Патент USA US2405359код для вставки
Aug- 5, 1945- ‘ ' ' s. L. G. KNOX ' ELASTIC FLUI-D ENGINE Filed Feb. 16, 1945 Q 2,405,359 I ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘ v s. L‘. G. KNOX ‘ 2,405,359 ELASTIC/“FLUID ENGINE ' ' Filed Feb. 16, 1945' a? 4‘Sheets-Sheet 2 ' A. 6, 1.946. s. |_. G. KNOX 2,405,359 ELASTIC FLUID ENGINE Filed Feb. 16, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 @um HO 9 Z104 6+ 3 a B1 . @7225"; Aug; a, 1946. - ' ' s, L, G, KNOX 2,405,359 ELASTIC FLUID ENGINE Filed Feb. 16, 1945 0 ...__4 ~____'. g0 4w ____,_(____ 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Aug. 6, 1946 2,405,359 UNITED STATES‘ PATENT OF FICE 2,405,359 1 - ' ELASTIC FLUID ENGINE Samuel Lippincott Griswold Knox, New York, N. Y. x “ . Application February 16, 1945, Serial ,No. 578,160 , 7 Claims. (o1.~121_V101) .1 This invention relates to improvements in elas- I I .2 v , _ V Figs.'4, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 46’ are developed view tic ?uid engines, and more particularly to recip of a portion of the piston and sleeves as the latter rocating engines operated by a compressed elastic are seen from the interior of the piston, ‘showing fluid such as steam in which the functions of the progressive positions .of piston ports to sleeve usual valves for controlling steam distribution are ports through one-‘half. rotation of the crank performed by'the piston which is given elliptical shaft, the displacement of the sleeves correspond motion in its cylinder. ing- to counterclockwise rotation of the crank In conventional reciprocating engines, distribu shaft as viewed in Fig. 2. tion of steam to the cylinder is controlled by Fig. 5 is a view corresponding to Fig. 4, showing valves operating with “angles of advance” rela 1.0 opposite displacement of the sleeves to effect op tive to piston, thereby to admitv steam to the posite operation of the engine. cylinder and thereafter to effect steam cut-off so that the expansion of the steam will be translated As with other engines,‘ an engine according to the present invention may be constructed with a into useful mechanical work. The present inven single cylinder or with multiple cylinders. How tion has for its principal object the simpli?cation 15 ever, since a two-cylinder double acting arrange of steam engine design and operation through the ment represents the simplest self-starting con provision of an engine which is valveless in the struction, the following description will be based sense that it has no valve, separate from the pis on this type. It will be noted also that the in ton, for controlling steam distribution, and in vention is not limited to the vertical engine ar which the functions of a valve in eifecting distri 20 rangement as illustrated. . ~ bution are performed by the piston itself. More‘ Referring in detail to the drawings wherein like speci?cally, the present invention provides a re reference characters designate like parts ciprocating engine in which the piston is given throughout the several views, with the letters H elliptical motion and wherein such motion is uti and C designating head and crank end parts, re lized, in conjunction with ported skirts on the 25 spectively, and thus differentiating opposite, sim piston and ported sleeves which are interposed ilarly numbered parts, the two-cylinder engine between the piston and its cylinder, to effect the shown comprises a cylinder block 6 having two necessary steam distribution for either direction elongated cylinder spaces, in each of which oper of engine operation. According to a further fea ates apiston l which, as shown in Fig. 2, is formed ture of the invention, the ported sleeves afore 30 with‘ a long skirt 7H at its head end and a similar ' said are so constructed and arranged as to be dis skirt '7C'at its crank end. A piston rod 8 con placeable relatively to each other and to the pis nects the pison to the cross head 9 and the latter ton for the purpose of controlling the direction is connected by connecting rod ill to the crank of engine operation and also to regulate steam shaft ll turning in bearings generally as shown. cut-off. 35 The aforesaid engine parts are arranged as usual Other objects will be in part obvious and in part to convert the expansive force of the steam to hereinafter pointed out in connection with the rotative force on the crank shaft H. In Fig. ,2‘, following analysis of this invention wherein is reference characters, I2, I 3 designate, respec illustrated an embodiment of the invention in tively, coaxially related head and crank end detail. 