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Патент USA US2405422

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_ Aug» 6,1946I
‘
i
F. B. HALFORD' EFAL
COOLING OF ENGINES
-
I
2,405,422
IN AIRCRAFT
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s Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed! Feb. 14', 1945 .
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F. s. HALFORD' ETAL
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~ 2,405,422
COOLING 0F ENGINES IN AIRCRAFT
Filed Feb. 14,1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Bycé Cow RE/'
'5'
A .65
F. B. HALFORD- EI'AL
2,405,422
COOLING QF'ENGINES IN AIRCRAFT
Filed Feb. 14, i945 '
s Sheets-Sheet 3
2,45,422
Patented Aug. 6, 1946 ~.
‘UNITED STATES PATENT .osF-ic'E__
COOLING
ENGINES
AIRCRAFT
Frank Bernard Halford, Edgware, and Cecil
Louis Cowdrey, Hitchin, England, assignors to
D. Napier & Son Limited, London, England, a
company of Great Britain
Application February 14, 1945, Serial No. 577,914
In Great Britain November 15, 1943
4 Claims.
1
(Cl. 123-171)
2
.
_
.
,
This invention relates to the cooling of engines
in aircraft and has for its object to e?ect cer
the forward part of which‘is carried through the
tain improvements in the ‘construction associated
Figure 3 is a perspective view'of a sliding gill
or shutter with apparatus for operating it by
with an annular passage in which is situated a
spinner and past the propeller blades.
’
' electric means.
~
radiator arranged as described in the speci?ca
Referring to Figure 1,, an annular radiator A
tion of application for United States of America
of suitable construction is disposed in the an
Letters Patent Serial No. 524,642 in the name
nular air passage B which runs through 'the
of one of the present applicants and another.
cowling, a fan C being placed at the entry to the
In ‘that case there is an annular passage within
the cowling having the opening. into it behind 10 passage behind the blades D of the propeller.
This fan rotates in the opposite direction-to the
the airscrew and around the fore part of the
propeller. At the rear end B1 of the air passage
engine ‘casing. In this passage is a radiator hav
there is mounted the annular gill or shutter
ing a generally annular formation, and a fan
which comprises a part E which is thicker, con
which rotates about the airscrew axis is disposed
sidered in the radial direction, and a thinner
at the opening into this passage behind the air
rearward part E1. The forward part E is exter
screw. This fan delivers air which passes
nally of streamline shape and adapted to be
' through the passage and the radiator therein.
moved forwardly into the outlet 131 and thereby
According to this invention the air which has
control the ?ow of air through the passage B
passed through the radiator issues from the pas~
and the radiator A. As shown the movable gill
sage through an annular opening in the cowling
EE1 is made hollow and on its inner side it is
and an annular shutter or gill movable in the
formed with a shoulder E2 with a substantially
direction of the engine axis serves to vary-the
flat radial face which is engaged by several hy
extent of this out?ow opening and thus control
draulic cylinder and piston assemblies F. These
the air ?ow through the radiator. The annular
shutter or gill is moved by hydraulic or electric 25 cylinder and piston assemblies of which only one
is shown in the drawings, are mounted in an
means which may comprise several hydraulic cyl
annular ?ange G within the-cowling H the cyl
inder and piston assemblies or electrically oper
ated devices spaced apart circumferentially and
inder and piston assemblies being equally spaced
apart circumferentially and with their axes par
into or withdraw it from the annular opening 30 allel to the propeller axis. The thinner part E1
of the gill lies outside and moves over the part
through which the air issues. The complete
of the cowling around the cylinder and piston
annular shutter may be thus movable as a whole,
assemblies. The thickness of the fore part E of
or it may be made in segments each of suitable
the gill is determined by the radial width of the
length in the circumferential direction and mov
outlet B1 from the air passage.
able separately or in groups as required.
The streamlining of the part E of the gill en
The annular passage in which is the radiator
sures the easy outflow of the air whether the
may have the opening through which the air
opening is constricted by movement into it of
enters and where the fan is situated disposed so
the gill, or whether this has been moved into
that the air ?owing to the opening passes over
the exterior of the spinner. In an alternative 40 its retracted position. The surface of this part
of the gill constitutes in effect the end portion
arrangement where there is a hollow spinner
of the inner wall of the part B1 of the air pas
there is provided an annular passage through the
sage beyond or to the rear of the radiator A.
spinner which leads past the propeller blades to
The inner surface of the fore part E of the gill
the fan in the entry to the annular passage con
45 is cylindrical as at E3 so that when the gill is
taining the radiator.
moved forward to constrict the air passage this
The accompanying drawings illustrate by way
part of the gill will lie over the adjacent part of
of example constructions which may be employed
the end of the radiator and thus obstruct the air
in carrying the invention into practice. In these
flow through that part of the radiator.
drawings,
_
‘In the alternative arrangement shown in Fig
Figure 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic longi
ure 2 the spinner J has formed therein an an
tudinal sectional elevation showing one con
nular passage K through which the air can flow
struction.
