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Патент USA US2405429

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Aug. 6, 1946.
Richard. G. Jewell,
His A 'horney
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Richard G. Jewell, Swampscott, Mass., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application December 10, 1943, Serial No. 513,813
5 Claims. (Cl. 177-311)
My invention relates to an electrically operated
position indicator and its object is to provide such
an indicator which is of rugged, compact, low
cost construction, but which is highly reliable in
has a hub firmly secured to a shaft I8, Whic
shaft is pivoted in bearings I9 and 20 in a sup
comprise a partition in or the rear wall of .the
casing I 0. The weight of the armature as con
structed is substantially balanced about the axis
porting framework 2| by means of which the rotor
assembly may be secured to a panel 22 which may
For example, my invention may be
used on an airplane where there is considerable
vibration and where space and weight require
ments are important to indicate the position of
of rotation. The shaft IB also has an arm 23 ex
tending radially therefrom between which and an
The features of my invention which are be 10 extension 24 of the framework is a tension spring
lieved to be novel and patentable will be pointedy
25. The spring 25 is arranged to bias the rotor ‘
assembly to the central rotary position repre
out inthe claims appended hereto. For a better
sented in Fig. 2 when moved in either direction
understanding of my invention, reference is made
from such position. Other suitable biasing means
in the following description to the accompanying
may be employed. When in such central rotary
drawing in which Figs. 1 and 2 represent partial
position, the designation “Off” appears in the
front and sectional side views of a preferred em
window I I. The spider member I3 or at least the
bodiment of my invention, with .the movable in
arc-shaped extensions I6 and I'I thereof are of
dicating element in a mid-indicating position;
permanent magnet material and permanently
Figs. 3 and 4 represent front and sectional side
views of the same indicator with the movable 20 magnetized, with the open ends thereof of the
same magnetic polarity as indicated by the desig
indicating element in one extreme indicating po
nations N thereon. The south pole of these mag
sition; Fig. 5 represents a perspective view of a
nets may be at the hub of the spider Where, as
movable permanent magnet armature member
here, the spider and arc-shaped parts are made
and centering spring employed in the invention;
and Fig. 6 shows torque displacement curves of 25 of one piece of material. It is, however, unnec
essary that the radial spider portion be of per
a device of this character for the purpose of ex
manent magnetic material, but because of the
plaining preferred dimensions and relations of
>small size and amount of material involved, it is
parts to obtain the most satisfactory over-all
economical to make the spider and arc-shaped
torque characteristics.
magnets of one piece of material. The maximum
Referring to the drawing, the indicator may
diameter of the circular rotor structure may be
comprise a receiver casing l0 having a front win
of the order of one inch and other dimensions in
dow II for exposing position designating mark
the same relative proportion represented. The
ings, such as “Up,” “Downf’ and “Off,” on a
indicating surface I2 may be of considerably
rotary position indicating member` within the
larger diameter than the magnet circle or the in
casing and partially exposed to View through the
dicating surface may be a large disk on the end
Window. The markings referred to are on the
of the shaft where exceptionally large indica
outer cylindrical surface 0f a lightweight, non
tiOns are desired. symmetrically located between
rnagnetie indicator member I2. The member I2
the open ends of the magnets I6 and I'I when the
may be considered as one-half of a hollow open
rotor is in the center rotary Áposition shown in
ended cylinder and is securely fastened to a com
Fig. 2, is a two-coil hollow spool 26 having ax
bined spider and permanent magnet armature
ially displaced coils 21 and 28, the axial opening
member I3 pivoted on the axis of the half cylin
in the spool being positioned so that the arc
der. The cylindrical surface member may be se
shaped magnets IG and I1 may freely enter the
cured to the spider by metal clips I4 integral with
the part I2 which securely grasp notched parts 45 same as represented in Fig. 4. A strap section of
the framework 2I passes through the spool open
of the spider member I3. One of the notches for
ing on the side away from the pivoted armature
this purpose is shown at I5 in Fig. 5. The spider
and is securely fastened thereto, so that the spool
member has sector-shaped extensions I6 and I'I,
and framework 2| are secured in fixed relation
the outer surfaces of which have in this case the
same radius of curvature as the inside of the cy 50 to each other and to the casing part 22 as repre
sented. The two coils are connected to a direct
lindrical surface member I2, and extend beyond
current source of supply 29 through individual
the extremities of such surface approximately 60
switches 30 and 3| and the coils are so wound that
degrees of arc in the structure shown, such that
they produce fluxes in opposite directions through
the distance between their free ends is also ap
landing wheels and the like.
