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Патент USA US2405427

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Aug?’ @, 1946.
I H. B. HOLTHOUSE _
HEATER
‘2,405,427
'
Filed Sept. 2, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
AGSAZ?
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCE' ,
2,405,427
HEATER
Harry B. Holthouse, Chicago, IlL, assignor to
Galvin Manufacturing Corporation, Chicago,
111., a corporation of Illinois
I Application September 2, 1941, Serial No. 409,190
16 Claims.
(Cl. 126-110)
1
2
This invention relates generally to heating sys
tems and in particular to a heating system of the
internal combustion type operated in conjunc
tion with an internal combustion engine.
being admitted into the heater combustion cham
ber with the engine exhaust gases for burning
therewith. The air to be heated is circulated in
a heat transfer relation with the heater combus
It is an object of this invention to provide an
tion chamber, the entire heating system being
improved heating system.
capable of mounting as a unit on a carriage or the
Another object of this invention is to provide
like so as to be readily moved from place to place.
Referring to the drawings there is shown in
Fig. 1 one form of the invention which includes an
an air heater of internal combustion type as
s‘embled as a portable unit with an internal com
bustion engine and utilizing such engine as the 10 internal combustion engine having an engine
.
sole source of power supply.
block l0, an air-cooled cylinder H cooled by a
fan I2, an intake manifold l3, an exhaust con
duit l4 and a crank shaft It. The engine oper
A still further object of this invention is to
provide a portable air heating unit comprised of
a burner of internal combustion type operatively
ates an air heater or burner and is assembled
therewith as a complete operating unit which is
assembled with an internal combustion engine as
a source of power, which is compact and simple
capable of being mounted on a carriage or the
like (not shown) so as to be easily transported
to furnish heated air wherever it is necessary,
provide heat wherever it is needed.
as for example to heat airplane engines to facili
A particular feature of this invention is found 20 tate their starting, or to heat tents, barracks,
in the provision of a heater of internal combus
cabins, or the like.
tion type operated in conjunction with an inter
The heater includes a housing comprising a
nal combustion engine, in which the exhaust
longitudinally extending cylindrical portion I1
gases from the engine are burned in the heater
and an integrally-formed L-shaped radially ex
together with a vaporous air and fuel mixture
25 tending portion I8 at one end l9 thereoL-the
prepared by utilization of the heat, from such ex
end I9 being closed by a cover plate 2!. The
haust gases.
cylindrical portion ll of the heater housing en_
Further objects, features and advantages of .
closes a cylindrical combustion chamber 22 and
this invention will become apparent from the fol
an air chamber 23, while a fan compartment 24
lowing description when taken in connection with 30 is enclosed by the housing portion is and the
the accompanying drawings in which:
cover plate 2!. The combustion chamber 22 is
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of the complete
closed at one end by a cover plate 26 and at its
assembly of one form of this invention with parts
opposite end by a cup-shaped member 2?, the
thereof removed and other parts shown in sec
bottom Zla of the cup being at the combustion
tion for the purpose of clarity;
chamber 22, and the open end of the member 21
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view showing 35 being integrally formed with a radially extending
the fuel vaporizing means for the heating system
annular ?ange 28 for assembly with the housing
of Fig, 1;
v
cover plate 2i, the air chamber 23 being formed
Fig. 3 is a transverse sectional View as seen
within the cup-shaped member 21.
along the line 3--3 in Fig. 2;
A partition member 29 (Figs. 1 and 4) of sub
in design, rugged in construction, light in weight,
and easily transportable from place to place to
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view taken '
along the line 4-4 in Fig. 1 showing the con
struction of the heater combustion chamber; and
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary plan sectional view
showing a modi?ed form of the invention.
In practicing this invention there is provided
as a portable unit, an air heater of internal com
bustion type and an internal combustion engine
which produces all of the power for operating the
heater. Liquid fuel used in the heater is intro
duced with air into a unit which conditions or
prepares the fuel for burning, the heat from the
engine exhaust gases being utilized to heat the
conditioning unit and vaporize the fuel for mix
stantially cross-shape is positioned within and
axially of the combustion chamber 22 and is of a
construction to divide the chamber into four ax
ially extending but connected passages 3la,—3ld.