,
past the propeller blades D to the fan C and then
Figure 2 is a similar view in which is shown
into the forward end of the annular passage B in
another arrangement of the annular air passage 55 which is situated the radiator A. In other re
all operative on the shutter to move it over or
3
2,405,422
speots the air passage is as described and shown
in Figure 1 and the air flow through it is con
trolled by an annular gill E which is moved in
the .direction of the propeller axis by a series
of electrically actuated screw jacks F1.»
The gill a-s showm diagrammatically by itself
in Figurea 3, is-: arranged’ so that‘- the; necessary
movement will be imparted to it by electric
means. Screw jacks F1, as also seen in Figure 2;_
are spaced apart circumferentially and act on the
rear face E4 of the gill E. This face maybe
formed as a shoulder similar to the.v shoulder-E2
as seen in Figures 1 and 2. An electric. motonh
suitably positioned actuates. the several‘: screw
M1 and
jacks
simultaneously
M2 and gearing
through
arranged
?exible
in, drives
the cas
ings N.
The formation and arrangement of the an
nular passage B and the radiator A therein’ are
preferably as generally' described in the speci?
cation of the'prior patent application mentioned
above. That is tov say the passage runs‘ rear
wards over the fore part of the: engine casingin a
general-ly'conical direction the annular entry or
mouth of the passage being of less diameter-than
the out?ow end and having the fan C- in front‘ of
this mouth. The radiator: of‘ which the struc
ture may vary is- preferably designed to e?ect
cooling of the engine lubricant as well as the
liquid used for cooling the engine. The fan con
veniently rotates in a. direction opposite to that
in‘ which rotates» the airscrew. In the earlier
arrangement theair issuing; from the rear end of
the; passage was led; overthe engine casing and
exhaust pipes to an annular’ or; other opening at
' the. rear of: the engine. the. out?ow being con
trolled by‘ one‘ or more valves.
The present improvement with respect to the
air out?ow provides a better control for'the‘ air
?ow through the passage‘and'radiator and is also
preferable from the aerodynamic aspect.
4.
What we claim as our invention and desire to
secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In an aircraft the combination of an engine
casing, a cowling extending rearwards from the
fore part of the engine and outside its casing,
an airscrew, an annular passage running rear
wards between the said cowling and‘ the said
engine casing from an inlet opening behind the
airscrew to an annular outlet opening in the
cowling. a. radiator having a generally annular
formation‘ disposed in this passage, a fan rotat
able aboutv the airscrew axis in a direction contra
to; that of‘ the airscrew and situated between
the: airscrew and the inlet opening into the said
~ annular passage into which air is delivered by
the-fanto flow. through the radiator, an annular
shutter‘ mounted adjacent to and at the rear
of the said annular outlet opening in the cowl
ing- through which the air ?ows after passing
through the radiator, and means for moving this
shutter;
the,v direction. of ' the; airscrew axis so
as to. vary the dimensions, of‘ the; said: outflow
opening; and thereby control; the air-?ow through
thevradiator.
2. An aircraft having in combination the; parts
asset out in claim 1 in which. the said: shutter
is. formed: hollow with. externally a streamlined
contour and the forepart which‘ lies next to. the
said,’ annular outlet: opening thicker inv the radial
direction than‘ the rear: part, this rear part: lying
and being movable: over the adjacent". part: of the
cowling while the thicker fore. part overhangs. and
can; bev moved into they said annular outlet
opening;
3.‘ An aircraft having-incnmbination the; parts
as. set out in claim 1'. in. which the airscrew is
provided withsa. spinner having: an annular. pas
sage running through it: to the. said fan behind
the airscrew, this passage leading to the inlet
opening of the said annular passageway through
The manner in which the. sliding; Shutter or
the cowling
which lies. the. radiator;
aircraft having in combination the parts
gill is mounted so as to ensure ease of. movement
as set out in claim 1 and a plurality of' power‘
and obviate‘ risk. of‘ sticking‘ may vary. The fore
part is conveniently guided by an annular rib O
at. the inner. side. of the exit. B1’ from the passage,
as. shown. in. Figure 1,. and. the inner surface E3
of the annular gill. rests and: slides on. this» rib.
Towardsits rear end the shutter may be suitably ;,
guided where‘ its thinner rear: part 131- lies- over
the-part of thecowling.
operated jacks by which movement is imparted
* to the said annular shuttter, these jacks being
mounted within the cowlin'g and to the rear
ward of the annular shutter to‘ which they are
respectively connected the jacksv being spaced
apart circumferentially with their axes substan
tially parallel‘ to the airscrew axis‘.
FRANK BERNARD HALFORII
CECIL;v LOUIS COWDREY.
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