40 sleeves which are interposed between the piston In the drawings” _ Fig. 1 is a part sectioned elevation of a two cylinder engine according ‘to the invention taken generally on line l-l of Fig. 2, which shows a and its cylinder, the sleeves having their adjacent ends lapped as shown and being mounted in the cylinder block for angular (circumferential) dis placement relative to each other and hence to the typical engine arrangement of cylinder block, 45 piston l. cross-head, connecting rod and crankshaft, and Oscillating motion in addition to the usual which moreover illustrates in detail the sleeve dis translation of the piston is obtained by incor placing mechanism of the present invention. porating bevel gear teeth 14 built into‘ the con Fig. 2 is a section ‘through. one cylinder of the rod I0 which mesh with the teeth of a engine taken on line 2--2 ofFig. 1, showing the 50 necting bevel pinion sector [.5 which is a?ixed to the lower piston in its head-end dead-center position, and end of the piston rod 8. The teeth l4, 15 are further illustrating sleeve mounting and arrange located between the cross head and crank pin of ment relative to piston according to the inven the connecting rod I0, so that as the crankshaft rotates, motion of the connecting rod in a plane tion. ‘ ’ ._Fig. 3 is a section taken'online 3--,3\"of Fig. 1. 55 transverse to vertical translation will produce 2,405,359 4 shown to be formed as parts of a unitary cast ing secured to the cylinder block side. The cast ing in its intermediate portion provides a bear ing for a tubular sleeve 2'! mounted for both partial rotation of the bevel sector l5 and there fore of the piston rod 8 and piston ‘I. This 08 oillating rotational movement, combined with the normal reciprocation of the piston rod, pro duces piston motion such that any point of the piston surface moves in a substantially elliptical rotary and reciprocating motion, through the bore of which extends valve stem 11a of poppet valve ll. The tubular stem 21 is keyed to a ‘bevel segment, 28 meshing with a bevel pinion path. Steam is supplied to the enginefrom any suit 29 journaled for'rotation about a ?xed axis hav able source th'rough’a pipe IS, a poppet valve I‘! controlling passage of steam from the pipe to 10 ing bearing in the chest"casting. The bevel pinion is fast on a cylindrical pinion 30 (Fig. 3), lower and upper chests 180, NH which communi-__ cate through branch pipes l8a, |8b (Fig. 1).‘, the teeth of which mesh with upper and lower The chests open respectively into annular'vhea'de" racks- SIH, 31c, which are pivotally joined at and crank end steam passages lBpI-I, l-9_C formed 7 theirends to studs 32H, 32C aihxed to the sleeves in the cylinder wall. The latter passages poem-i"is 12,13, respectively. Thus, by reference to Fig. 1, municate through openings _(not shown) provided, ,it will be observed that counterclockwise rota nonvorthe bevel pinion 29 incident to leftwise in the cylinder wall sides "with aTY'plurality of-' turningv of sleeve 21 results in displacement of head and crank end admission ports 201-1, 2516; I the upper rack HR to the left and correspond which are formed in the sleeves l2, l3,‘respéc‘-' .tively, andare arranged'inciroular series therein. TheJpiston‘ skirts are also provided with‘ a‘like number of head andcrank'end ‘ports 21H,v ZIC', ‘ respectively, ‘similarly arranged in circular series faridiunctioning ‘to pass'iste'am' through‘ the pis skirts to’ the finterior ' ‘er ‘ the‘ piston. 