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Патент USA US2405362

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Awg» 5, 194%
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s. K. LEHMAN ET AL.
DE — I GER UNLOADING VALVE
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.
Filed Aug. '11, 194.5‘ '
s Sheets-Sheet '1
'
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‘
INVENTORS
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s. K. LEHMAN ETAL
DE-ICER UNLOADING VALVE
‘Filed Aug. 11, 1943
s Sheets-Sheet v2
Afr/awn’
Aug-
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A0532?
s. K. LEHMAN ETAL
' DE~ICER UNLOADING VALVE
Filed Aug. 11! 1943'
s Sheets-Sheet :5
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INVENTORS
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‘AT TORNEY
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'
Patented Aug. ‘6, 1946
2,405,362
UNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE“
DEICER UNLOADING VALVE
Samuel K. Lehman, Brooklyn, N. Y., and Myron
L. Taylor, Ridgewood, N. .L, assignors to Ben
dix Aviation Corporation, Teterboro, N. J., a
corporation of Delaware ‘
1
'
Application August 11, 1943, Serial No. 498,249
'7 Claims. (Cl. 244-134)
' 2
Our present invention relates to pressure me
dium controls, valves and systems and more par
ticularly to valve structures and systems for use
in aircraft de-icer controls.
In aircraft de-icer systems, several arrange
ments of distributing valves and air pressure
‘utilization for ?exible boot ‘members have been
shown and described in the prior art. Many of
Other objects and advantages of this invention
are set forth in the following description, taken
with the accompanying drawings‘; and the novel
7 features thereof are pointed out in the appended '
claims.
these systems have utilized large amounts of ,
complicated air conduit supplied with air from a
central motor-driven distributor valve for the dis
tribution of air under pressure to the boot ele
ments so as to break up and eliminate ice form
ing over the leading edges of wings and tail sur
vii)
The disclosure, however, is illustrative
only and changes may be made in detail, espe
cially in matters of shape, size and arrangement
of parts within the principle of the invention to
the full extent indicated by the meanings of the
terms in which the appended‘ claims are ex
pressed.
‘
‘
y
Y
‘
In‘ the accompanying drawings which form
a part of ‘this speci?cation like characters of ref
erence indicate like parts in the several ‘views
faces.
wherein:
Heretofore it has also been proposed to utilize
a single pressure conduit for supplying air to the
several boot elements.
..
'
-'
.
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'
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic top plan view of an
aircraft with certain portions broken away so as
to better show our novel'unloading system for a
' In the latter system the air is placed under
pressure operated de-icer and illustrating an ap
pressure through-means of pressure pumps driven " 20 plication of our novelcontrol valve.
by the aircraft motors. In such prior systems,
' Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary cross sec
however, when conditions are such as not to re
quire the use of the de-icers the pressure built
tional view of Figure 1 ‘taken along the lines 2‘—2
:and looking in the direction of the arrows: .
Figure 3 is an end view of my control valve
up in the conduit tendsv to create a back pressure
which places an unnecessary‘ and undesirable 25
load on the pressure pumps and the aircraft mo
Therefore, in order to eliminate such back pres
sure, it is an object of our invention to provide
a simplified and improved de-icer air distribution
system comprising a single pressure conduit and
means for unloading the pressure from this con
"
.
'
‘
Figure 6 is a longitudinalsectional view simi
lar to Figure 5'showing the control valve in an
'
open position.
a simple and efficient unloading system for such '
a single pressure conduit operated de-icer sys
tern.
Another object of our invention is to provide
a novel unloading valve for a pressure conduit
Another object of our invention is to provide
simple control means for releasing the aforesaid
holding pressure so that said unloading valve
"
valve in a closed'position.
Another object of our invention is to provide
having means operated by the pressure within
the conduit for holding the unloading valve closed.
.
Figure 4 is a‘ perspective‘ viewof Figurev 3'.
Figure 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of Fig
ure 3 taken along the lines 5—5 looking in' the
direction of the arrows and showing the control
‘tor.
duit when the de-icer is not in use.
with certain parts broken away.
' 40
'
Figure 7 is a fragmentary view taken along the
lines ‘l-l of Figure 5, and looking in the direc
tionof the arrows.
'
'
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I
~
Figure 8 is a fragmentarycross-sectional view
taken along the lines 8—-8‘of Figure 5 and look
ing in the direction of the arrows.
