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Патент USA US2405392

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- All@ 6, 1946-
`
L.. wß ,luTcl-us'oN`
2,405,392I
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
„ Filed Nov. 8, 1941
2 Sheets-SheffI 1
His À‘Gtov‘neg.
Aug. 6, 1946.
L. w. A'rcHlsoN
72,405,392
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed- Nov. 8, 1941
2 Sheets-Shea?Í 2
Fig. i,
Inventor:
' Leonard WÀtchi s on ,_
His Àttprneg.
Patentecì Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,392
UNITED STATES PATENT _OFFICE
2,405,392
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
uLeonard W. Atchison, Schenectady, N. Y., assign
or `to General Electric Company, a corporation
of New York _
A_pplieatien November 8. 19_4_1,„_S_erial No- 41;8_._3_6l
Thisinvention Lrelates _te ref_i'ieeratiiie appara
system in which the modifying substance is in
troduced into a portion of the primary system.
tus .and :more _particularly to reirieerating appa
ratuefor „cooling a plurality _of geiles.
'
`
,It is _an object of _mv invention _t9 provide im
_proved refrieeratine apparatus adapted to _iliaiii-k
tain a temperaturedífferential‘ between a plural
ity _of zones.
>
C1
_
Further objects _and advantages 0f _niv inven
tion will become _apparent as the following de
scription proceeds and the features of novelty
which characterize yinv invention Will be >pointed
out .with particularity _in the claims annexed _to
_and forming a part of this specification.
Fora better understanding of my invention ref
erence .may >be had to the .accompanying draw
ings 1in which Fis. 1 is ka perspective view ,of a
system In Fig. 5 there is illustrated an arrange
ment in which the »principles-of my »invention have
been applied to a refrigerating `system employing
two series-connected evaporators i6 and Il, one
of which contains themodifying substance, _so
that the evaporators run at different tempera
tures. While YI have shown one evaporator 'with
in the other, my invention is equally applicable
15
to other arrangements, as for example to evap
orators disposed _in diiierent compartments wl'iich
refrigerator cabinet of the d_OIllestic type embody
ing ,the principles of my invention; Fig. 2 ¿is ,an
enlarged view illustrating a detail of the _refrig
erating vapparatus illustrated in‘Fig. 1; vFler. ,3 bis
The arrangement illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4
also employs a primary-secondary system, but in
this case the mixture of refrigerant and modify
ing substance is circulated through the secondary
maybe thermally insulated ¿from each other. My
invention ¿is equally applicable to systems em
ploying evapora-tors arranged i-n parallel -rela
20
tionship.
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`
a _fragmentary >`front _elevational view offa vre
Describing my invention in ¿greater detail, I
frigerator cabinet showing a second embodiment
have provided a refrigerator cabinet I-D of the
of my invention; Fig. .4 is an exploded _and _en
domestic type having suitable thermally insulated
larged View of a detail of _the arrangement-dis
walls defining fthe compartments or refrigerated
4_closed_in Fig. _3; and Fie. 5 _is a fragmentarviront 25 zones. Access openings I9 and 2,0 `vto the _zones
.elevational view .of „a refrigerator _cabinet .equipped
or compartments II and `I2 respectively arepro
_with a :third embodiment of .mv ,invention-y
vided, the openings being closed by suitable ther
Referring to the drawings, _I have :provided a.
mally insulated doors -2Iv and »2_2 respectively.
`,r_efrigerator cabinet. I0 having a vvfreezing „cham
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated
ber .or „zone II and a _compartment or'aone I__2
in Figs. 1 and 2 I have provided a lprimary ¿re
maintained „at a _temperature _suitable _for _the
_general >storage of food, as 4.0 to ¿5° F. forexam
frigerating system `for »main-taining a relatively
low Ytemperature in the _zone or compartment I~I
which -may be below freezing Vfor the storage of
frozen foods and the like »aswell as for `freezing
Vple. _In the form of my _invention shownin Figs
,1 _to 4 inclusive an ,evaporator is provided for
_coolingthecompartment I I and a secondarysys
temhaving _a cooling lportion L4 is provided for
_Cooling the kcompartment I2. A v_heat exchange
device ,is provided for transferring heat _between
frozen desserts, ice cubes and the like. The com
partment i I is provided with a -sheet metal liner
23 of suitable material. The evaporator I3 com
prises a plurality of turns of suitable material,
such as copper tubing, substantially s_iu‘rounding
the _primary _and secondary systems. kIn order
to maintain ia predetermined differential between 40 the liner >23 _and preferably suitably secured in
.the temperatures of the _cooling _elements and of
intimate thermal relation to the outer _surface
_the primary and secondary systems, respectively,
thereof. Any suitable Asystem for _circulating re
frigerant may be provided >but inasmuch as the
_I have ,arranged a portion of one of the _systems
to contain a, charge of a Substance `vvhichfis sub
stantially .unvaporizable or inert y,at theteinpera
ltures involved and refrigerantlintermìxed for _pro
details of such _a system form no part of my
45
viding _a mixturehaving a different boiling point
_than that .of the refrigerant __alone. A refrig
erant and ,aboiling point modifying substance
which are >miscible or mutually <soluble Jis ¿pref
,erablyemployed’ s_uchas oil and methyl chloride
50
.or l one ,of _the refrigerante >sold .under îthe trade
machinery compartment -_I¿have provided'ïaipanel
ior `closure member §24. The Aprimary _system -in
cludes a yliquid jline v25 for conducting .liquid Are
name Frech, for example.