45 The bottom or base portion 27a of the member
21 is formed with openings in communication
with the passages 31a and 3m to provide an inlet
'32 and an outlet 33 for the connected passages
and hence for the combustion chamber. The wall
of the combustion chamber 22 is integrally con
structed with alternately arranged peripheral
portions 34 and radially extending ?ns 36. The
?ns 36 are bent double with their inner ends
3] opening into the combustion passages 3M
ing together with the air, thus vaporous mixture 55 3ld.
The partition ' member 29 is positioned
2,405,427
3
within the open inner ends 31 of certain of the
?ns 3B and is retained in a ?xed relative posi
tion within the combustion chamber 22 as by
welding. The housing portion l1 extends about
the outer ends 38 of the ?ns 35 to form an an
nular passage 33 about the combustion chamber
22, the end M of the housing portion I‘! extend
ing outwardly of the combustion chamber 22
and being of funnel shape to provide a discharge
4
mixing device 62 which is mounted on the cylin
drical end portion 51 of the sleeve 55.
The fuel conditioning means 6! is carried byv
the conduit portion 52 and is located entirely
within the air chamber 23. Referring to Figs. 2
and 3 the heat exchanger unit 63 is seen to in—
clude a plurality of longitudinally extending ?ns
5i! annularly spaced about the conduit portion 52
and in heat transfer relation therewith so as to
10 be heated by the heat from the exhaust gases of
or outlet opening 42 for the air passage 39.
the engine. The ?ns 60 are located within the
As is evident from Fig. 1, the ?ns 35 are coex
annular space formed between the conduit por
tensive in length With the combustion chamber
tion 52 and the sleeve end portion 51. An in
22, with the air passage 39 being extended to the
housing cover plate 2| by the cup-shaped mem-
wardly projecting annular flange 65 integral with
ber 21. The air passage 39 is in communication 15 the sleeve 56 at its end portion 5'! is in sealed
engagement about the conduit discharge end por
with the fan compartment 24 through a passage
tion 52, so that the passages 69 formed between
43, the fan 44 located in the compartment 24 be
adjacent ?ns 60 are substantially closed at one
ing mounted on the end 45 of the engine crank
end by the flange 65 and open at their opposite
shaft l5, which extends through and is rotatably
supported by a bearing 41 in the housing cover 20 ends ‘I! at the engine exhaust outlet 53. As best
shown in Fig. 2, these ends ‘H of the passages 69
plate 21. The bearing 4? is of a construction to
are thus substantially within the end 68 of the
seal the opening at the cover plate 2| for the
crank shaft i6.
An air inlet 48 for the fan 44 is
provided in the housing portion IS. The air to
venturi 54 so as to be positioned between such
Venturi end and the outlet 53. Connection be
tween the passages 69 in the heat exchanger unit
be heated is thus drawn by the fan 44 through 25
63- is provided by apertures 12 spacedlongitudi
the inlet 48 passed through the passage 39 in heat
nally of each ?n 60, and an annular space 10
exchange relation with the ?ns 35 and discharged
common to the passages 69 and provided adja
from the heater through the outlet 42.
cent the flange 65. An inlet 13 (Figs. 2 and 3)
The air chamber 23, within the member 21, is
connected with the fan compartment 24 by a pas 30 to the space 10 and hence to the passages 69 is
‘formed in the periphery of the sleeve end‘ por
sage 49 which is separated from the air circulat
tion 57, with the air and fuel receiver or mixer
ing passage e3 by a bailie 5i integrally formed
unit 62 being mounted on the sleeve at such
with the member 21 and extending to the periph
inlet.
cry of the fan 44. The ba?‘le 5i divides‘ the air
As best shown in Fig, 3, the. unit 62 includes a
delivered by the fan 44 for discharge into the
Venturi portion 14 having peripherally extending
passage 35 and the air chamber 23. The air in
air openings 16 near one end thereof which are
the chamber 23 is used for burning’ with fuel in
in communication with the air chamber 23. The
the combustion chamber 22 so that the fan 44
air entering the ports 76 and the fuel from the
operates to supply both air for combustion and air
to be heated. It is understood, of course, that the 40 fuel line 6'! are introduced together into the Ven
turi portion 14 for discharge therefrom into the
chamber 23 is'sealed from the combustion cham
annular passage 19 of the heat exchanger unit 63.
ber 22 and the air passage 39 and is in communi
Since the air in the chamber 23 is maintained un
cation With the fan compartment only through
the passage 49.