,
7
Referring ?rst to Figure 1, the invention is
illustrated as applied to an airplane comprising
'a fuselage I and having wings 2 and vertical and.
horizontal stabilizers 3 audit, respectively.
.
A plurality of in?atable units are mounted at
may be opened under the biasing force of the ' = the leading edge of the forward wings 2. These
pressure within the said pressure conduit. ‘
in?atable units are indicated on the port wing
Another object of our invention is to provide
by the numerals 5, 6, '1 and 8, while .on the star
a novel control valve for a pressure conduit hav
board wing correspondingv in?atable units are in
ing means operated by the pressure within the
dicated by numerals 5A, 6A, ‘IA and 8A. In?at
conduit for closing the valve against the biasing ’ able units‘ are further provided atythe leading
force of such pressure.
edge of‘ the horizontal ‘stabilizers indicated at the
A further object of our invention is to provide
portside by the numeral .9 and at the starboard
a compact unloading valve small in size and'of
side by the numeral Ill. A further in?atable unit \
such simplicity in construction as to adapt it for
H, is provided at the leading edge of the vertical
manufacture and installation at low cost.
55 ‘stabilizer as shown in Figure 1;
2,405,362
3
The said in?atable units are constructed of
elastic rubber-like material suitably reinforced
and secured upon the wing or other airfoil and
each unit comprises one or more in?atable tubes.
In the illustrated embodiment each unit comprises
three tubes for in?ation, indicated in Figure 2 by
the numerals [2, I3, and I4. The tubes 12 and
14 are arranged ior in?ation and de?ation to
gether while the tube I3 is separately in?atable
from the tubes l2 and I4 as will be explained.
Extending spanwise of the wing 2 are main
air pressure and suction conduits indicated by
numerals l5 and IB, respectively. The air pres
sure conduit [5 is connected. by conduits H, [8,
l9, and 20 to suitable air pressure pumps 21, 22,
23, and 24 driven by the airplane motors 25, 26,
21, and 28, respectively. The suction conduit I6
is connected by a conduit 29 to a suction inlet
conduit 30 driven by the motor 21.
There are further provided separate distribu
tor valve units 3| for» controlling the in?ation
and de?ation of the aforesaid in?atable units,
through conduits 32 and 32A.
4
plate 54 has mounted therein an annular sleeve
55 open at the opposite ends and projecting
through the plate \54 into the chamber 5| so as to
form a valve seat 55A at the inner end thereof.
The plate 54 is secured to the casting 50 by screws
56 and has provided a suitable sealing gasket 51
positioned between the plate 54 and the casting
50.
A conduit 58 leading into the outer open end
of the sleeve 55 and connected to the main pres
sure conduit l5 as shown in Figures 5 and 6 is
secured to the plate 54 and casting 50 by bolts
59 suitably fastened by nuts ‘59A. A suitable
sealing gasket 60 is positioned between the con
duit 58 and the plate 54. The conduit 58 as
shown in Figures 3 and 4 is of a double end type
for convenience in mounting in the pressure con
duit I5. If an end is unused it may conveniently
be closed by an end plug 58A screw threadedly
20 engaged therein as shown in Figure 3.
A valve member 5! for controlling the opening
at the inner end of the sleeve 55 is connected by
The exhaust pres
a pin 62 to an end 63A of a bell crank lever 63.
The bell crank lever 63 is pivotally mounted at
conducted outward through an exhaust or over 25 a point intermediate the opposite ends by a pin
64 carried by an arm 65. The arm 65 is mounted
board conduit 323 during de?ation of the tubes.
on the plate 54 and projects into the chamber 5!.
The said distributor valve units 3! are connected
sure from the in?atable tubes l2, [-3, .and 1-4 is
directly into the main pressure and suction con- .
The valve member 6-! carries a suitable sealing
member (“A of rubber-like material and is ar
duits l5 and I6, respectively and are preferably
ranged
to rock slightly on the pin 62 to assure
30
of the type described in the copending applica
the proper seating of the sealing member 6 IA on
tion of Donald M. Lawrence, David Gregg, and
the valve seat portion 55A in sealing relation
Myron L. Taylor, Serial No. 498,248, filed August
thereto. An end 63B of the bell crank lever 63 is
I1, 1943, and owned by the assignee of the pres
operably engaged by an actuating pin 66.
ent application.