The ,embodiment wof _my invention illustrated
Figs- -1 cand >2 Acomprises -a _primary-.secondary
present invention, illustration thereof has been
omitted 'for purposes of clarity. The »refrigerant
circulating yand condensing equipment ßmay be
conveniently disposed inthe lower portionof -the
cabinet Iû and in >order -to provide -accesstoqthe
55
frigerantto allow controlling .device such as float
valve 426. for example. _the float valve aerviiiein
ya Well ,known _manner ,to ,supply `yliqliíel ,refriger
.
@165,395
3
ant to the evaporator I3 through a conduit 21.
The last turn of the evaporator I3 is connected
to a reservoir or header 28 by means of a con
duit 29. A suction line 30 is provided for the
Y return of vaporized refrigerant t0 the compressor
unit. Whenever the level of liquid rises above
the open end of conduit30, liquid will be drawn
through the suction line. Hence. when a system
is employed in which lubricant is circulated, lu
brisant will not tend to be trapped out of the
system. If it is not desired to return any liquid
through the suction line, the conduit 36 may be
disposed above the level to .Whichthe liquid can
be expected to rise.
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i
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In operation, the compressor unit will operate
. to Withdraw vaporized refrigerant through the
suction line 33. After compression the refriger
ant will be liquefied and returned to the'evap-.l
orator I3 through the float valve 26. Any suit
4
utilize an arrangement comprising a plurality of
evaporators maintained at a predetermined tem
perature differential While employing the same
refrigerant in each evaporator. The refrigerant
vaporized in the primary system Will be drawn
off through the suction line 30 While practically
all of the substance, such as oil, below the level
of .the suction line, will remain in the header 28
inasmuch as it is nonvaporizable or substantially
so at the temperatures involved. Since the re
frigerant supplied to the evaporator through the
float valve> 26 is substantially free of the sub
stance, .the temperature of the cold storage evap
orator can be held at one temperature and that
of the‘reservoir. or header 28 at a higher tem- L
perature and accordingly the condensing effect
on the 'vaporized refrigerant in the jacket 3I
will be less than if pure refrigerant were con
tained in the reservoir.
ablecontrol for the refrigerating apparatus may 20 In the embodiment of my invention shown in
beprovided.
_The secondary
I/ system utilized for
I cooling the
compartment I2 comprises a cooling portion I4
preferably ,formed from a suitable conduit such
ascopper tubing disposed in a plurality of turns or_ passes and suitably secured as by soldering to
the metal liner defining the compartment or zone
I2.` .In
1 I have shown the cooling portion
associated With the tWo side, back and bottom
.Walls of the compartment but any desired dispo
sition of the cooling portion may be employed.
The ends of the conduit are connected >to a jacket
3l disposed in intimate thermal relationship with
the tank or reservoir 28, _the jacket 3l serving as
,a vcondensing portion for the secondary system.
While a jacketM 3l substantially surrounding a
header 28 has been illustrated, any suitable heat
exchanger may _be employed, as a coil of tubing
Wound around a cylindrical member, for exam
ple. V The secondary _system contains a Vaporiz
>able liquid refrigerant and as the temperature
Withinthe compartment .I2 increases, the refrig
erant is vaporized and Vtherefore rises Vto the
upper turns of the cooling portion I4, finally
passing to the jacket 3l through the conduit 32.` l
The vaporized refrigerant is condensed in the
condensing portion or jacket, 3| andthe liquid
lrefrigerant is returned to the cooling portion I4
-through the conduit 33.