From Figs. 1 and 2 it is seen that a portion 52
of the engine exhaust conduit !4 is inserted into
the air chamber 23 through the housing cover
plate 2! in a position axially of the combustion
chamber inlet 32. The discharge outlet 53 for
the engine exhaust gases at the end of the conduit
portion 52 stops short of the combustion cham
ber inlet 32 and opens into a Venturi portion 54
?tted within the inlet 32 and integrally formed
der pressure by the fan 44 it is evident that an
initial velocity is imparted to the air entering the
venturi 14 through the ports 16 so that the body
of fuel entering the Venturi- portion 14 is partially
broken up by the air prior to its passage into the
heat exchanger unit 63. Additional air for mix
ing with the fuel in the fuel conditioning unit BI
is introduced into the space 10 from the air cham
ber 23 through openings 75 formed in the sleeve
55 about the. inlet '13.
It is contemplated that the exhaust conduit
at one end of a sleeve member 56. The opposite
end portion 51 of the sleeve member 55 is of a 55 portion 52, ?ns 6B and sleeve member 56 be com
posed of a high heat-conductingmaterial, such as
cylindrical shape and radially spaced about the
copper Or the like, to provide for a high transfer
conduit portion 52. It is seen, therefore, that the
of heat from the engine exhaust gases to such
engine exhaust gases from the outlet 53 of the
parts. During the operation of the heater, there
conduit portion 52 are discharged through the
Venturi portion 54 of the sleeve member 56 and 60 fore, the temperature of these parts is substan
tially equal to the temperature of the exhaust
into the combustion chamber 22.
gases in the conduit portion 52. The transfer of
The fuel to be burned in thecornbustion cham
heat from the exhaust gases to the heat ex
ber 22 together with the engine exhaust gases dis
changer 63 is aided by impeding the flow’ of the
charged from the outlet 53 is delivered by a pump
59 into fuel conditioning means designated gen 65 gases through the conduit portion 52 as by a per~
erally as iii and comprising an air and fuelvre
ceiver or mixer 52 and a heat exchange unit 63
including the sleeve member 55. The pump 59, is
illustrated as being of reciprocating type and is.
operated from the engine crank shaft l6 through 70
cam means 64.
Connection of the pump with the
enginefuel tank’ (not shown) but generally lo
cated in the base’ of the engineblock I9, is made
through pipe 65, the fuel from the‘pump being;
forated plug 50 inserted in the outlet 53 thereof.
As will now be explained, this engine ‘waste heat
is utilized to prepare the fuel from the receiver
unit- 62 for an efficient burning in the combustion
chamber 22.
,
'
’
'
By virtue of the above-described construction
of the heat exchanger unit 63, thefuel admitted
thereto at the inlet. 73. is directed. through the
passages .l' 2!" and 6 9. and .into. contactwith the con
delivered through pipe 61 to the air and fuel‘ 75 duitportion 52, the ?ns 60‘ and the sleeve mem
2406,42?
,
5
ber 56. ‘Because of the heating of these passages
and parts by the engine exhaust gases the fuel
is heated sufficiently to, become vaporized, this
be rinsed, therefore, to designatecorresponding
vaporizing of the fuel preparing the same for a
being of substantially goose-necked shape, with
thorough mixing together with the air to provide
for a substantially complete vaporous mixture
passing from 'the heat ‘exchanger unit 63 at the
outlets ‘ll of the passages 59. As was previously
described; theoutlets 'H' are arranged between
par s.
' In Fig. 5 the conduit portion-'52’ is shown as
the sections 9| and 92 thereof extending in a di
rection axially of the combustion chamber 22 and
connected by a section 93. Section 9| is inserted
through the housing cover plate 2! and the sec
tion 92 is ?tted within the combustion chamber
the engine exhaust discharge outlet 53 and the 10 inlet 32 so that the connecting section 93 is en
Venturi end 98; ‘Because of this varrangement
tirely within the air chamber 23. The engine ex
the ?ow of the exhaust gases through the outlet
haust gases in the conduit portion 52’ are thus
53 of vthe conduit'porticn 52 coacts with the ven
discharged directly into the combustion chamber
turi 54 to provide an ejector action for drawing
passage 31a through the outlet 95 at the end of
the vaporous mixture from the outlets 9'! i into the
the section 92.