.
Formed in the opposite side of the casting 56
A suitable relief valve 36 is mounted interme 35 from the chamber 5| is an annular recess 6'!
diate the opposite ends of the spanwise extending
positioned in opposite relation to a second annu
pressure conduit l5 for relieving the pressure
lar recess 53 formed in a casting 65!. The cast
within the conduit t5 upon the same increasing
ing 69 is mounted on the casting 50 by the fasten
beyond a predetermined maximum value.
40 ing bolts 10 as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
There is connected at the relief valve 36 a sec
Positioned between casting 50 and the casting
ond pressure line 31 which extends longitudinally
69- is a diaphragm .1! best shown in Figures 5
of the plane to a distributor valve 38 positioned
and 6 which extends across the oppositely dis
at the rear of the plane and of likeconstruc
posed annular recesses 61 and 68 and separates
tion to the distributor valves '3 l.
45 the same so as to form therein chambers 12 and
The distributor valve .38 is arranged for con
13, respectively.
trolling through the conduits 39 and 40 the in
The actuating pin 66 extends through a suitable
?ation and de?ation of the in?atable units 9, l0,
aperture formed in the casting 55 into engaging
and H, Exhaust pressure during de?ation is
relation with the diaphragm ‘H.
conveyed outward through conduit 4|.
Plates ‘(4 and 15 are clamped at the opposite
A suction line 42 connects the said distribu
sides of the diaphragm Ti and. fastened to the
tor valve 38 to the main suction line iii. A sec
actuating pin 68 by a nut 16 screw threadedly
ond suction line 43 extends from the distributor
engaged at one end of the actuating pin 66.
valve 38 to a low pressure area of the plane. A
A helical expansion spring 11 is positioned at
suitable check valve 44 permits the line 43 to 55 one end in a recess 18 formed in the wall sur
open upon a decrease in the suction foroe‘exerted
face of the annular recess 68, while the opposite
through the line 42 below a predetermiend min
end of the spring 11 bears upon the plate 15 so as
imum value so as to exert in such event an added
to bias the actuating pin 66 into engaging rela
suction force to the line 42. Provided at the
tion with the end 633 of the bell crank lever 63.
opposite ends of the spanwise extending conduits
The chamber 12 formed by the annular recess
60
l5 and I6 are manifold unloading valves 45 which
61 and the diaphragm TI is opened to atmospheric
are arranged for releasing the pressure within
pressure through a vent 19 formed in the cast
the conduit l5 so as to eliminate at such times
ing 55 and leading into the chamber 12. The
as the de-icer system is not in use baokrpressure
oppositely disposed chamber 13 formed by the
from actingupon the pressure pumps 21, 22; 23, 65 annular recess 68 and the diaphragm 'II' is sub
and 2-4.
p
jected through a duct 80 formed in the casting,r
The manifold unloading valves 45 are identi
G9, to a pressure medium controlled by a control
cal in construction. and therefore only one will
valve indicated generally by the numeral 8 I.
be described. Referring now - to Figures 3
The control valve 8| includes a valve sleeve 82
through 8. the manifold unloading valve. 45 in 70 ?xedly positioned in a channel 33 formed in the
cludesia casting] 50' open at one side and having
casting 69. The valve sleeve 82 has formed there
in in spaced relation to each other annular re
formed therein a‘chamber 511. Formed in the
casting 5,0‘ andle'ading outer the chamber 5i are
cesses 84, 85, and 86.
A valve channel 82A extends longitudinally
outlet conduits 52 and 53. The open. side of the
casting 50 is closed impart by a plate 54. The 75 through the valve sleeve 82 and suitable. ports
2,405,362
81, 88, and 89 lead from the annular recesses 84,
85, 'and 88, respectively, into .the channel 82A.
The duct 89 previously noted leads into the
annular recess 85 while a duct 99 formed in the
casting 69 opens at one end into the annular
recess 84. The duct 99 opens at the opposite end
into a'duct 99A formed in the casting 59. The
duct 99A leads into a duct 993 which in turn
ofthe electromagnet 99 actuating the valve stem
‘92' toithe'right, the'valve member 94 is posi
tioned between the port 88 and the port 89 soas
to open the port 88 to the ?ow of pressure me
dium from the port 81 as shown in Figure 5.