20 ing displacement of the lower rack 34C. to the right; As the racks’ area?ixed ‘to. the'sleeves, the latter are‘ correspondingly displaced in =oppo site dire'c'tions‘and ‘by a given amount ‘depending onithe degree of rotation‘of‘sleeve?. I‘ ' ‘ The tubular sleeve 27 terminates at its upper The ‘li'z'e’d‘to‘ open and close 'thd'pist‘on ports to the admission ports 20H, 20C‘ ‘of ‘the vsleeves l2; 13, respectively," "These sleeves‘ ‘arepositioned in a endin a head 21a, against‘which ajheads‘l'lb, formed at the upper end of’ the poppet'stem Ila is secured, whereby lowering'movement or the sleeve'results in corresponding vlowering'move ‘20C'provided' therein, the ‘sleeves l2, l3 are-each connected to a swiveltl turning ina ?xed support ports, ‘the supplementary "ports 22H-'of"sleeve its ‘free end is formed integral with the duplex at _> ’ "elliptical ‘motion‘vof‘ _the'_pisto_n ‘is 'uti manner to" be described‘ so that admission of 30 ment of the stem and opening of the poppet valve H. The sleeve head" carries a yoked clevis“ 34 steam‘occurs just before, piston dead-‘center and between the‘ upper leg' ends of which is pivoted thatjthe' point of cut-"off is‘ regulated‘ by ‘the ’ angu one end of a ‘duplex link‘35. . The other end of la'r'riposition' of the sleeves relative to each other the ‘link 35 is pivoted‘to‘the lower end ‘of' an arm andjtoth'e‘piston.""*ii“‘j " " " ' I “" In addition tov the steam admission ports 20H, is 36, the upper end of the latter being pivotally 38; 'An operating lever 60 having a handle at provided '"with'two supplementary admission‘ 'l2'a'n'd the like‘ports 22C offsl'ee've 13 'bein'g‘more ’ or less symmetrically disposed on'opposite‘sides for the'sleeve center-lines ‘as'indicated intFigs. 4 link 35 and carries a pivoted locking handle 4| for a'pawl 42,'the latter being adapted to ratchet 46 with teeth: (iS'eXtending along ‘an arcuate edge formed on an extended portion of the arm 36. ‘and-5. The function ‘of the supplementary ports is to allow a 'small'amount‘ of steam" to pass‘to _~By the above'described ‘arrangement, raising movement ‘of operating lever 40 results in lower ing movement of both tubular stem 21 and poppet the 'enginejafter the piston ‘closes'the main sleeve ‘admissionrports whereby the desirable'delayed stem Na, and hence inv opening'of the poppet valve H, the linkage system being such'th'at cut-off ‘features disclosed and claimed in" my prior» Patent No; 2,091,996; dated September '7, 1937; are‘obtained‘and ‘the engine will ‘be self; starting 'in spite~of early cut-‘off. The supple raising’ movement of the ‘lever ‘results in vgradu are-‘controlled by the 'en‘ds’of the piston skirts, ZB-and angular displacement oithe sleeves l2, ated ‘opening- of the-valve asrequired to e?ect mentary ports ‘22H; :226 are of restricted size, to throttling. ‘ Locking handle operates through pawl 42 and ratchet ‘43 to hold thepoppet valve 'as-shown, and are 'thus unable to pass any sub to any‘desired degree of opening.- 'In- addition stantial amount of'steam when the- engine'is to its raising movement as aforesaid, the oper running atsnormal speed; ‘ 1 ~ ' f ating lever‘is also bodily turnable to each side The" cylinders‘ ‘ are exhausted ‘by: vconventional of a normal central position, the latter‘ move uniflow ports‘ 2311;"2'30 in- the upper and lower ment resulting in (turning of the bevel segments ends of’ the sleeves'jl2,‘ l3; respectively, which 13in opposite direction as-aforesaid. Accord and>~which open‘ into the exhaust jacket space ingly, the described arrangement provides a'sin— 24.’ In order-to delay the‘sta'rt of compression, advantage is taken ‘of the piston ports 241-1, 210 60 gle control for effecting throttling and for deter mining the direction of engine operation. 5 And, and the elliptical travel'of the-piston by providing due to the fact that displacement'of the? sleeves aplurality of ~~auxiliaryexhaust ports 251-13256 42,13 is also employed to 'vary-cuteoff," the single control means as aforesaid additionally provides in- the head and'crank'end sleeves l2, l3. ' Both the "uni?ow exhaust and the auxiliary exhaust ports are arranged in circular series, generally ' means ‘for varying cut-loff through ' angular- dis "as shown. While-not necessary to engine-oper ation; the inclusion of the auxiliary exhaust ports a'spermittedby the elliptical motion -of the pis ton-resultsl-in improved engine operation over ‘the comjentional-uniflow design. -' ~ - -. » Provision is made for shifting- the sleeves, l2, 1|3,-Yeircumferentially"a