ì
>In order to maintain `a predetermined tem
perature dilîerential between the cooling element
_I3 and the cooling portion or element I4 of the
secondary system with the temperature of ele
meint> I4 higher than that of element I3, I pro-n
vide a substance which will raise the boiling
point of the refrigerant in the reservoir 28. The
refrigerant and substance or material used are
Figs. 3 and 4, the .differential establishing mixture
is employed in the secondary system rather than
in the primary system. The cooling portion I4.
of the secondary system communicates with a
mixing 'chamber or header 34 and the mixture'of
refrigerant and“ differential providing substance
occupies the entire cooling portion, 'a'liquid level
beingV established in the header as indicated by
the numeral 34a. A condensing portion 35 com
municating with the header 34 above the j liquid
level therein is -secured in‘go’od heat exchange
relationship with the primary evaporator I3 as
by means of threaded fastening means 42." The
condensing portion 35 may take any desiredV form.
In the arrangement illustratedV in Fig. 4, the'con
densi'ng portion comprises a plurality of substan
` tially U-shaped loops 36, the ends of the loops
communicating with the upper portion of 'the
header 34. " The loops 36 are arranged to engage
the liner 23 ofthe evaporator I3 between the
turns comprising the evaporator I3. In order to
rsecure the condensing portion to the primary
evaporator, I'have illustrated a pair ofr metal
strips 31 suitably secured to ,thev loops 36' as
by soldering or welding. 'The strips are Provided
withv tapped 'openings 38 ‘for the reception- of
suitable screws 42 extending through correspond
ing openings in the bottom Wall of the lining 23.
The principle of operation is similar to that
previously described. Refrigerant will be Vapor
ized by the absorption of heat from the com
partment 'I2 and rise into the condensing portion
35 whereas the unvaporizable substance will re
m'ain in the turns of the cooling portion nI4 and .
in the header 34. The vaporized refrigerant will
be condensed by the heat exchange with -evapo
rator I3 and the condensed Vliquid Will return to
the header 34 and dissolve in the liquid solution.
In Fig. 5 I have shown a series-connected `sys
tem. In the form shown, there is illustrated an
portions. 'I‘he substance also should be noncon GF) inner
evaporator I‘I similar in construction to the
gealable at temperatures normally encountered
evaporator I3 shown in Figs. 1 to cl inclusive and
in the operation of refrigerators andshould not
an outer evaporator I6 formed from sheet metal
be easily vaporized _at the temperatures encoun
and provided with suitably formed laterally ex
tered in the refrigerating -cycle._ For example,
tending refrigerant passages I6a communicating
the modifying substance or material may be oil
at either end thereof with headers 39, the headers
and the refrigerant methyl chloride or a refrig
being joined by an equalizing connection 40.
erant known under the name of Freon. The
Substantially pure refrigerant is supplied tothe
modifying substance need not be a liquid, it
inner evaporator I'I by the float valve 26. An 'ex
n being sumcîent that the substance be su?liciently
preferably` miscible or mutually soluble, that is,
readily soluble in each other in nearly all pro
dispersable through the refrigerant to vary the f
boiling point thereof to the desired amount. The
differential in temperature Will be a function of
the proportions of the substance and the refrig
erant and also of _the temperature Yat which the _
cold storage compartment is run. Thus, I may
tension of the last turn of the evaporator I'I, in
dicated by the numeral I8, joinsthe evaporators
and serves to inject refrigerant into "the outer
evaporator. The boiling point'modifying mix
'jture 'i's'provided in the outer evaporator I_6. vLiq
uid refrigerant supplied to evaporator I'I absorbs
@$05,892
'wheat-from `zone -I l, 'and' liquid as well as Vvapor
yhaving vazportion >thereof containing and retain
ized refrigerant is injected into evaporator I6
*through conduit I8’ and becomes'mixed with `or
.ing a material lwhich is :substantially -iir'i/vaporir'za
ble" at the 'temperatures involved »and miscible
YWit-h the ‘liquid-refrigerant, the mixture having a
dissolved in the mixture in evaporator I6. Va
porizedrefrigerant from the evaporator 16 col
Ui
lects in the headers »39 and is drawn off through
the suction line, leaving the nonvaporizable dif
ferential producing substance behind. Thus,
substantially >pure refrigerant is supplied the
higher- boiling point than that .of thefrefrigerant
alone and thereby facilitating `the operation of
said apparatus to maintain a temperature differ
ential between said respective zones, means for
conducting substantially pure liquid refrigerant
to said portion and means for removing vaporized
refrigerant from said portion.
inner evaporator` l'l so that the inner evaporator
is cooled by nearly pure liquid refrigerant.
In order to maintain the freezing compartment
ll as cold as possible for any given control set
ting, and to prevent the temperature of the evap
4. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a pri
mary and a secondary refrigerating system for
cooling a plurality of zones to different tempera
orator l‘l from exerting an influence on the tem
15 tures and means providing a heat conducting
perature of the air circulating through the com
path for transferring heat between said systems,
a vaporizable refrigerant in each of said systems
partment l2 I may close the rear end of the com
and a substance which is substantially unvapor-Ãpartment li in any suitable manner, not shown,
and provide a suitably hinged door 42' to close
izable at the temperatures involved and miscible
the front end thereof.
