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Патент USA US2405404

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Aang. 6, 1946.
K. CLARK
` 2,405,404
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE
Filed Oct. 29, 1940
2 Sheets-Shawl’.v 1
..
.
.
BY
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aß WW
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ma@> s, 194s.
K. CLARK '
2,4Ü5,404
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE
Filed Oct. 29, 1940
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
» ATTORNEYó`
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,404
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,404
DOMESTIC APPLIANCE
Kendall Clark, Oakwood, Ohio, assigner to Gen
eral Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a cor
poration of Delaware
Application October 29, 1940, Serial No. 363,321
5 Claims.
l
This invention relates to domestic appliances
and more particularly to a clothes washing ma
chine of the centrifugal type.
An object of this invention is to provide a
centrifugal machine which automatically coun
ter-balances the variable load produced by un
equal distribution of clothes Within the centrifugal
basket.
Another object of this invention is to provide a
Z
a cylindrical support I2, made of rubber or similar
material. The basket is above the support I2,
while the casing II hangs below the support I2
and provides a gravitational counterweight for
the basket I2. When the basket is rotated, the
mechanism is free to oscillate to some extent on
the collar I2.
An agitator I3 is provided inside of the basket
I I) and is reciprocated vertically by means of a
centrifugal machine with an automatic balancing w shaft I4, preferably at about 350 cycles per minute
device which is eiTectiVe at all speeds of rotation.
and with an amplitude of about 1% inches. The
Further objects and advantages of the present
agitator is provided with a flexible collar I5,
invention will be apparent from the following
made of rubber or the like at its lower periphery
description, reference being had to the accom
to increase the agitationg power on the down
panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of 15 ward stroke. The oscillations are sufficiently
the present invention is clearly shown.
rapid to produce a toroidal action of the water
In the drawings:
'
and the clothes within the basket, tending to
Fig. 1 is a vertical cross sectional view of the
produce a doughnut-like ring while the basket is
machine;
stationary. This distributes the clothes some
Fig. 2 is a horizontal cross sectional View taken 20 what evenly before centrifugal action begins, but
along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
some unbalance remains, which tends to deflect
Fig. 3 is an elevation of a portion of a machine;
the basket when it is rapidly rotated.
and
A counterbalancing means, eñective during
Figs. 4 and 5 are plan views of slight modifica
rotation, is secured to the basket which auto
tions.
25 matically tends to counterbalance any unequal
In a machine wherein clothes are subjected to
eccentric load produced- by such uneven distribu
centrifugal action to remove water from them,
tion of clothes. The counterbalancing means
an olf-balance distribution of the clothes creates
comprises a plurality of pendulum weights I5
a Whipping action during rotation, which is ob
pivotally secured to the ring I'I by pins I3. The
jectionable and even dangerous.
Such olf 30 ring Il, is, in turn, secured to the basket I (I
balance distribution of clothes is diihcult to
through the medium of rotatable shaft 24, which
counteract because it varies in magnitude and
carries the basket and is driven by the motor 20
location in the centrifugal basket.
in the casing II. The pendulum weights I6 are
I have invented a washing machine which
so proportioned that their natural frequency of
utilizes the centrifugal principle to Wring the 35 oscillation and vibration, under the correspond
clothes, but I have provided eiiicient means to
ing centrifugal force produced by rotation, is ap
counteract the effect of off-balance distribution
proximately equal to the frequency of rotation at
of clothes. In addition I have provided washing
all speeds. When so proportioned, they act as
means within the centrifugal basket which tends
tuned vibration absorbers for the main vibratory
to distribute the clothes more or less evenly 40 system, which comprises the unbalanced load,
around the basket. Thus I have provided a wash
the basket and the driving mechanism. The
ing machine in which liability of uneven dis
function of the weights, in acting as tuned vibra
tribution of clothes is reduced and in which such
tion absorbers is to reduce vibration by bringing
uneven distribution as may occur is efficiently
the center of gravity 0f the entire system (includ
counteracted.