proximately 60 degrees arc. The spider portion
the axis of the coil spool. It is intended that only
one coil will be energized at any one time. How
ever, the circuit arrangement may be such that
only one coil is deenergized at any one time since
starting and would not have the quick positive
with both coils energized they nullify each other.
When coil 21 is energized, it repels the N pole of
magnet I6 and attracts the N pole of magnet Il.
When coil 28 is energized, it repels the N pole of
magnet l1 and attracts the N pole of magnet Iii.
The eiïect upon the permanent magnet armature
action most to be desired. Curve S represents
the electromagnetic torque of a device similar
to the one represented except that the gap be
tween the ends of the magnets is made about
1Ag-inch shorter than represented in the drawing,
and S-T the resultant torque of such a device.
Such a- device would have more than suiiicient
starting torque but insufficient upscale torque to
member is represented in Fig. 4 Where coil 23 _is 10 move the indicator to the extreme indicating
energized. Thus coil 28 produces a, iiux through
position selected. The resultant torque becomes
its axis which is of an N polarity at its lower end
zero at about 57 degrees deflection, and the indi
and of an S polarity at its upper end, and due
cations “Up” and “Down” would not be centered
t0 the influence of this flux on the >permanent
in the window opening. At 57 degrees deilection
magnets causes the rotor structure to turn,’tend- 15 such a devicewould have no holding torque and
ing to center the magnet I6 with respect to the
even if the extreme indicating positions were
coil flux. The entry of magnet- I5 .into and
~made at 50- degrees deilection from mid-position,
through coil 28 as far as it would otherwise go
the holding torque would be unsatisfactory under
is prevented by a resilient stop 32 secured to the
the vibrating and bouncing conditions likely to
panel and extending into the path of movement 20 be met with in an airplane.
of the edge of the cylindrically surfaced _indicat
Curve M represents the electromagnetic torque
ing member I2, so that the rotary movement in a
of the device dirnensioned as represented in the
clockwise direction is limited t0 that shown in
drawing where the gap between the ends offthe
Fig. 4. The stop is adjustable by bending so as
magnets I6 and i1 is about 60 degrees. M-T
correctly to position the indication “Down” in the 25 represents the resultant torque, It is seen that
window l I, as shown in Fig. 3, when the armature
the device has good starting and holding result
member is so positioned. Likewise, there is a stop
ant torques and that they are about equal and
33 against which the other edge of part l2 strikes
well proportioned. In other words, the starting
when the armature assembly is turned counter
torque on the armature assembly when in the
clockwise from the central position shown in Fig. 30 mid-position of Fig. 2 upon energizing of one of
2 when the upper coil 2l is energized, correctly to
the coils corresponds to the value shown by dotted
po-sition the designation “Up” in the window il.
line lVi-T at zero degrees, and the holding torque
When the energized coil is deenergized, the spring
when in either extreme position corresponds to
25 returns the armature assembly to the central
the value indicated by curve M-T at 60 degrees.