given amount‘ and in op positei direction, thus tocontrol ‘the'direct-io'n of placement of the-sleeves] 4 ~ ~ ? " I Figs; 4-, 411,411, 40; 4d; 46 illustrate the progres sive positions of the’ piston ports to ‘sleeve ports through one-half ‘rotation of the'crank shaft; and will serve to explain the operation of the engine; In Fig. '4 the piston‘ ‘I ‘is shownin'its head-end dead-‘center #position; ' and the‘ sleeves - l 2, '--l 3‘ are shown as displaced relatively to‘ieach other from their mean or central positions to sleeve posit-ions Referringlto Figsgl'l-3gith'e" chests “5H,- I-8C‘ are 75 corresponding lto‘counterclockwi-se direction ‘of enginewp'eration, 'arid?alsoto‘vary the cut-off; __,, 12,405,259, rotation‘ of the engine as indicated‘ ‘by. crank shaft arrow (Fig. 2). With the motion of the "piston being such-‘thatany point on the p'iston,‘and spe ci?cally-the‘point P thereon, moves in an ellip ticalipath, the motion of the piston is designated in the said ?gures by adot and dash ellipse, and thecounterclockwise direction ofmotion by the applied arrow. For such direction of rotation, the supplementary port 22H to‘the right of thecenter line of sleeve I2, and the supplementary port 220 to the left ‘of the center line of sleeve l3 .are op erative, the alternate set of supplementary ports being inoperative, i, e, at‘ all times .coverediby the piston. , , Y i I. In Fig. 4 it will be'seen that the piston ports 2IH have just opened to sleeve ports 20H, with ton, and that they control-and. distribution of the steam to the cylinders‘ thereof vis'obtain‘ed through the elliptical motion of ‘thepiston, in conjunction with the ‘use of ported piston skirts andported . sleeves which. are interposed between: the skirted pistonandits cylinder, vIn addition to simpli?e cation of steamengine design and operation, the invention further provides an extremely simple yetie'?ective means to varyv the p'oint;'of,.cut-..off , through variation in the degree vof sleevedisplace~ ment relative to piston, and hence a ‘variation. of the pointat which the piston ports move-‘out .of registry ‘ with the sleeve. admission ports. 1 The invention .also provides an. exceedingly‘ simple means of reversingithe direction of engine. opera: tion, which feature is achieved by the simple ex-. the'engine crank on dead-center. No other ports pedient ofl displacing . the sleeves .by va given > are open except uni?ow exhaust ports 23C at the amount to opposite sides oftheirnormal central crank or opposite end ,Ofthe cylinder. Fig; 4a position; ‘The invention valso makes use‘ of; the shows a further advanced position with piston ports .2 l H open to sleeve ports 20H. At‘the oppo 20 motion of the piston in itdelaying the. start of-coni pression,.-as well as to-e?iect delayedcut-oii and site- end of the cylinder themain exhaust ports hence self-starting of thezeng'ine; 1‘ . f; . 230 have been closed by the piston skirt 70. While ‘the above description‘ refers to the .use However, at this point of piston travel, the piston of ported sleeves by which the desirablevariable ports ZIC are starting to open to the.v auxiliary cutoff: and reversing- 1. features . are in; part exhaust ports 250. thus delaying the start of com achieved, such sleeves are ‘not essential,to.an-,.en~. pression at the crank end of the cylinder. gine operatingas' described where the variablev . Fig. 4b shows the approach to the cut-olT of steam at the upper or head end of the cylinder, sion port 22H is admitting a small quantity of steam, thereby delaying cut-off for self-starting. At the crank end ofv the cylinder, auxiliary ex haust through ports 250 is still taking place. Fig. 4c shows that main cut-o? has taken place at the head end of the cylinder except for supplemen tary admission through small port 22H. At the lower‘ end of the cylinder, auxiliary ports 250 have been covered so that further down move cutoff and reversing provisions are'notrequired, , and hence may be omitted ‘without departing and alsothat the operative supplementary admis from the scope and spirit of they present inven tion.' Moreover, although the, engine‘ as de scribed has been referred to‘ speci?callyas va steam engine, it can of course be operated by‘ the pressure of elastic ?uids other than steam. Hence, it is to be understood that where steam is used throughout the speci?cation and in- the claims, such use is made for convenience’on-ly and is intended to designate and embrace all forms of elastic ?uids capable ,of operating en; ment'of the piston eiTects compression therein. Fig.