
ing other objects of the invention results in plac
ing the spring in a position which Will make it
the relay is s0 held screws 31 and 54 are tight
ened. Parallelism will be obtained whether the 40
dimensions of the parts are such as to result in
the cores of the coils being relatively too long or
too short. Obtaining exact parallelism is fa
vored by using coils whose pole pieces are of sub
stantially identical length, In our method of 45
construction, by an upsetting operation, quite
uniform core pieces may be produced, but, if a
manufacturing method is used resulting in great
almost inaccessible if another form of adjust
ment Were employed. It may be noted particu
larly from Fig. 3 that the head of screw 51 is ac
cessible at a point between the contact blades 1l
(looking down from the top of the relay) and
the tension is adjusted merely by turning the
screw either to the left or right.
Still another important feature of our inven
tion resides in the construction and adjustment
of the contact blades. Those skilled in the art
according to length. Thus exact parallelism is 50 will appreciate that the usual procedure would be
obtained; and it will be noted that we employ a
to bend the blades to properly position the con
residual shim instead of a residual screw. We
tacts. This method is objectionable principally
have found that with good parallelism, wear on
in the fact that when the spring blades have
the shims is very small.
been bent, a strain is introduced in the metal
It will be noted that, by the use of two coils, we 55 and this strain tends to be relieved with the
provide means for adjusting pivot points of the
result that there is frequently a change in the
armature without loss at the air hinge gap,
setting of the blades with the passage of time
With a two coil construction, there is no air
after the adjustment is made. According to our
hinge gap loss because the hinge is not in series
method, we shim the blades to properly position
with the magnetic circuit. Bi-polar relays are
the contacts. The parts are constructed so that
er differentiation, pairs of cores may be matched
known, but, so far as we know, no one has em
ployed a bi-pole relay having the features and
advantages which we obtain. Relays with ad
justable armature mounting have also been pro
duced but the constructions employed have al
ways been such as to result in relatively high
losses at the hinge air gap.
The box-like construction which we employ in
our relay possesses very definite advantages,
particularly when the relay is employed in un
usual locations such as in various positions on
mobile military equipment. The usual L or U
shaped relay frames are satisfactory mechanically
under normal conditions but under conditions
where they are subjected to vibration frequencies
with no shim the movable contacts will engage
the stationary contacts 66 with insufficient con
tact pressure. By placing the proper shims in
position, the contact pressure desired may be ob
tained. We have developed a procedure by which
the proper shim can be predicated by a simple
preliminary measurement. In actual practice,
our method is as follows:
The blades are installed on the relay and the
blade mounting screws 16 tightened but without
shims 1.5 in position. Without shims it will be
recalled that the' contact pressure will be 10W.
The relay is then energized. By using a gram
gauge applied to the contact end of the blade
to measure the force necessary to just close the
contacts if they are not closed due to lack of ad
justment, or to just open the contacts (as indi
cated by a pilot light on a ñxture), the operator
can read from a chart the shims required to
properly raise the contact blade. From a produc
tion engineering standpoint, it is merely neces
of the double flanged c-ore. We prefer to pro
duce the vdouble flanged core by an upsetting
process because of the fact that the grain direc
tion is then along the core axis and continued into
sary to co-relate the force read from the gram
gauge with shim thickness which, of course, can
ducing a core of this kind by an uio-setting proc
ess also has the advantage of decreased cost as
also be shown arbitrarily. It is possible to read
the shim number directly from the gauge, but,
generally speaking, we prefer to furnish a con
the flange radially, thus further increasing the
over-all efficiency of the final relay design. Pro
those skilled in the art will understand.
We wish particularly to call attention to the
advantages obtainable by the coil-core construc
tion described. By following only the construc
version chart to the operator. rI‘his operation
tion of the core such as described, we can greatly
can be repeated for each pole of the relay and,
increase the efiiciency of any type of relay here
obviously, the feature can be applied to relays
other than the type shown in the drawings. We 15 tofore produced with the effect that with a given
wattage input there is an increase in mechanical
appreciate that other methods have been em
output. This results also in a greater safety factor
ployed for adjusting the movable contacts of re
in the form of greater contact pressure, greater
lays without having to bend the blades, but other
wear allowance, permitting a larger air gap, and
methods employed have added greatly to the
weight of the relay, have required more space, or 20 greater resistance to vibration. It must not be
assumed that the core is required to have two
possessed some other disadvantage. It will be
substantially symmetrical flanges, although at
noted that our construction has all of the ad
present, this would appear to be the preferred
vantages of compactness and lightness of weight
form. A relatively small core with large integral
of a simple form of relay wherein the contact
end extensions capable of fitting into and becom
blades are bent, but it has all of the advantages
ing part of the magnetic path together will func
of more elaborate construction in maintaining
tion to obtain the marked electromagnetic ef
the condition of the original adjustment.