45_-ing the vibration absorbers and the unbalanced
In addition, I have provided a counterbalanc
load) to coincide with the axis of rotation. The
ing device which is effective at all speeds of rota
center of gravity of an unbalanced system (with
tion of the basket. My counterbalancing device
out the vibration absorbers) does not coincide
automatically compensates for the increased
with the axis of rotation and considerable vibra
radial acceleration due to any increased speed, 50 tion is caused at spinning speeds. The weights
which the unbalanced load may have.
are an effective counterbalance because they
To accomplish this, my washing machine in
eliminate the unbalanced vibration by bringing
cludes a rotatable basket driven by mechanism
the center of gravity of the entire system into
contained within the casing Il. The basket and
coincidence with the axis ofspin. The reason
casing are p-ivotally and resiliently supported by 55 why this tuned vibration absorber counter
2,405,404
3
balances the unbalanced load at all speeds is that
a tuned vibration absorber vibrates 180° out of
phase from the main vibrating system. Conse
quently, when the main system tends to move to
the left in Fig. 2, due to the unbalanced load I9
in the basket, the vibration absorber pendulums
ISa and IGb tend to move to the right as shown
by the dotted lines. In moving to the right, the
displacement of their common center of gravity
counterbalances the unbalanced load. Once theY
weights have arranged themselves to counter
balance any particular off-balance load, they
cease to move about their fulcrums and remain
with their composite center of gravity diametri
cally opposite the center of gravity of the off
balance load. Under these conditions, un
balanced Vibrations are eliminated from the ma
chine. I have indicated the unbalanced load to be
at right angles to the pendulums I 6a and IIîb.
However, if the load should not be at right angles
to any pair of pendulums, the vectors of force of
the various pairs of pendulums automatically are
4
basket II) from whence it is discharged over the
lip 36 into the casing 30 where it falls into the
trough 32. The water may then flow through
the flexible hose 31 to a pump 38 in the bottom of
casing II, driven by motor 20. The water is dis
charged by the pump 38 through the flexible hose
39 into any convenient drainage receptacle.
During operation, the clothes are placed in the
basket II), together with the proper amount of
detergent and water. Thereafter, the motor con
troller, in the manner disclosed in my copending
application Serial No. 358,871, energizes the motor
to rotate in a direction to produce vertical re
ciprocation of the agitator I3.
This produces
toroidal action, as indicated by the arrows 40, in
the clothes and water. After a suilicient length
of time, the motor 20 is reversed to rotate the
basket I0. This causes the water to be discharged
through the openings 3_3 and 34 into the outer
tub 35 and from thence over the lip 36, as pre
viously described. Thereafter, a sufficient num
ber of rinse waters may be introduced into the
tub I0, with subsequent agitation during and
rotation after, each rinsing, all as described in
gardless of its meridian position in the basket.
To achieve pendulums of correct proportions 25 my said copending application. During -all of
these operations, the clothes may be slightly un
to vibrate at a frequency coincident with the fre
evenly distributed. The pendulum Weights I6
quency of rotation:
’
automatically counterbalance the unbalanced
A. Determine’the center of gravity of a pendu
of such a size as to counterbalance the load re
load produced by such uneven distribution. lum:
The weights I6 should be of sufficient mass
B. Find the natural period of vibration of the 30
to counter-balance the maximum expected un
pendulum while swinging as a gravitational
balanced load. In a domestic washing machine of
pendulum; and
about 20 inches maximum diameter of tub, a
C. Place the center of gravity and the pendu
maximum unbalanced load equivalent to three
lum pivot radially inline with the tub spinning
axis, the center of gravity of the pendulum being 35 pounds along the circumference may be expected.
The weights I6 should be of suñicient mass that
at a radius from the axis such that the radial
acceleration on the center of gravity of the
pendulum, when the unit is rotated at a fre
quency equal to the frequency obtained under B
above, is equal to the natural acceleration of 40
gravity.
'
the moment of their common center of gravity
at maximum pendulum displacement is equal to,
or greater than, that of the maximum unbalanced
load.