combustion chamber‘ 22 for burning with the ex
The fuel conditioning means 6!’ is carried by Q
haust gases. This burning of the exhaust gases
the section 93 and extends longitudinally of the
and vaporous mixture is initiated by a spark plug
sections 9|, 25 and 92, the air and fuel receiver or
11 arranged‘in the passage am. The plug 11 is
mixer unit 62 being located outside of the conduit
electrically connected by‘ a cable 18 (Fig.7 1) to a 20 portion'52' with the Venturi portion ‘M thereof
coil (not shown) mounted on the engine and en
positioned within the air chamber 23, and its end
ergized by the magneto (not shown) associated
portion 96 extended through the housing cover
therewith. Combustion proceeds through the
plate 2|. The heat exchanger unit 93' includes
passages 3la——3ld, with the products of combus
a-body member 91 of substantially cylindrical
tion being exhausted from the combustion cham 25 shape positioned axially of and within the con
ber 22 through the outlet 33, the ?ow of gases
duit section .92. The body member 91is com
through the passages in the combustion chamber
posed of copper or like material and is provided
being indicated by the arrows in Fig. 1. To fa
with an axial passage 98 having an inlet 99 com
cilitate combustion, supplementary air from the
municating with the Venturi portion ‘M and an
air chamber 23 may be admitted into the combus 30 outlet IOI open to the conduit section 92. The
tion chamber for mixing with the intermingled
periphery of the body member 98 is formed with
vaporous mixture and exhaust gases vthrough
?ns I92 to facilitate the heating of the body mem
apertures or ports 89 formed in the base portion
ber by the engine exhaust gases passing through
2‘la'of the cup member~2l and arranged concen
the conduit portion 52'. The transfer of heat
trically about the venturi 54.
Y
~
1
Y 1
35 from the exhaust gases to the body member 97
As shown in Fig. 1 the combustion chamber
is aided by inserting an apertured plug I93 into
outlet 33 is provided with a tail pipe 19 which
the outlet 95, the plug acting to impede the flow
projects outwardly therefrom into the air cham
of the exhaust gases about the member 9?.
ber 23. A second tail pipe 8| of larger diameter
. In the operation of this form of the invention
than the tail pipe 19 is inserted through the 40 the air and fuel introduced into the receiver
heater’ housing cover plate 2! into the air cham
unit 62 passes through the passage 98 in the
ber 23, concentric with the tail pipe 39 but spaced
. body portion 91. Since the unit 63' is at sub
therefrom.- The adjacent ends of thetail pipes
stantially the heat of the exhaust gases passing
19 and 8| are thus both open to the air chamber
through the conduit portion 52’, the heat there
23. However, since the air chamber 23 is under . in is sufficient to vaporize the fuel ?owing in the
pressure by the fan 133, airtherefrom flows out‘
passage 98 to provide for its mixing together
wardly through the tail pipe .8l to provide an
with the air. A substantially complete vaporous
ejector action on the exhaust gases ?owing in
mixture is thus discharged from the heat ex
the tail pipe ‘l3.v This ejector action serves to
changer unit 63' at the outlet IOI thereof. From
reduce the back pressure in the combustion pas
sages 3la—-3id and facilitates the flow and com
bustion of the gases therein, the gases being dis
50 Fig. 5 it is evident that the mass of the body
member 9'! is relatively large with respect to the
passage 9950 that its overall temperature re
charged from the heater through the tail pipe, 8 I.
mains practically unchanged due to the cooling
On starting of the heater, or at times during
effects of the fuel vaporizing in the passage. Also
its operation, it may happen that some raw fuel 55 since the body member 91 is coaxial with the
might form or ?nd its way into the combustion
conduit section 92 it may be extended longitu
chamber 22.- Should this occur the raw fuel is
dinally to any length required to provide a pas
collected in the cavities 82 (Fig. 4) in the ?ns 35
sage 98 which is long enough to completely va
through the openings 31 therein, the heat in the
porize the fuel ?owing therethrough, By virtue
fins vaporizing this fuel fortlaterburning. All 80 of the heat exchanger outlet l0! being open to
of the fuel supplied to the heater is thus‘ substan
the conduit portion 52' and with the mixture
tially completely vaporized so that burning there
flowing through the passage 98 in the direction
of proceeds efficiently and uniformly atall times
of heater operation. . The fan 44 supplies both the
air for combustion and circulates the air to be
heated, the air being circulated through the pas
sage 39 simultaneously with the starting of heater
operation since the heater starts concurrently
with the starting of the engine.