One of the features of our invention is the
core and related construction. It has already
been pointed out that the core ‘il is provided with
two end flanges 18 and lil. By adopting the con
struction of the Adouble flange core, we ñnd it
possible to secure the advantages of a relatively
smaller diameter core without the attendant dis
advantages. The core diameter of the coil de
signed in accordance with our invention is just
ficiency to which we have referred.
The advantage of the use of some of the fea
tures of our invention is clear from the fact that
taking a standard relay we were able, with no
major change in design and location of the parts,
to increase the mechanical force available at the
stall point to about 2.75 times the normal value.
This was done with practically n0 increase'in
manufacturing cost on a relay which has been
large enough to have the maximum iiux density
substantially a standard piece of equipment for
without undue loss of ampere turns because of
Well over fifteen years.
It will, of course, be understood that the fea
over-saturation. We are then able to obtain more
turns of wire per ohm due to the fact that the 40 tures particularly pointed out and other features
and details of construction shown and described
average diameter of the turns is reduced because
may be embodied singly or in combination in
of the small core diameter, and consequently we
thereby obtain a greater number of ampere turns
per watt. The flange at the heel end, that is to
say, where the core is attached to the frame, re
duces greatly the reluctance at the air gap be
tween the core and frame. Although the core and
fraz'ne are actually in mechanical contact, from
a magnetic standpoint the eilect is the same as
if there were a break in the solid iron circuit of
other speciñc designs of relays without departing
from the invention as deñned in the appended
What we claim as new and desire to protect by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
l. In a relay of the character described, a
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec
tion formed of material having suitable magnetic
properties, a trunnion bracket formed preferably
about .001 inch; and this condition is exaggerated
of non-magnetic material wedged between legs
somewhat in usual designs of relays by the fact
of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair of coils
-that the parts are protected by a non-corrosive
having a core with one pole thereof secured to
plating. The reluctance of the circuit at the air
the said U shaped frame, and an armature piv
gap between the frame and core is generally in
oted to the trunnion bracket.
versely proportional to the area of the joint, so
2. In a relay of the character described, a
that increasing the area of the joint by means
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec
of the flange, as we do, the ampere turns lost at
tion formed of material having suitable mag
the junction are reduced markedly. Employing a
flange at the armature end of the core permits us 60 netic properties, a trunnion bracket formed pref
erably of non-magnetic material wedged between
to obtain the maximum energy at the air gap
legs of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair
of coils having a core with one pole thereof se
bination with the high permeance hinge arrange
cured to the said U shaped frame, and an arma
ment previously described. We are aware that
some of these features have been employed, but 65 ture pivoted to the trunnion bracket, said cores
being secured to a web portion of the frame be
so far as we know the various features which we
tween said legs, and said trunnion bracket being
employ have not been used together for the pur
adjustable along the said legs in a direction
pose and in such a way as to gain all of the ad
toward or away from said web, whereby to ad
vantage of a high permeance joint between core
and frame, an eiliciently small core diameter, a 70 just the parallelism between said armature and
faces of the poles of the cores of said coils when
high permeance hinge, and maximum energy at
the armature is sealed against the pole faces.
the air gap between the armature and core. It
_ 3. In a relay of the character described, a
is not essential that all of these features be em
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec
ployed together. We find that we can obtain a
tion formed of material having suitable mag
very great advantage by using only the feature
` and this feature, of course, is important in com
netic properties, a trunnion bracket formed pref
weight thereof is substantially distributed around
erably of non-magnetic material wedged between
the axis of rotation thereof.