‘However,v upon the electromagnet‘ being de
energized the valve stem 92 is biased to the left
by the spring 96 so as to cause the valvemem
leads toa port 990' formed in the sleeve 55. The
port 990 opens into the sleeve 55 at the high 10 ber 94 to be positioned between the port 81 and
the port 88 so as to thereby close the'port 88 to
pressure side of the valve member 6|. Further
the flow of pressure medium from the port 8'!
a port 9|, Figures 4, 5, 6, and 8, formed in the
and open the port 88 to the atmosphere through
casting 99 conducts atmospheric pressure into
port 9| as shown in Figure 6.
'
the annular recess 86.,
. A valve stem 92 is slidably mounted within the
- valve channel 82A and has provided valve mem
Thus when it is desired to operate the de-icer
system, the electromagnet 99 may be energized
causing the valve'stem 92 as viewed in Figure 6
to be shifted to the right to the position shown
in Figure 5 whereupon the valve member 94 will
be positioned so that pressure medium within the
~ channel 82A from the ports 81, and 89.
20 conduit 58 under the force of the pumps 2|, 22,
A helical'expansion spring 99 is positioned at
23, and 24 and having a greater pressure than
one end in a recess 9'! formed in the end wall ‘of
the
atmosphere will pass through the port 900,
the channel 83, while the opposite end of the
duct 99B, duct’99A and duct 99 into annular re
spring 96 bears upon one end of the valve stem
cess 84, through port 8'! to the valve channel
92 and biases the valve stem 92 toward the left
bers 93, 94,'and‘95 positioned in spaced relation
to each other for controlling the ?ow of pres
sure medium to the port 88 through the valve
as viewed in Figure 6.
The opposite end of the valve stem 92 has posi
tioned thereon an armature 98 which is slidably
mounted within an electromagnet 99. The elec
' tromagnet 99 is surrounded by a casing I09 hav
82A, through port 88, annular recess 85, duct 80
to the chamber .73 whereupon an increase in
pressure above atmospheric pressure will be as
serted upon the diaphragm ‘II causing thepin
68 to be actuated so as to move the bell crank
30 lever 63 in a clockwise direction and moving the
ing provided at one end the end plates ml, and
valve member 6| so as to close the open end of
|9|A and at the opposite end a plate |82, which
the valve sleeve 55 against the pressure within
plates are held in place by the casing I89.
the conduit 58 built up by the pressure pumps
The end‘plate I0| is suitably apertured at I93
for receiving the valve stem 92 and has provided 35 2|, 22, 23, and 24. In this connection‘ it should
be noted that the diaphragm ‘II is of a consid
the portion I94 projecting outwardly from the
erably greater diameter than the valve opening
. end plate I9! and positioned at the end of the
controlled by the member 6| so as to provide a
Valve channel 82A of the valve sleeve 82. ‘The
- portion I94 is arranged to engage the valve mem
-
greater surface area to be affected by the pres
sure medium within the conduit 58'. Thus the
ber 93 for limiting‘ the movement of the valve 40
force of the pressure within theconduit 58 ex
stem 92 toward the left as viewed in Figure 6
erted upon the end 63B of the bell crank lever
in response to the biasing force of the spring 99.
63 through the actuating pin 66 anddiaphragm
The end plate IIlI has further provided a portion
‘II will exceed the force exerted‘upon the valve
I95 which projects into the electromagnet 99.
The portion I95 has further formed therein a 45 member 8| by the pressure within the conduit 58
due to the di?erence in the novel force trans
recess I06 for receiving a portion of the armature
mitting means provided. Thus the valve mem
98 so as to limit, as shown in Figure 5, movement
ber 6| will be actuated into a valve closing posi
of the armature 98 in response to the electrome
i tion and will be held in such position so long as
tive force of the electromagnet 99.
the'control valve 8| remains in the position in
The casing I 99 is positioned in a recess I97 50 dicatedin'Figure
5. » '
‘
formed on the casting 69. ‘A plate I98 closes the
, However, when conditions become such that
outer end of the recess I91 and a split ring I98A
‘operation of the de-ice'r system is no longer nec
positioned in an annular groove I 99 formed in
essary -or desirable, the pressure load built up
the inner surface of the recess I9'I- holds the
plate I93 in position so as to lock in turn the 55 within the conduit by the pumps 2|, 22,, 23, and
24 may be conveniently released by opening the
electromagnet 99 within the recess I91.