‘ 4d shows cut-off of the operative supplemen 40 gines of the character herein described. _ > tary port 220, Comparison of piston position in vIt is also to be understood thatthe word “ellip Fig. 4d with that shown in Fig. 4b illustrates the tical” as used in the foregoing description and in difference between the main and supplementary the appended claims to descri'be'the motion or cut-off. Fig. 4e shows the uni?ow exhaust ports path of travel of the piston is employed for con 23Hat the head end of the cylinder open. At the venience to de?ne its simultaneous reciprocat crank end, the piston ports 2|C are just ap ing and rotating'movement or travel, which'may proaching sleeve ports 200 so that main admis not follow a true geometric ellipse. Accordingly sion to the crank end of the cylinder is about to the expressions “elliptical motion” and “elliptical begin. I ’ 50 path” as herein used are to be broadly construed With the aforesaid views showing successive to embrace any and all such motion or travel of positions of the piston and sleeve ports through the piston as results from its compounded re one-half revolution of the crank shaft, by simple ciprocating and rotative movement. reversal they also illustrate successive piston and Moreover as many changes could be made in port positions for the other half of the crank 55 carrying out the above construction without de shaft revolution. parting from the scope of the invention, it is Fig, 5 is a view corresponding to Fig. 4 but intended that all matter contained in the above illustrating displacement of the upper sleeve l2 description or shown in the accompanying draw to the right and of the lower sleeve l3 to the left ings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not of their relative position shown in Fig. 4, as re in a limiting sense. quired for rotation of the engine in opposite di 60 I claim: rection. In the View, the motion of the piston is 1. In a reciprocating engine, a cylinder, a pis in clockwise direction, with the point P describ ton, the cylinder having steam supply and ex ing the elliptical path shown. Inasmuch as rela haust openings, a sleeve interposed between the tive position of piston and sleeve ports follows generally that described in connection with Figs. 65 piston and the cylinder,‘ the sleeve having admis sion, supplementary exhaust and main uni?ow ' 4—4e, inclusive, with the diiference that the pis exhaust ports opening to the cylinder supply and ton in Fig. 5 is moving clockwise, no detailed exhaust openings and to the cylinder space, the description or repeated illustrations for the oppo piston having end skirtsv provided with ports site direction of rotation and with the sleeves po 70 opening to the interior of the skirted ends there sitioned as in Fig, 5 is believed to be necessary. of, the sleeve and piston ports having a relation Without further analysis it will be self-evident ship such that the piston ports open and close from the above description that an engine accord the interior of the skirted ends of the piston to ing to the invention is “valveless” in the sense the steam supply and‘ exhaust openings during that it employs no valves separate from the pis 75 motion of the piston inpan elliptical path, and 2,405,359 ‘ 8 in either direction thereby ,to control the direc means responsive ;v to, the, operation of _ the engine tionof- engineyoperation. for imparting felliptical :motion, to the piston. , _~ " , q 5. In‘ a: reciprocating engine,-; a cylinder,v a ‘In 'a reciprocating engine, a, cylinder, 9. pis ton,- the cylinder havingsteam "supply and ex haust‘ openings, a sleeve interposed ‘between the pistonwand the‘ cylinder, the sleeve having main skirted piston, an’ angularly displaceable sleeve interposed between piston and cylinder, the ,cyl inder having ‘steam supply andexhaust