7. In a relay of the character described, a
frame member of relatively U-shaped cross sec
tion formed of material having suitable magnetic
properties, a trunnion bracket formed preferably
of non-magnetic material wedged between legs
legs of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair of
coils having a core with one pole thereof secured
to the web portion of said U shaped frame, an
armature pivoted to the trunnion bracket, at
points substantially aligned with one leg of said
of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair of
U, a stationary contact assembly carried by said
coils having a core with one pole thereof secured
last-mentioned leg of the U, and a movable con
tact assembly carried by the armature, said con 10 to the web portion of said U shaped frame, an
armature pivoted to the trunnion bracket, a sta
tact assembly and main portion of the armature
tionary contact assembly carried by the frame,
being substantially balanced on opposite sides of
an armature contact bracket carried by the arm
the axis cf rotation of said armature.
ature, movable contact carrying blades carried
4. In a relay of the character described, a
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec 15 by said armature contact bracket, and shims
disposed between said blades and a face of said
tion formed of material having suitable magnetic
bracket, the thickness of the shims determining
properties, a trunnion bracket formed prefer
the contact pressure on actuation of the coils,
ably of non-magnetic material wedged between
whereby desired contact pressure may be ob
legs of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair
of coils having a core within one pole thereof 20 tained without bending the said blades.
8. In a relay, a frame of material possessing
secured to the web portion of said U shaped
suitable magnetic properties, a coil including a
framed, an armature pivoted to the trunnion
core having integral end flanges, comprising poles
bracket, at points substantially aligned with one
of the said core, one of said flanges being in
leg of said U, a stationary contact assembly car
ried by said last-mentioned leg of the U, and a 25 face-to-face contact with the frame, and an
armature adapted to engage the other of said
movable contact assembly carried by the arma
flanges as a pole piece in face-to-face relation.
ture, a restoring spring disposed between said
the direction of the grain of the metal in said
core extending along the core axis and radially in
30 the ñanges.
9. In a relay, a frame of material possessing
5. In a relay of the character described, a
suitable magnetic properties, a plurality of coils
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec
each including a core having integral end flanges,
tion formed of material having suitable magnetic
comprising poles of the said cores, one of said
properties, a trunnion bracket formed prefer
ably of non-magnetic material wedged between 35 flanges of each core being in face-to-face con
tact with the frame, an armature adapted to en
legs of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair
gage the other of said ñanges of said plurality of
of coils having a core with one pole thereof se
said cores as pole pieces in face-to-face relation
cured to the web portion of said U shaped frame,
and a bracket of non-magnetic material carried
an armature pivoted to the trunnion bracket,
at points substantially aligned with one leg of 40 by the frame, ~ said armature being pivotally
mounted on said bracket, and means for adjust
said U, a stationary Contact assembly carried by
ing said bracket relative to said frame in a direc
said last mentioned leg of the U, and a movable
tion parallel to the axes of said coils.
contact assembly carried by the armature, a re
10. In a relay of the character described, a
storing spring disposed between said coils with
one end thereof secured `to the web of the said U 45 frame formed of suitable magnetic material, at
least one coil having a core, one pole of which
and the other engaging a screw carried by a tail
is free and one pole secured to said frame, an
piece of the armature, said screw being accessible
armature pivoted to move into or out of engage
for turning whereby to vary the point of engage
ment with said free pole, said armature having
ment of the spring with respect to the pivot point
of the armature.
50 a tail piece, a screw threaded in said tail piece,
and having its axis at an angle to said armature,
6. In a relay of the character described, a
and a spring tensioned between said screw and
frame member of relatively U shaped cross sec
frame to draw the armature away from the pole
tion formed of materia1 having suitable magnetic
of said coil and core, the construction and ar
properties, a trunnion bracket; formed prefer
rangement of said spring and screw being such
ably of non-magnetic material wedged between
that turning of said screw changes the point of
legs of the U to form a box-like frame, a pair of
which the force resulting from the spring ten
coils having a core with one pole thereof secured
sion is applied with respect to the pivot point of
to the web portion of said U shaped frame, an
the armature.
armature pivoted to the trunnion bracket, and
a movable contact assembly carried by the arma 60
ture, the armature and parts carried thereby
being so constructed and arranged that the total
coils with one end thereof secured to th'e web of
the said U and the other to a tail piece on said
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