'control circuit causing the de-energization of the
A terminal “0 of the electromagnet 99 is
electromagnet 99. Upon such de-energization of‘
grounded through the end plate “MA to the
the
electromagnet 99 the spring 96 will bias the
frame of the aircraft, while an electrical con
valve stem 92 toward the left as shown in Fig
ductor III suitably insulated leads from the 0p
posite terminal of the electromagnet 99 through
ure 6.
‘
In the latter position of the valve stem 92, the
vvalve member 94 will close the port 88 to the ?ow
nector I I3 of conventional type.
of pressure medium through the channel 82A
As shown in Figure 1, the connector H3 is
connected through an electrical conductor in a 65 from the port 8‘! and will open the port 88 to the
atmosphere through port 89. Thus the pressure
cable II4 to a suitable control circuit whereby
within the chamber 13 having a greater pressure
upon the de-icing mechanism being placed in an
than atmospheric pressure will be released
operative condition the circuit to the electro
through the duct 89 to the annular recess 85
magnet 99 is energized from a suitable source of
through port 88 to the valve channel 82A, through
electrical energy, while under conditions where
the valve channel 82A to the port 89, through
ice is not present or operation of the de-icing
the port 99, annular recess 86 and out port 9| to
mechanism is not desired the circuit to the elec
atmosphere. Thus the pressure within the
tromagnet 99 is opened and the electromagnet 99
chamber 13 will be reduced to atmospheric pres
de-energized.
sure whereupon the greater pressure exerted
It will be readily seen that upon energization
within the conduit 58 acting upon the valve mem
a channel II2 formed in the casting 69 to a con
T25405§362
l7
§ber= 6| willrforce Ethe ula‘lve member LEI ttosopen
the-end of the valve sleeve s55‘ andFoauseirthe bell
*crank lever 563 ,toiloeactuated ‘in a 'counter-zclock
.8
dium'to l-said .unitsffor inflating the tunits; said
conduit having an outlet (to atmospherara valve
for controlling -:said outlet, :operator-coperative
wise direction, forcing the actuating .pin: 66 ,land
the diaphragm ‘H :toward the, chamber 13-, against
the nowreduced :biasing force actingonzthedia
zphragm 15,-as shown in Figured
meansadjustabletin a ?rst sense "for directing
:said "pressure medium 130 asito cause said :valve
chamber 5| :and betexhaustedthrough-conduits
:5. In a! de-icersystem for ‘an aircraft, 1the'eom
bination, ‘comprising, .-‘a ':plurality ‘of in?atable
.units ‘mounted ‘along :air'ioil surfaces ‘of said air
to close, said outlet "and 'said'rmeans adjustableiin
a second senseforrdirectingsaidpressureimedium
so as to cause said valve ‘to-open said outlet :"for
:Upon movement ‘of the<valve membent? to an
releasing :the ‘ pressure : medium within said soon
:zopen position ;the pressure :medium ‘within :the
"conduit 58‘ will pass through the sleeve 55 tozthe 10 duit tozthe atmosphere.
p52 and 5.3 -which:are connected to suitable» over
board or exhaust conduits.
Althoughonlyioneembodiment ofgthezinvention
craft, a conduit for conducting g-aipressure ‘me
“Whatds- claimed‘ is‘:
sure ;of saidunedium actingupon said‘pump dur
Zhas sheen illustrated and vrlescu'ibed, various 15 .dium :to ‘said. in?atable units, means :‘for control
ling-the» outlet: from said ‘conduit to:said units; a
:changes .in thedorm and relative. arrangement. of
:pressure pump ' for :maintaining :the pressure : of
‘the-parts'ivhich will; nowr'appear to those skilled
said medium withinzsaid, conduit, 2. cont-rolrvalve
in‘ the art,- may -.beimade without ' departing from
:means;responsive to , discontinuance - of operation
the scope of ;the-invention. Reference _is,1there
of the unitszfor :opening the :conduit to “atmos
fore,‘ to :be had to the -=appended claims "for 2a
phere ifor ~' releasing the {pressure 'medium'iwithin
:de?nitionof the limits‘ ofthe invention;
said conduit so :asoto thereby decrease the’ pres
'
>
' , 1. ,In'a' de-icer 'system foranzaircraft,.'the;com
ingthe discontinuance :of ‘operation‘oi saidiin'flat
:bination, comprising, a ;plurality of in?atable
"units “mounted along airfoil surfaces of said ‘air 25 able .units.