.
of the exhaust flow in such conduit portion, the
flow of the mixture through the passage 98 is
aided by the ejector action produced" at the out
let l’0l by the exhaust flow. This vaporous mix
tureis intermingled with the exhaust gases, and.
the resulting mixture burned in the combustion
The modi?ed form of the invention shown in 70 chamber 22, ignition being initiated by the spark
plug 11. Additional air for‘ burning in the com
Fig. 5 is similar in all respects to the form of the
bustion chamber 22 is introduced from the air
invention in Fig. 1 except for the relational as
chamber 23 into the exhaust conduit portion 52
sembly of the fuel conditioning means 6|, the ‘ex
through ports ,l05 formed in the conduit section
haust conduit portion 52 and the combustion
' chamber 22.. Similar numerals of reference shall 75. 92, and intothe combustion passagef3la through
2,405,427
7
ports I06 provided in the base portion 21a about
the combustion chamber inlet 32.
8
charge opening ‘thereof arranged to discharge
the exhaust gases from said engine into the in
let of said combustion chamber means, means
From a consideration of the drawings and
preparing an air and fuel mixture for burning
above description, it is seen that the invention
provides for a unit heater of portable type which U1. in said combustion chamber means including
heat exchanger means having a plurality of
is operated in conjunction with an internal com
radially extending apertured ?ns angularly
bustion engine, and which utilizes the power from
spaced about said conduit to receive heat there
such engine as the sole source of power supply.
from, a housing extended about said ?ns to form
The exhaust heat from the engine is used in the
passages therebetween, and having an inlet and
operation of the heater to vaporize fuel used
an outlet, with said outlet being in communica
therein for mixing together with air prior to
tion with said conduit discharge opening, with
the burning thereof. This mixture is intermingled
said passages being ?uid connected by the aper
with the exhaust gases with the resultant mixture
tures in said ?ns, and means introducing air and
being introduced into the combustion chamber
fuel into the inlet of said heat exchanger means,
and burned. The substantially complete vapor
with said fuel in passing through said heat ex
ization of the fuel to be burned in the heater
changer means being heated and vaporized for
assures its complete combustion with a maximum
mixing
together with said air, said vaporous air
production of heat and a practical elimination
and feed mixture being mingled with the exhaust
of objectionable odors and visible exhaust; The
engine and heater are assembled together in a 20 gases from said conduit for passage therewith
into said combustion chamber means to be
compact unit which may be readily moved about
burned.
_
to provide heated air wherever it is needed. The
3. A heater of internal combustion type oper
unit is thus readily applicable for use in an air
ated in conjunction with an internal combus
port to heat airplane engines for starting pur
tion engine having an exhaust gas conduit, a
poses, or to heat cabins, small workshops, and
combustion chamber means for said heater hav
the like. The entire unit is simple in design and
ing an inlet, said conduit having the discharge
of a rugged construction so as to withstand any
end thereof positioned in said inlet to discharge
rough handling thereof during its movement
the engine exhaust gases into said combustion
from place to place, without impairing its e?icient
operation.
Although the invention has been described with
speci?c reference to several preferred forms
thereof, it is to be understood/that changes can
be made therein which are within the full in
tended scope of the invention as de?ned by the ‘
appended claims.
I claim:
7
1. In an air heater of internal combustion type
operated in conjunction with an internal com
bustion engine having an exhaust gas conduit, a 40
combustion chamber means for said heater hav
ing an inlet at one end, an air chamber means at
said one end separated from said combustion
chamber means, passage means about said com~
bustion chamber means for the air to be heated,
air supply means, means proportioning the air
from said air supply means to said air chamber
means and air passage means, a Venturi portion
positioned in the inlet of said combustioncham
ber means, said exhaust conduit having an end
portion thereof positioned in said air chamber
chamber means, means preparing a combustible
mixture for burning in said combustion cham
ber means, carried by said conduit and including
heat exchanger means positioned within said con
duit, said heat exchanger means having an inlet
at the outside .of said conduit and an outlet near
said conduit discharge end, and means introducing
air and fuel intosaid heat exchanger means at the
inlet thereof, said fuel on passing through said
heat exchanger means being vaporized and mixed
together with said air, with said vaporous mix
ture being admitted into‘the exhaust gases at
said conduit discharge end for passage therewith
into said combustion chamber means to be
burned.