Fig. 4 shows a slightly modiñed form of coun
All of the pendulums may be made similar,
and may be arranged symmetrically around the
axis of the tub, and when so arranged and pro
portioned, they will act as a tuned vibration ab
sorber or automatic counterbalancer to prevent
violent radial displacements or centrifugally
caused vibrations of the tub during all speeds of
rotation from the starting speed to the ultimate
terbalancing weight. Several weights of the type
copending application Serial No. 358,871 ñled
September 28, 1940, for Domestic appliance, to
are used in the same manner as illustrated with
shown in Fig. 4 are used exactly as shown in Fig.
2, but the connection of the weightto the basket
is slightly modified. The weight IGc is pivoted
or flexibly supported on the pin I8c with an inter
posed sleeve I8d made of rubber or similar mate
rial. This sleeve I8d supports the weight I6c
oscillatably, and the internal friction of the rub
maximum speed of rotation.
> 50 ber may improve the operation of the unit by
contributing a slight amount of damping of the
The motor 20 reciprocates the shaft I4 and
vibrating system. The pin IBc is carried by a
rotates the shaft 24 through the medium of trans
ring similar to ring I1 of Figs. l, 2 and 3.
mission 23. Any motor and transmission may be
In Fig. 5 a weight IScZ may be attached to the
used to accomplish this. Preferably, the motor
basket
by means of a light spring |86 which is
55
reciprocates the shaft I4 and agitator I3 verti
secured to a hub similar to hub I'I of Figs. 1, 2
cally when the motor is rotated in one direction,
and 3. The spring I8e is iiexible to the extent
and rotates the shaft 24, basket I0 and the shaft
that it does not appreciably affect the vibrating
I4 when the motor is rotated in the opposite
period of the weight under centrifugal forces.
direction. Details of construction of the motor
Several weights IEd of the type shown in Fig. 5
and transmission are more fully described in my
respect to weights I6 of Figs. 1, 2 and 3.
In all of the modifications oscillation limiting
stops or pins Ila are provided to limit the motion
65 of the counter-weights during acceleration and
sistent with this disclosure.
`
deceleration of the basket. The pins I'Ia may be
The bottom of the casing II preferably is
supported from the upper flange of the ring I1.
anchored to the main frame 30 of the washing
While the form of embodiment of the inven
machine by means of a flexible snubber 3|. This
tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred
snubber aids the counterbalancing action of the
pendulums I6. The frame 30 preferably is in the 70 form, it is to be understood that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the scope'of
form of a vertical casing having a central parti
the claims which follow.
tion 32 which forms a trough and also forms a
What is claimed is as follows:
support for the collar I2. When the >basket is
1. A centrifugal machine comprising a >rotat
rotated, the water is discharged through the
openings 33 and 34 into the outer cup 35 of the 75 able basket, a support for said basket permitting
which application reference is made for all de
tails of construction and operation not incon~
5
2,405,404
lateral movement thereof when an unbalanced
load is in said basket, power means connected
to said basket to accelerate said basket through
a large speed range through gradually increas
ing speeds to e, high speed, means for counter
balancing variable unbalanced loads in said bas
ket throughout said speed range of said basket,
thereby to prevent lateral movement of said bas
ket due to an unbalanced load, said counterbal
6
being so located that said weights arrange them
selves with their common center of gravity equal
and opposite to the center of gravity of said un
balanced loads »to cause said weights to exert an
automatic counterbalancing reaction to a variable
eccentric load in said basket.
