Патент USA US2405392код для вставки
- All@ 6, 1946- ` L.. wß ,luTcl-us'oN` 2,405,392I REFRIGERATING APPARATUS „ Filed Nov. 8, 1941 2 Sheets-SheffI 1 His À‘Gtov‘neg. Aug. 6, 1946. L. w. A'rcHlsoN 72,405,392 REFRIGERATING APPARATUS Filed- Nov. 8, 1941 2 Sheets-Shea?Í 2 Fig. i, Inventor: ' Leonard WÀtchi s on ,_ His Àttprneg. Patentecì Aug. 6, 1946 2,405,392 UNITED STATES PATENT _OFFICE 2,405,392 REFRIGERATING APPARATUS uLeonard W. Atchison, Schenectady, N. Y., assign or `to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York _ A_pplieatien November 8. 19_4_1,„_S_erial No- 41;8_._3_6l Thisinvention Lrelates _te ref_i'ieeratiiie appara system in which the modifying substance is in troduced into a portion of the primary system. tus .and :more _particularly to reirieerating appa ratuefor „cooling a plurality _of geiles. ' ` ,It is _an object of _mv invention _t9 provide im _proved refrieeratine apparatus adapted to _iliaiii-k tain a temperaturedífferential‘ between a plural ity _of zones. > C1 _ Further objects _and advantages 0f _niv inven tion will become _apparent as the following de scription proceeds and the features of novelty which characterize yinv invention Will be >pointed out .with particularity _in the claims annexed _to _and forming a part of this specification. Fora better understanding of my invention ref erence .may >be had to the .accompanying draw ings 1in which Fis. 1 is ka perspective view ,of a system In Fig. 5 there is illustrated an arrange ment in which the »principles-of my »invention have been applied to a refrigerating `system employing two series-connected evaporators i6 and Il, one of which contains themodifying substance, _so that the evaporators run at different tempera tures. While YI have shown one evaporator 'with in the other, my invention is equally applicable 15 to other arrangements, as for example to evap orators disposed _in diiierent compartments wl'iich refrigerator cabinet of the d_OIllestic type embody ing ,the principles of my invention; Fig. 2 ¿is ,an enlarged view illustrating a detail of the _refrig erating vapparatus illustrated in‘Fig. 1; vFler. ,3 bis The arrangement illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 also employs a primary-secondary system, but in this case the mixture of refrigerant and modify ing substance is circulated through the secondary maybe thermally insulated ¿from each other. My invention ¿is equally applicable to systems em ploying evapora-tors arranged i-n parallel -rela 20 tionship. ' ` a _fragmentary >`front _elevational view offa vre Describing my invention in ¿greater detail, I frigerator cabinet showing a second embodiment have provided a refrigerator cabinet I-D of the of my invention; Fig. .4 is an exploded _and _en domestic type having suitable thermally insulated larged View of a detail of _the arrangement-dis walls defining fthe compartments or refrigerated 4_closed_in Fig. _3; and Fie. 5 _is a fragmentarviront 25 zones. Access openings I9 and 2,0 `vto the _zones .elevational view .of „a refrigerator _cabinet .equipped or compartments II and `I2 respectively arepro _with a :third embodiment of .mv ,invention-y vided, the openings being closed by suitable ther Referring to the drawings, _I have :provided a. mally insulated doors -2Iv and »2_2 respectively. `,r_efrigerator cabinet. I0 having a vvfreezing „cham In the embodiment of my invention illustrated ber .or „zone II and a _compartment or'aone I__2 in Figs. 1 and 2 I have provided a lprimary ¿re maintained „at a _temperature _suitable _for _the _general >storage of food, as 4.0 to ¿5° F. forexam frigerating system `for »main-taining a relatively low Ytemperature in the _zone or compartment I~I which -may be below freezing Vfor the storage of frozen foods and the like »aswell as for `freezing Vple. _In the form of my _invention shownin Figs ,1 _to 4 inclusive an ,evaporator is provided for _coolingthecompartment I I and a secondarysys temhaving _a cooling lportion L4 is provided for _Cooling the kcompartment I2. A v_heat exchange device ,is provided for transferring heat _between frozen desserts, ice cubes and the like. The com partment i I is provided with a -sheet metal liner 23 of suitable material. The evaporator I3 com prises a plurality of turns of suitable material, such as copper tubing, substantially s_iu‘rounding the _primary _and secondary systems. kIn order to maintain ia predetermined differential between 40 the liner >23 _and preferably suitably secured in .the temperatures of the _cooling _elements and of intimate thermal relation to the outer _surface _the primary and secondary systems, respectively, thereof. Any suitable Asystem for _circulating re frigerant may be provided >but inasmuch as the _I have ,arranged a portion of one of the _systems to contain a, charge of a Substance `vvhichfis sub stantially .unvaporizable or inert y,at theteinpera ltures involved and refrigerantlintermìxed for _pro details of such _a system form no part of my 45 viding _a mixturehaving a different boiling point _than that .of the refrigerant __alone. A refrig erant and ,aboiling point modifying substance which are >miscible or mutually <soluble Jis ¿pref ,erablyemployed’ s_uchas oil and methyl chloride 50 .or l one ,of _the refrigerante >sold .under îthe trade machinery compartment -_I¿have provided'ïaipanel ior `closure member §24. The Aprimary _system -in cludes a yliquid jline v25 for conducting .liquid Are name Frech, for example. The ,embodiment wof _my invention illustrated Figs- -1 cand >2 Acomprises -a _primary-.secondary present invention, illustration thereof has been omitted 'for purposes of clarity. The »refrigerant circulating yand condensing equipment ßmay be conveniently disposed inthe lower portionof -the cabinet Iû and in >order -to provide -accesstoqthe 55 frigerantto allow controlling .device such as float valve 426. for example. _the float valve aerviiiein ya Well ,known _manner ,to ,supply `yliqliíel ,refriger . @165,395 3 ant to the evaporator I3 through a conduit 21. The last turn of the evaporator I3 is connected to a reservoir or header 28 by means of a con duit 29. A suction line 30 is provided for the Y return of vaporized refrigerant t0 the compressor unit. Whenever the level of liquid rises above the open end of conduit30, liquid will be drawn through the suction line. Hence. when a system is employed in which lubricant is circulated, lu brisant will not tend to be trapped out of the system. If it is not desired to return any liquid through the suction line, the conduit 36 may be disposed above the level to .Whichthe liquid can be expected to rise. »- i „ ' f ^ . In operation, the compressor unit will operate . to Withdraw vaporized refrigerant through the suction line 33. After compression the refriger ant will be liquefied and returned to the'evap-.l orator I3 through the float valve 26. Any suit 4 utilize an arrangement comprising a plurality of evaporators maintained at a predetermined tem perature differential While employing the same refrigerant in each evaporator. The refrigerant vaporized in the primary system Will be drawn off through the suction line 30 While practically all of the substance, such as oil, below the level of .the suction line, will remain in the header 28 inasmuch as it is nonvaporizable or substantially so at the temperatures involved. Since the re frigerant supplied to the evaporator through the float valve> 26 is substantially free of the sub stance, .the temperature of the cold storage evap orator can be held at one temperature and that of the‘reservoir. or header 28 at a higher tem- L perature and accordingly the condensing effect on the 'vaporized refrigerant in the jacket 3I will be less than if pure refrigerant were con tained in the reservoir. ablecontrol for the refrigerating apparatus may 20 In the embodiment of my invention shown in beprovided. _The secondary I/ system utilized for I cooling the compartment I2 comprises a cooling portion I4 preferably ,formed from a suitable conduit such ascopper tubing disposed in a plurality of turns or_ passes and suitably secured as by soldering to the metal liner defining the compartment or zone I2.` .In 1 I have shown the cooling portion associated With the tWo side, back and bottom .Walls of the compartment but any desired dispo sition of the cooling portion may be employed. The ends of the conduit are connected >to a jacket 3l disposed in intimate thermal relationship with the tank or reservoir 28, _the jacket 3l serving as ,a vcondensing portion for the secondary system. While a jacketM 3l substantially surrounding a header 28 has been illustrated, any suitable heat exchanger may _be employed, as a coil of tubing Wound around a cylindrical member, for exam ple. V The secondary _system contains a Vaporiz >able liquid refrigerant and as the temperature Withinthe compartment .I2 increases, the refrig erant is vaporized and Vtherefore rises Vto the upper turns of the cooling portion I4, finally passing to the jacket 3l through the conduit 32.` l The vaporized refrigerant is condensed in the condensing portion or jacket, 3| andthe liquid lrefrigerant is returned to the cooling portion I4 -through the conduit 33. ì >In order to maintain `a predetermined tem perature dilîerential between the cooling element _I3 and the cooling portion or element I4 of the secondary system with the temperature of ele meint> I4 higher than that of element I3, I pro-n vide a substance which will raise the boiling point of the refrigerant in the reservoir 28. The refrigerant and substance or material used are Figs. 3 and 4, the .differential establishing mixture is employed in the secondary system rather than in the primary system. The cooling portion I4. of the secondary system communicates with a mixing 'chamber or header 34 and the mixture'of refrigerant and“ differential providing substance occupies the entire cooling portion, 'a'liquid level beingV established in the header as indicated by the numeral 34a. A condensing portion 35 com municating with the header 34 above the j liquid level therein is -secured in‘go’od heat exchange relationship with the primary evaporator I3 as by means of threaded fastening means 42." The condensing portion 35 may take any desiredV form. In the arrangement illustratedV in Fig. 4, the'con densi'ng portion comprises a plurality of substan ` tially U-shaped loops 36, the ends of the loops communicating with the upper portion of 'the header 34. " The loops 36 are arranged to engage the liner 23 ofthe evaporator I3 between the turns comprising the evaporator I3. In order to rsecure the condensing portion to the primary evaporator, I'have illustrated a pair ofr metal strips 31 suitably secured to ,thev loops 36' as by soldering or welding. 