4. A heater of internal combustion type oper
ated in conjunction with an internal combus
tion engine having an exhaust gas conduit, a com
bustion chamber means for said heater having
an inlet, said conduit having the discharge end
thereof positioned in said inlet to discharge the
engine exhaust gases into said combustion cham
ber means, means preparing a combustible mix
means with a discharge outlet at said Venturi
portion, means preparing a combustible mixture
for burning in said combustion chamber means
ture for burning in said combustion chamber
means, carried by said conduit and including a
heat exchanger unit extended longitudinally of
including heat exchanger means mounted on said ‘
and within said conduit and radially spaced
conduit end portion, said heat exchanger means
therefrom, said heat exchanger unit having heat
being adapted to receive air and fuel and having
receiving portions on the periphery thereof to
an outlet at said Venturi portion, means admit
receive heat from saidexhaust gases, longitudinal
ting air into said heat exchanger from said air
passage means‘ in said heat exchanger unit hav
chamber means, means supplying fuel tov said
ing an inlet at the outside of said conduit and
heat exchanger means, said fuel being heated in
said heat exchanger means and vaporized for
an outlet near said conduit discharge end, and
means introducing air and fuel into said heat
exchanger unit at said inlet, said fuel on pass
ing through said passage means being vaporized
and mixed together with said air, with said
mixing together with said air, with the flow of
the engine exhaust gases from said conduit
’ through said Venturi portion providing an ejector
action for drawing the vaporous air and fuel
vaporous air and fuelmixture being admitted
into the exhaust gases at said conduit dis
mixture from said heat exchanger outlet into
charge end for passage therewith into said com
said‘ combustion chamber means for burning
therein with said exhaust gases.
70 bustion chamber means to be burned.
5. In combination with an engine which is pro
2. In a heater of internal combustion type op
erated in conjunction with an internal combus
' vided with an exhaust outlet through which heat
tion engine having an exhaust gas conduit, a
combustion chamber means ‘for said heater hav
an’ inlet, said exhaust conduit‘ havlngthe dis-\ 75 >
ed exhaust gases are discharged; an internal
combustion heater provided with means de?ning
a combustion chamber, a tubular member having
2,405,422?
9
a, mouth opening into said combustion chamber,
a fuel feed conduit, means comprising a fuel feed
pump and a fan both driven by said engine for
delivering a mixture of fuel from said conduit,
and air through said tubular member to said
combustion chamber, means for transmitting
heated exhaust gases from said exhaust outlet
through said tubular member into said combus
tion chamber, and a second heat conductive
tubular member mounted within said ?rst-named
10
gated heat transfer body disposed within said
tubular member and provided with an elongated
passage therethrough, said body having walls oc
cupying a volume substantially greater than the
volume of said passage, thereby to minimize fluc
tuations in the temperature at the surfaces of
said walls de?ning said passage which tend to
result from fluctuations in the temperature of
said heated gases, and means for injecting a
mixture of fuel and air into said chamber over a
path which includes said elongated passage, the
discharge end of said body terminating short of
ing short of the mouth of said ?rst-named tubu
the discharge end of said tubular member, there
lar member so that a mixing zone is provided
by to provide a mixing zone for the mixing of the
within said ?rst named member between the
mouths of the two members within which the 15 air, fuel and gaseous medium prior to entry of
the named constituents into said combustion
fuel, air and heated exhaust gases are mixed be
chamber.
fore entrance into said combustion chamber, said
9. In an internal combustion heating system
second tubular member functioning to separate
which includes an engine provided with an ex
the exhaust gases from the mixture of air and
fuel prior to entry of the named elements of the 20 haust and a heater provided with means de?ning
a combustion chamber having an inlet, means
combustible mixture into said mixing zone and
de?ning an air chamber at said one end of said
having ?ns extending therefrom for transferring
combustion chamber, air moving means for de
heat from the exhaust gases to the mixture of air
livering air to said air chamber, a fuel condi
and fuel.