6. In a cle-icer system for an aircraft, the-com
gcrafdatconduitgfor conducting a pressure :medi
bination, comprising, a plurality of inflatable
-- umtto said iunits . for in?ating the ,units, said’ con
units arranged along ‘the leading edge :of ‘the
duit ‘having-an outlet *to atmosphere, a valve :for
wings
of the aircraft,;a conduit extending span
[controlling said'outlet, pressureiresponsive means
'of;the said wingslofrsaid aircraft, a pump vfor
operated bysaidzpressure medium in‘ sucha'man 3') -wise
maintaininga ?uid medium under pressure ‘with
‘nor :as *to ; position :said ~ valve, so : as :to close :said
in“ said conduit, a plurality‘ of‘valvemembers 'for
:outlet and :a ‘second ‘valve :means operable : at will
controlling :the iiiow .‘of i said '?uid medium ‘from
forgcontrolling‘thezpressurmmedium to said pres
tsureresponsiveimeans.
csaid‘conduit' toesaidiin'?atable- units, control valves
mounted :at opposite ‘ends :of said spanwise ex
tending .conduitgmeans ;responsive to discontinu
f2. \In-afde-icer system-‘for angaircraft,;thercom
~bination, :comprising, a plurality of in?atable
units :mounted along air'foilsurfaces of said'air
craft, a conduit for conducting ‘-a'pressure.:me
dium'to said .units?orin?ating the units,v said
conduit ;having:an nutlet to atmosphere,;-a>valve
ance of operation of said :units-‘for operating'said
control valves so'as toropensaid conduit 'torat
-mosp-her.e “for releasing the fluid medium ‘under
“pressure frorn'said conduit upon‘the discontinu
ancgdfoperation 'ofisaid. in?atable units.
for controlling said outlet, pressure :responsive
7. “In a ;de-icer system of‘ the class including .a
i means operated by said-pressure medium inr‘such
plurality :of in?atable. units,:a pressure supply‘line
"a manner ‘as Y'LO .positionisai‘d ' valve ; so as to .close
said outlet, and control means v‘operable rat 'the
will :of vthe operator'gfor diverting .said pressure
medium‘ iromsaid ‘pressure :responsive means so
as :to-cause said valve to 'opentsaid outlet ‘for re
for said
outlet means-.therefonza'pressure
5 ' pump for :maintaining .the pressure ‘in said sup
leasing the pressure medium-within said :conduit.
ply line, a'plurality of distributor mechanisms-‘for
the units to connect said-supply line and sai-d'out
- let rmeans in'alternation with the vunits,.there be
ing a distributor mechanism individual to each
unit
and timing :means common- to said distribu
bination, comprising, a plurality got-‘in?atable '50
3. ,In a de-icersystemifor ;anzaircraft,fzthe- com
unitsrmounted along ‘airfoil surfaces :of said air
craft, a conduit‘ for: conducting. a ‘pressure medium
‘tosaid units for-infiatingithe units-said conduit
tor mechanisms ‘for controlling ‘the .operation‘of
‘the distributor mechanisms of the units'in'alter
nation; the'improvementlcomprising said supply
line'having an auxiliary.v outlet, a-valve controlling
trolling :said outlet and means-operated by said 55 said ‘outlet, and means iresponsive to discontinu
ance of operation-of said timing means 'for open
pressure ‘medium for positioning said-valveso 'as
ing
said valve to release the pressure'withinsaid
to close said-outlet and means operable atwi'll for
supply .line so as to prevent a back-pressureifrom
controlling the pressure medium 'tosaidpressure
having an outlet-to'atmosphere, aevalve forcon
‘responsive :means.
4. In a de-icer system for an aircraft, the. com
bination, comprising, a plurality of in?atable
units mounted along :airfoil surfaces ‘of :said ’ air
craft, -a-conduit for conductinga pressure me- a
acting :upon the pressure pump atasuch times'ias
u .the'de-icer, system is not in operation.
‘SAMUEL K. LEHMAN.
'MYRON' L. “ TAYLOR.
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