'The strips are Provided withv tapped 'openings 38 ‘for the reception- of suitable screws 42 extending through correspond ing openings in the bottom Wall of the lining 23. The principle of operation is similar to that previously described. Refrigerant will be Vapor ized by the absorption of heat from the com partment 'I2 and rise into the condensing portion 35 whereas the unvaporizable substance will re m'ain in the turns of the cooling portion nI4 and . in the header 34. The vaporized refrigerant will be condensed by the heat exchange with -evapo rator I3 and the condensed Vliquid Will return to the header 34 and dissolve in the liquid solution. In Fig. 5 I have shown a series-connected `sys tem. In the form shown, there is illustrated an portions. 'I‘he substance also should be noncon GF) inner evaporator I‘I similar in construction to the gealable at temperatures normally encountered evaporator I3 shown in Figs. 1 to cl inclusive and in the operation of refrigerators andshould not an outer evaporator I6 formed from sheet metal be easily vaporized _at the temperatures encoun and provided with suitably formed laterally ex tered in the refrigerating -cycle._ For example, tending refrigerant passages I6a communicating the modifying substance or material may be oil at either end thereof with headers 39, the headers and the refrigerant methyl chloride or a refrig being joined by an equalizing connection 40. erant known under the name of Freon. The Substantially pure refrigerant is supplied tothe modifying substance need not be a liquid, it inner evaporator I'I by the float valve 26. An 'ex n being sumcîent that the substance be su?liciently preferably` miscible or mutually soluble, that is, readily soluble in each other in nearly all pro dispersable through the refrigerant to vary the f boiling point thereof to the desired amount. The differential in temperature Will be a function of the proportions of the substance and the refrig erant and also of _the temperature Yat which the _ cold storage compartment is run. Thus, I may tension of the last turn of the evaporator I'I, in dicated by the numeral I8, joinsthe evaporators and serves to inject refrigerant into "the outer evaporator. The boiling point'modifying mix 'jture 'i's'provided in the outer evaporator I_6. vLiq uid refrigerant supplied to evaporator I'I absorbs @$05,892 'wheat-from `zone -I l, 'and' liquid as well as Vvapor yhaving vazportion >thereof containing and retain ized refrigerant is injected into evaporator I6 *through conduit I8’ and becomes'mixed with `or .ing a material lwhich is :substantially -iir'i/vaporir'za ble" at the 'temperatures involved »and miscible YWit-h the ‘liquid-refrigerant, the mixture having a dissolved in the mixture in evaporator I6. Va porizedrefrigerant from the evaporator 16 col Ui lects in the headers »39 and is drawn off through the suction line, leaving the nonvaporizable dif ferential producing substance behind. Thus, substantially >pure refrigerant is supplied the higher- boiling point than that .of thefrefrigerant alone and thereby facilitating `the operation of said apparatus to maintain a temperature differ ential between said respective zones, means for conducting substantially pure liquid refrigerant to said portion and means for removing vaporized refrigerant from said portion. inner evaporator` l'l so that the inner evaporator is cooled by nearly pure liquid refrigerant. In order to maintain the freezing compartment ll as cold as possible for any given control set ting, and to prevent the temperature of the evap 4. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a pri mary and a secondary refrigerating system for cooling a plurality of zones to different tempera orator l‘l from exerting an influence on the tem 15 tures and means providing a heat conducting perature of the air circulating through the com path for transferring heat between said systems, a vaporizable refrigerant in each of said systems partment l2 I may close the rear end of the com and a substance which is substantially unvapor-Ãpartment li in any suitable manner, not shown, and provide a suitably hinged door 42' to close izable at the temperatures involved and miscible the front end thereof. 