6. In an internal combustion heater which is 25 tioning unit disposed at said inlet within said
chamber comprising a pair of tubular members
provided with means de?ning a combustion
opening into said combustion chamber and dis
chamber, a tubular member provided with a dis
posed one within the other to provide two spaces
charge end opening into said chamber, a fuel and
which are separated by the walls of the inner
air. mixing device provided with means for dis
member, means connected with one of said mem
charging a mixture of fuel and air into said
bers at a point outside of said combustion cham
tubular member at a point along the wall there
ber for delivering fuel to one of said spaces, said
of removed from said discharge end, a second
one space being fluid connected with said air
tubular member disposed within said ?rst-named
chamber to receive air therefrom for mixing with
tubular member, and extending beyond said point
toward the discharge end of said ?rst-named 35 said fuel, said inner member having a mouth ter
minating short of the mouth of the outer mem
tubular member, radially spaced apart heat
ber so that a mixing zone is provided within the
radiating ?ns extending axially of said two mem
outer member between the mouths of said two
bers between the walls thereof to support said
members, and means for transmitting heated ex
second member within said ?rst-named member
and to transfer heat from within said second 40 haust gases through the other of said spaces for
mixing with the fuel and air in said mixing zone,
member to a mixture of air and fuel delivered to
prior to entry of the named constituents into
said ?rst-named member from said mixing de
tubular member and having a mouth terminat
vice, and means for providing a heated medium
within said second tubular member.
'7; In an internal combustion heater which is
provided with means de?ning a combustion
chamber, a tubular member provided with a dis
said combustion chamber.
>
10. In an internal combustion heating system
which includes an engine provided with an ex
haust and a heater provided with means de?ning
a combustion chamber having an inlet, means
de?ning an air chamber at said one end of said
combustion chamber, air moving means for de
charge end opening into said chamber, a fuel
and air mixing device provided with means for
discharging a mixture of fuel and air into said 50 livering air to said chamber, a fuel conditioning
unit disposed at said inlet within said air cham
tubular member at a point along the wall there
ber and comprising a pair of tubular members
of removed from said discharge end, a second
opening into said combustion chamber and dis
tubular member disposed within said ?rst-named
posed one within the other to provide two spaces
tubular member, and extending beyond said
point toward the discharge end of said ?rst 55 which are separated by the walls of the inner
member, means connected with one of said mem
bers at a point outside of said combustion cham
ber for delivering fuel to one of said spaces, said
one space being ?uid connected with said air
said second member within said ?rst-named
member, to divide the space between said mem (30 chamber to receive air therefrom for mixing with
said fuel, said inner member having a mouth ter
bers into a plurality of chambers which extend
minating short of the mouth of ,the outer mem
axially of said members and to transfer heat
ber so that a mixing zone is provided within the
from within said second member to a mixture of
outer member between the mouths of said two
air and fuel delivered to said ?rst-named mem
named tubular member, radially spaced apart
heat radiating ?ns extending axially of said two
members between the walls thereof to support
ber from said mixing device, said ?ns being pro
vided with openings therethrough which extend
between adjacent ones of said plurality of cham
bers, and means for providing a heated medium
within said second tubular member.
8. In an internal combustion heater which in
cludes means de?ning a combustion chamber, a
tubular member provided with a discharge end
communicating with said chamber, means for
discharging a heated gaseous medium into said
chamber through said tubular member, an elon
members, means for transmitting heated exhaust
gases through the other of said spaces for mixing
with the fuel and air in said mixing zone prior
to entry of the named constituents into said
combustion chamber, and a perforated wall par
tially closing the mouthiof one of said members
to impede gaseous ?ow therethrough and thus
enhance the transfer of heat from said exhaust
gases to said fuel and air.
11. In an internal combustion heating system
75 which includes an engine provided with an ex
2,405,427
11
r
haust and a heater provided with means de?n
ing a combustion chamber having an inlet,
means de?ning an air chamber at said one end
12
tubular member and provided with an elongated
passage therethrough, said body having walls oc
cupying a volume substantially greater than the
volume of said passage, whereby the heat reten
tivity of said walls, minimizes ?uctuations in the
temperature at the surfaces of said walls de?n
ing said passage which tend to result from ?uc
tuations in the temperature of said heated gases,
of said combustion chamber, air moving means
for delivering air to said chamber, a fuel condi
tioning unit disposed at said inlet within said
chamber and comprising a pair of tubular mem
bers opening into said combustion chamber and
disposed one within the other to provide two
and means for injecting a mixture of fuel and air
spaces which are separated by the walls of the 10 into said chamber over apath which includes said
inner member, means connected with one of
said members at a point outside of said combus
tion chamber for delivering fuel to one of ‘said
spaces, said one space being ?uid connected with
said air chamber to receive air therefrom for 15
elongated passage.