4. A centrifugal machine comprising a, rotat
able basket, a support for said basket permitting
lateral movement thereof when an unbalanced
ancing means comprising a set 0f independent 10
load is in said basket, power means connected
weigh'ts each supported to swing in a plane per
to said basket to accelerate said basket through
pendicular to the axis of rotation of said basket
a large speed range from a stationary condition
about circumferentially spaced pivots ñxed rela
to a high speed, means for counterbalancing var
tive to said basket, said weights being sufficiently
iable unbalanced loads in said basket throughout
heavy with respect to said unbalanced loads and 15 the entire speed range of said basket, thereby to
said pivots being so located ‘that said weights
prevent substantial lateral movement of said bas
arrange themselves with their common center of
ket due to an unbalanced load, said counter
gravity equal and opposite to the center of grav
balancing means lcomprising a set of independ
ity of said unbalanced loads to cause said weights
ent weights each' supported to swing in _a plane
tol exert an automatic counterbalancing reaction 20
perpendicular
to the axis of rotation of said
to a variable eccentric load in said basket.
basket
about
circumferentially
spaced pivots fixed
2. A centrifugal machine comprising a basket
mounted to rotate about a vertical axis, a support
for said basket permitting horizontal movement
relative to saidfbasket, said weights being suñi
ciently heavy with respect to said unbalanced
loads and said pivots being symmetrically ar
thereof away from said axis when an unbalanced 25 ranged about the axis of the basket and be
load is in said basket, power means connected to
ing so located that said weights arrange them
said basket to accelerate said basket through a
selves
with their common center of gravity equal
large speed range through gradually increasing
and opposite to the center of gravity of said
speeds to a high speed, means for counterbalanc
unbalanced loads at higher speeds to cause said
ing variable unbalanced loads in said basket 30 weights
to exert an automatic counterbalance re
throughout said speed range of said basket, there
action to a variable eccentric load in said basket,
by to prevent lateral movement of said basket
and means effective during early acceleration of
due to an unbalanced load, said counterbalancing
said basket for maintaining said weights sym
means comprising a set of independent weights
_ each supported to swing in a plane perpendicular 35 metrical to the axis of the basket.
5. A centrifugal machine comprising a rotat
to the axis of rotation of said basket about cir
able basket, a support for said basket permitting
cumferentially spaced pivots iixed relative to said
lateral
movement thereof when an unbalanced
basket, said weights being symmetrically ar
load is in said basket, power means connected
ranged about said axis and being suiiiciently
said basket to accelerate said basket through
heavy with respect to said unbalanced loads and 40 to
a
large
speed range from a stationary >condition
s'aid pivots being so located that said weights
toa high speed, means for counterbalancing vari
arrange themselves with their common center of
able unbalanced loads in said basket throughout
gravity equal and opposite to the center of grav
the
entire speed range of said basket, thereby to
ity of said unbalanced loads to cause said weights
prevent substantial lateral movement of said bas
to exert an automatic counterbalancing reaction
45 ket due to an unbalanced load, said counterbal
to a variable eccentric load in said basket.
ancing means comprising a set of independent
3. A centrifugal machine comprising a basket
weights each' supported to swing in a plane per
rotatable about a vertical axis, a support for said
pendicular to the axis of rotation of said basket
basket beneath said basket permitting lateral
` about circumferentially spaced pivots ñxed rela
movement thereof when an unbalanced load is in
said basket, power means below said support and 50 tive to said basket, said weights beingsuiiîciently
heavy with respect to said unbalanced loads and
connected to said basket to accelerate said basket
said pivots being symmetrically arranged about
through a large speed range through gradually
the axis of the basket and being so located with
increasing speeds to a high“ speed, means for
.said
weights arrange themselves with their com
counterbalancing Variable unbalanced loads in
said basket throughout said speed range of said 55 mon center of gravity equal and opposite to the
basket, thereby to prevent lateral movement of
center of gravity of said unbalanced loads at
basket about circumferentially spaced pivots fixed
relative to said basket, said weights being sym
metrically arranged about the axis of rotation of
said basket and being suiîiciently heavy with re
spect to said unbalanced loads and said pivots
the basket against which said weights impinge
during the early acceleration thereby to maintain
said weights symmetrical during said early accel
higher speeds to cause said Weights to exert an
said basket due to an unbalanced load, said
automatic counterbalance reaction to a variable
counterbalancing means comprising a set of in
eccentric load in said basket, and stop pins ar- dependent weights each supported to swing in a
plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said 60 ranged symmetrically with respect to the axis of
eration.
KENDALL CLARK. y
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