20 in said refrigerant in said secondary system, the While I have shown a particular embodiment mixture having a higher boiling point than that of my invention I do not desire my invention to of the refrigerant alone to facilitate the opera tion of said secondary system at a higher tem be limited to the particular construction shown and described and I intend in the appended claims to cover` all modifications within the spirit and scope of my invention. What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: 1. Refrigerating apparatus comprising means for maintaining a first Zone at a relatively low temperature and means for maintaining a second zone at a higher temperature, both said means being arranged to be connected for operation by the same condensing equipment, each of said means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one of said means associated with said second zone having a portion thereof containing liquid re frigerant and a material which is substantially unvaporizable at the temperatures involved and miscible with the liquid refrigerant, the mixture having a higher boiling point than that of the refrigerant alone and thereby facilitating the op eration of said apparatus to maintain a temper ature diñerential between said zones, means for conducting substantially pure liquid refrigerant ~ to said portion and means for removing vaporized refrigerant from said portion. 2. Refrigerating apparatus comprising means for maintaining a first Zone at a relatively low temperature and means for maintaining a second ~ perature than that of said primary system, said secondary system being arranged to retain said substance therein. ' 5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cool ing element, said element comprising a ñrst evap orator, a second evaporator within said first evap orator and spaced therefrom, said first evapora tor being arranged for operation at a higher tem perature than said second evaporator, a vapor izable refrigerant in each of said evaporators, means for circulating refrigerant through said evaporators in series, a substance which is sub stantially unvaporizable at the temperatures in volved in said ñrst evaporator and which is misci ble in said refrigerant for raising the boiling point of the mixture in said first evaporator in order to facilitate the operation of said first evaporator at a higher temperature than that of said second evaporator. - - 6. A cooling element for use in refrigerators toI provide Zones operating at different tempera tures and comprising a first evaporator, a second evaporator within said first evaporator and spaced therefrom, said first evaporator being ar ranged for operation at a higher temperature than said second evaporator, a vaporizable re frigerant in each of said evaporators, means for zone at a higher temperature, both said means circulating refrigerant through said evaporators being arranged to be connected for operation by the same condensing equipment, each of said in series, a substance which is substantially un _ vaporizable at the temperatures involved ln said means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one of said means associ-ated with said second zone having a portion thereof containing liquid re frigerant and a noncongealable material which is first evaporator, said substance being soluble in said refrigerant for raising the boiling point of the solution in said first evaporator in order to facilitate the operation of said first evaporator at a higher temperature than that of said second substantially unvaporizable at the temperatures evaporatorl involved and miscible with the liquid refrigerant, 7. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a cool the mixture having a higher boiling point than 60 ing element, said element comprising a pair of that of the refrigerant alone and thereby facili evaporators for operation at different tempera tating the operation of said apparatus to main tures, means for circulating refrigerant through tain a temperature differential between said said evaporators in series, and a substance which zones, means for conducting substantially pure is substantially unvaporizable at the temperatures liquid refrigerant to said portion and means for involved being disposed in one of the evaporators, removing vaporized refrigerant from said portion, said substance being miscible in said refrigerant 3. In refrigerating apparatus comprising means for raising the boiling point of the solution in said for maintaining a iirst zone at a relatively low one evaporator in order to facilitate the operation temperature and means for maintaining a second 70 of said one evaporator at a higher temperature zone at a higher temperature, both said means than the other evaporator, said one evaporator being arranged to be connected for operation by being arranged to retain said substance therein. the same condensing equipment, each of said 8. Refrigerating apparatus comprising tWo means containing vaporizable refrigerant, the one evaporators for operation at different tempera of said means associated With said second zone 75 tures, a common means for supplying refrigerant j - 2,405,392 toA bothsaid evaporators and for. withdrawing vaporized »refrigerant therefrom, and a substance 8 in said oneevaporator` in order >to facilitate the operation of said one evaporator at a higher tem which is-substantially unvaporizable at the tem perature than the other evaporator, said one :peratures involveddisposed in one of said evap evaporator being arranged to retain said suh orators, said substance .being miscible in said re 5 stance therein. frigerant for raising the boiling point of the liquid LEONARD W. ATCHISON.