14. In an'internal combustion heater, 3, com
bustion chamber, means providing a source of
combustible mixture, conduit means connecting
mixing with said fuel, said inner member having
said source to said combustion chamber, an aspi
rator in said conduit means adjacent said com
a mouth terminating short of the mouth of the
bustion chamber, said aspirator being so posi
outer member so that a mixing zone is provided
tioned that the passage of ?uid through said
within the outer member between the mouths
aspirator will produce a low pressure zone insaid
of said two members, means for transmitting 20 conduit, an internal combustion engine, conduit
heated exhaust gases through the other of said
means connecting the exhaust side of said inter
spaces for mixing with the fuel and air in said
nal combustion, engine to said aspirator, a heat
mixing zone prior to entry of the named constit
exchanger means, aircirculating means arranged
uents into said combustion chamber, and ‘heat
to be driven by said engine, means connecting
transfer ?ns extending outward from said inner 25 said combustion chamber to said heat exchanger
tubular member, thereby to enhance the trans
means, and means connecting said air circulating
fer of heat from said exhaust gases to said fuel
means to said heat exchanger means so that air
and air,
moved by said air circulating means passes in
12. In an internal combustion heating system
heat exchange relation to the products of com
which includes an engine provided with an ex
bustion issuing from said engine and said com
haust and a heater provided with means de?ning
bustion chamber.
a combustion chamber having an inlet, means
15. In an internal combustion heating system
de?ning an air chamber at said one end of said
which includes an engine provided with an ex
combustion chamber, air moving means for de
haust and a heater provided with means de?ning
livering air to said chamber, a fuel conditioning
a combustion chamber, an aspirator for deliver
, unit disposed at said inlet within said chamber
ing a'combustible mixture to said combustion
and comprising a pair of tubular membersopen
ing into said combustion chamber and disposed
chamber, passage means for delivering a com
bustible mixture to said aspirator, means for
transmitting gases from said engine exhaust
one within the other to provide two spaces which
are separated by the walls of the inner member,
40
means connected with one of said members at
a point outside of said combustion chamber for
delivering fuel to one of said spaces, said one
space being ?uid connected with said air cham
ber to receive air therefrom for mixing with said ~15
fuel, said inner member having a mouth termi
nating short of the mouth of the outer member
so that a mixing zone is provided within the outer
member between the mouths of said two mem
bers, means for transmitting heated exhaust
gases through the other of said spaces for mix
ing with the fuel and air in said mixing zone
prior to entry of the named constituents into
said combustion chamber, heat transfer ?ns ex
tending outward from said inner tubular mem
ber, thereby to enhance the transfer of heat from
said exhaust gases to said fuel and air, and a
perforated wall partially closing the mouth of
one of said members to impede gaseous ?ow
therethrough and thus further enhance the
transfer of heat from said exhaust gases to said
fuel and air.
13. In an internal combustion heater which in
cludes means de?ning a combustion chamber, a
tubular member provided with a discharge end
communicating with said chamber, means for
discharging a heated gaseous medium into said
chamber through said tubular member, an elon
gated heat transfer body disposed within said
through said aspirator, thereby to produce a low
pressure zone insaid passage means, and means
including a fan driven by said engine for moving
air to be heated in heat exchange relationship
with said combustion chamber.
16. In combination with an engine which is
provided with, an exhaust outlet through which
heated exhaust gases are discharged; an internal
combustion'heater provided with means de?ning
a combustion chamber, a tubular member having
a mouth opening into said combustion chamber,
means for delivering a combustible mixture of
fuel and air through said tubular member into
said combustion chamber, means including a
second tubular member mounted within said ?rst
tubular member for transmitting heated exhaust
gases from said exhaust outlet through said ?rst
named tubular member into said combustion
chamber, said second tubular member having a
mouth terminating short of the mouth of said
first-named tubular member so that a mixing
zone is provided within said ?rst-named member
between the mouths of the two members within
which the combustible mixture and heated ex
haust gases are mixed before entrance into said
combustion chamber, heat exchange means re—
ceiving heat from said combustion chamber, and
air circulating means driven by said engine for
circulating air over the heat exchange means.
HARRY B. HOLTHOUSE.
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