position shown in Fig. 2 as it would also do if 35 The device will therefore have quick, nonsluggish
both coils were‘energized simultaneouslyl
action and is unlikely to be iniiuenced by bounc
As indicated in Fig, 4, by way of an example,
ing or vibration of the plane, or by a low voltage
the switches 3U and 3l may be operated by the
battery condition when in either of the energized
raising and lowering mechanism of the landing
or extreme indicating positions,
wheel 34 of an airplane. The wheel is represent 40
It will be noted that the over-all length of the
ed as being in the fully lowered position, closing
coil spool has been made substantially as great
switch’ 3Q. When the wheel is fully raised, switch
as possible for the GO-degree angle of deflection
3l is closed, and when in any intermediate posi
and the IBO-degree peripheral length of cylindri
tion, both switches are open. Thus, the 'position
cal indicating surface l2 employed. If the coil
indicator indicates these different conditions -by
spool were made any longer, its ends would serve
suitable markings on the indicator which appear
as the stopsl 3| and 32. While this is possible,` I
in the window ‘l I under the three conditions
prefer to -provide the additional stop devices
which are made to have some slight resiliency
In order to obtain a good angle of movement
and can be adjusted as described. It is also desir
of the armature member in both directions from
able to have the total length of the spool less than
center so that quite large indications “011,” “Oiîj’
etc., may be used on a small drum or the equiva
the length of magnet gap for assembly purposes.
It is also noted that the internal diameter of the
lent and to obtain good starting and holding
coil spool has been made about as small as feasible
torques~ certain dimensional relations of the parts
to accommodate the curved armature members
_are found desirable as will be explained in con 55 and the holding strap, while the external diam
nection with the curves of
6. -In the device
eter could not be greatly increased and still leave
represented, I have provided for angles of deflec
room for the spider and shaft assembly. The
tion of approximately 60 degrees each way from
coils are designed to be continuously energized
mid-position, and in Fig. 6 the angular deflection
without injury. The structural design’and di
indegreesone way from the center or zero posi 60 mensional relations shown and described were
tion is plotted as abscissa. The ordinates repre
arrived at with a view of obtaining a compact,
-sent torque and the straight line curve T repre
rugged. lightweight, easily assembled, low cost,
sents the- torque of centering spring 25. Curve
but highly reliable and eiiicient device.
L represents »the 'electromagnetic torque of a de
What I claim as new and. desire to secure by
vice similar to the one pictured except that the 65 Letters Patent of the United States is:
gap between the open ends of magnets I6 and l'!
1. In Aa position indicator, a spool having a pair
is made about 1Ar-inch longer than shown; for
of hollow cylindrical coils closely spaced end-to
example, a device where the gan would be about
end with their axes in line adapted to be sepa
75 degrees instead of approximately 60 degrees.
rately energized by direct current, the coil con
Curve LeT represents the resultan-t torque of 70 nections being such that the two coils produce
such a device or the difference between the torque
fluxes in opposite directions, a rotary armature
position indicating member having a' pair of
L and the spring torque T. It is seen that the
sector-shaped permanent magnet parts arranged
resultant starting torque is quite low and the
v in the arc of a circle about the axis of rotation
torque remains low up to about 25 _degrees de
of the armature and each being of at least 60
flection. Such a device would be 'sluggish in
degrees arc length with poles of like polarity
facing each other across a gap of approximately
60 degrees arc, means for biasing said armature
member to a central rotary position with the
aforesaid spaced pole pieces adjacent opposite
ends of said spool such that when the armature
is turned the sector-shaped magnet vparts can
pass into the hollow coils, the relative polarity of
said magnets and coils when energized being
posite ends of the spool and with the hollow axial
space of said spool in line with said sector parts
whereby when the armature is rotated in oppo
site directions the ends of said sector-shaped
5 parts can enter and `freely pass through the coils,
said coils being adapted to be separately ener
gized with direct current to produce ñuxes of
opposite polarity for the purpose of rotating said
armature member in opposite directions from its
such that when a coil is energized it repels the 10 central
4. A position indicator comprising a rotary
nearer magnet and attracts the other magnet
member having an indicating surface part formed
and causes the armature to turn from the central
in the shape of one-half of a hollow cylinder,
position accordingly, and means for stopping the
means for rotatively supporting said member on
rotary movement of said armature when it has
an axis coinciding with the axis of such a cyl
rotated approximately 60 degrees from central
position in either direction.