20 in said refrigerant in said secondary system, the
While I have shown a particular embodiment
mixture having a higher boiling point than that
of my invention I do not desire my invention to
of the refrigerant alone to facilitate the opera
tion of said secondary system at a higher tem
be limited to the particular construction shown
and described and I intend in the appended claims
to cover` all modifications within the spirit and
scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. Refrigerating apparatus comprising means
for maintaining a first Zone at a relatively low
temperature and means for maintaining a second
zone at a higher temperature, both said means
being arranged to be connected for operation by
the same condensing equipment, each of said
means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one
of said means associated with said second zone
having a portion thereof containing liquid re
frigerant and a material which is substantially
unvaporizable at the temperatures involved and
miscible with the liquid refrigerant, the mixture
having a higher boiling point than that of the
refrigerant alone and thereby facilitating the op
eration of said apparatus to maintain a temper
ature diñerential between said zones, means for
conducting substantially pure liquid refrigerant ~
to said portion and means for removing vaporized
refrigerant from said portion.
2. Refrigerating apparatus comprising means
for maintaining a first Zone at a relatively low
temperature and means for maintaining a second ~
perature than that of said primary system, said
secondary system being arranged to retain said
substance therein.
'
5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cool
ing element, said element comprising a ñrst evap
orator, a second evaporator within said first evap
orator and spaced therefrom, said first evapora
tor being arranged for operation at a higher tem
perature than said second evaporator, a vapor
izable refrigerant in each of said evaporators,
means for circulating refrigerant through said
evaporators in series, a substance which is sub
stantially unvaporizable at the temperatures in
volved in said ñrst evaporator and which is misci
ble in said refrigerant for raising the boiling point
of the mixture in said first evaporator in order to
facilitate the operation of said first evaporator at
a higher temperature than that of said second
evaporator.
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6. A cooling element for use in refrigerators
toI provide Zones operating at different tempera
tures and comprising a first evaporator, a second
evaporator within said first evaporator and
spaced therefrom, said first evaporator being ar
ranged for operation at a higher temperature
than said second evaporator, a vaporizable re
frigerant in each of said evaporators, means for
zone at a higher temperature, both said means
circulating refrigerant through said evaporators
being arranged to be connected for operation by
the same condensing equipment, each of said
in series, a substance which is substantially un
_ vaporizable at the temperatures involved ln said
means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one
of said means associ-ated with said second zone
having a portion thereof containing liquid re
frigerant and a noncongealable material which is
first evaporator, said substance being soluble in
said refrigerant for raising the boiling point of
the solution in said first evaporator in order to
facilitate the operation of said first evaporator at
a higher temperature than that of said second
substantially unvaporizable at the temperatures
evaporatorl
involved and miscible with the liquid refrigerant,
7. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cool
the mixture having a higher boiling point than 60
ing element, said element comprising a pair of
that of the refrigerant alone and thereby facili
evaporators for operation at different tempera
tating the operation of said apparatus to main
tures, means for circulating refrigerant through
tain a temperature differential between said
said evaporators in series, and a substance which
zones, means for conducting substantially pure
is substantially unvaporizable at the temperatures
liquid refrigerant to said portion and means for
involved being disposed in one of the evaporators,
removing vaporized refrigerant from said portion,
said substance being miscible in said refrigerant
3. In refrigerating apparatus comprising means
for raising the boiling point of the solution in said
for maintaining a iirst zone at a relatively low
one evaporator in order to facilitate the operation
temperature and means for maintaining a second 70 of said one evaporator at a higher temperature
zone at a higher temperature, both said means
than the other evaporator, said one evaporator
being arranged to be connected for operation by
being arranged to retain said substance therein.
the same condensing equipment, each of said
8. Refrigerating apparatus comprising tWo
means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one
evaporators for operation at different tempera
of said means associated With said second zone 75 tures, a common means for supplying refrigerant
j
- 2,405,392
toA bothsaid evaporators and for. withdrawing
vaporized »refrigerant therefrom, and a substance
8
in said oneevaporator` in order >to facilitate the
operation of said one evaporator at a higher tem
which is-substantially unvaporizable at the tem
perature than the other evaporator, said one
:peratures involveddisposed in one of said evap
evaporator being arranged to retain said suh
orators, said substance .being miscible in said re 5 stance therein.
frigerant for raising the boiling point of the liquid
LEONARD W. ATCHISON.
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