openings, the sleeve, and the, pistonskirts being provided with cooperating ports adapted upon motion’ of admission, : supplementary , (admission, ' supple mentary_..exhaust and'main ~.uniflow exhaust the piston in an elliptical path to control admis ports'opening ;to the cylinder supply and exhaust sionof steam to the interior of the skirted ends 10 openingsrespectively, and to the cylinder space, of the piston andto e?ect steam cut-01f, means the‘piston ‘having end skirtsprovided‘ with ports opening to theinteriorthereof; ‘thesleeve and piston ports being'so related'and arranged that responsivetoengine operation for imparting el liptical motionto the piston, and means for ef fecting angular displacement of the sleeve there the pistonports open the interior of the skirted by to vary the point of cut-off. ' 15 ends ofv the piston successively to the :main and ~ 6. In a reciprocating double acting engine, a supplementary"admission ports, and to the ex cylinder, a skirted piston, coaxial sleeves inter, haust portsof the sleeve upon motion‘ of the-pis posed between piston and cylinder and being ton in, an elliptical path, and means responsive mounted for relative. angular displacement, the to the operation of the engine tor-imparting el cylinderhaving' steamisupply and exhaust open 20 lipticalmotionlto,therpiston. v , . _ ~; ings, thelsleeve'and the piston skirts being pro _3. In aireciprocating double. acting engine, a vided withicooperating ports adapted, upon» mo cylinder, a-skirtedfpiston, coaxial relatively dis tion of the piston in' an elliptical path to control placeable sleeves interposed between piston and admission of steam to‘the interior of the'skirted - cylinder, the'cylinder having steam supply and ends of the piston and to effect steam cut-off, 25 exhaust openings, the sleeves and the piston means responsive to engine operation for im skirts being provided with ports for opening the parting elliptical motion to the piston, and means interior of the ‘skirted ends of the piston to the for effecting relative angular displacement of , supply vand exhaust openings, respectively, upon the sleeves thereby to vary the point'of cut-off. motion of the piston in an elliptical path, means 7. In a reciprocating double acting engine, a responsive to engineeoperation for imparting el 30 cylinder, a skirted piston, coaxial sleeves inter liptical motion ‘to the piston, and means for dis posed between piston and cylinder and being placing the sleeves _an_equal amount in opposite mounted for relativeangular displacement, the directions whereby to effect control of the direc cylinder having steam supply and exhaust open tion of engine operation. ings, the sleeve and the piston skirts being pro cylinder, a skirted piston, coaxial relatively dis placeable sleeves interposed between piston and cylinden'the cylinder having steam supply and exhaust openings, the. sleeves and the piston flow of steam to the interior of the skirted ends , 4,,In a reciprocating double acting engine, a 35 vided with cooperating ports adapted upon mo skirts being provided'with ports for opening the interior of the skirted ends of the piston to the supply ‘and exhaust openings, respectively, upon tion of the piston in an elliptical path to control of the piston and said ports being arranged so > 40 motion of the piston in an elliptical path, means responsive to engine operation for imparting elliptical motion to the piston, the relation and arrangement of sleeve ports to piston ports being such that opposite displacement of the sleeves to the sides of a mean position is required to effect engine operation in a given direction, and means for effecting opposite displacement of the sleeve 50 that opposite angular displacement of the sleeves from a central position is required for operation of the engine in one direction and that reverse angular displacement of the sleeves from, said central position is required for reverse engine operation, and a single control means selectively operable to_effect throttling of steam passing to the engine supply openings and to effect equal and opposite displacement of the sleeves in either direction. " ~ ' ' , SAMUEL LIPPINCO-TT GRISWOLD KNOX.