2. A position indicator comprising a rotary
armature indicating member having two sector
shaped permanent magnet parts each of at least
inder, a pair of sector-shaped permanent mag
nets secured on said rotary member and arranged
in the arc of a circle with respect to its axis of
rotation in arcs, each of approximately 60 de
grees, adjacent that occupied by the one-half
60 degrees arc length and arranged in the arc 20 cylinder indicating surface part such that there
of a circle about the axis of rotation of `the mem
remains an open gap between the ends of the
ber with poles of like polarity spaced from each
permanent magnets of approximately 6o degrees
other by a gap of approximately 60 degrees arc
arc, said magnets being polarized to have like
length, means for biasing said armature member
poles facing each other across said gap, means
to a central rotary position when rotated in 25 for biasing said rotary member to a central rotary
either direction therefrom, a hollow coil spool
position when rotated in either direction from
having a pair of reversely wound energizing coils
such position, a pair of reversely wound station
occupying opposite end halves thereof, said coil
ary hollow coaxial coils positioned end-to-end
spool being of such dimensions that it can be in
within and occupying substantially but not more
serted in the aforesaid gap to a position to allow
than the entire gap space between the sector
the ends of the sector-shaped magnet parts to
shaped permanent magnets when the rotary
pass through the coils when the armature mem
member is in its central position with the axis of
ber is rotated in opposite directions> from such
said coils in alignment with the sector-shaped
central position, means for securing said spool in
magnets such that the magnets may freely enter
such position with the spool symmetrical with re 35 the coils when the rotary member is rotated from
spect to the central rotary position of the arma
its central position, said coils being adapted to be
ture member, said coils being adapted to be sepa
individually energized with direct current such
rately energized at diiîerent times by direct cur
that the magnet which is nearer the coil which
rent and both to be deenergized at other times,
is energized is repelled and the other magnet is
the energizing of the coils on said spool causing 40 attracted causing rotation of the rotary member
the sector-shaped magnet nearer the coil which
from the central position, and means for limiting
is energized to be repelled and the other magnet
rotary movements of said rotary member to ap
to be attracted to produce corresponding direc
proximately 60 degrees from the central position,
tional rotation oi said armature member from
the resultant torque tending to produce rotation
the central position, and means for limiting the 45 of said rotary member being substantial and ap
rotary movements of said armature member from
proximately the same in its central and extreme
a central position to angles of approximately 60
rotary positions when either coil is energized
degrees while said moving magnetic forces are
whereby said rotary member has quick operation
still appreciable whereby they become holding
50 and good holding torque.
`E». An electromagnetic position indicator hav
3. A position indicator having an integral
ing similar, coaxial first and second stationary
spider and double permanent magnet rotary
hollow coils and a rotor member having ñrst and
armature member made of permanent magnet
second sector-shaped permanent magnet arma
material, the double armature member consisting
of two sector-shaped parts of approximately 60 55 ture members, the armature members being rel
atively positioned as Segments of the same circle
degrees arc length and arranged in the arc of a
pivoted for rotation about the center of such
circle about the axis of rotation of the armature
circle, said coils being positioned relative to said
member with one end of each bent inward to
rotor member so that said circle passes tangen
form the spider and the other ends extending
toward each other with a gap of approximately 60 tially through the axial space of said coils such
that either magnet may thread either hollow coil,
60 degrees arc between them, said member being
means for biasing said rotor member to a central
permanently magnetized so that the spaced ends
position where the magnets are symmetrically
of the sector-shaped parts are of the same po
located with respect to and entirely outside the
larity, means for rotatively supporting said arma
ture member on its axis of rotation, means for 65 coils, said coils being adapted to be alternately
energized with direct current such that the ñrst
biasing the same to a central rotary position when
coil will attract the second magnet and repel the
moved in either direction from such position, and
other to produce rotation of the rotor member
a double coil stationary hollow spool member the
one direction from the central position and
over-all length of which does not exceed the
length of said gap symmetrically positioned 70 the second coil will attract the ñrst magnet and
repel the other to produce rotation in the oppo
within the gap between the ends of said sector
direction from the central position.
shaped armature parts when the armature is in
its central position with the coils coaxial at op
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