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Патент USA US2405433

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2,405,433
H. KOCH
BONE CONDUCTION AUDIPHONE
Filed Dec. 5l, 1941
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INVENTOR
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Patented Àug. 6, i946
2,405,433
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,433
BONE CONDUCTION AUDIPHONE
Henry Koch, Jamaica, N. Y., ass'îgnor to Dicto
graph Products Company, Inc., -New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of Delaware
'in
Application December 31, 1941, serial No. 425,0391‘Ã9/
8 Claims.
1
(Cl. 179-107)
2
This invention relates to audiphones and has
casing carrying the magnetic structure 'so that
particular reference to audiphone receivers hav
even under abnormal pressures on the contactor
ing a vibrating contactor adapted to be placed
the air gap is not varied suliiciently to impair
in operative connection with the bone 'structure
operation of the device. However, even though
of the user for transmitting audible sounds 5 this cushion is resilient, it aiïects normal elec
picked up by a suitable microphone to the inner
tromagnetic vibration and is not entirely satis
ear through the bone str'ucture.
factory.
Bone conduction receivers may be divided into
The present invention is concerned With im
two general classes, direct acting and reaction.
provements on the direct-acting bone receiver
In the former the bone contactor is directly 10 disclosed in my said Patent No. 2,144,458, in
connected to the vibrating element, such as a
which the general characteristics of the receiver
reed, of an electromagnetic system, the magnet
there disclosed are retained and the disadvantage
structure of which is held `relatively stationary
of susceptibility to abnormal pressures cf the
by a headband or the like, so that the contactor
contactor against the head is eliminated. This
vibrates relatively thereto. In the reaction type 15 is accomplished in a preferred embodiment of
of receiver, the bone engaging contactor connect
the present invention by resiliently mounting
ed to the vibrating element, such as a reed, is
the entire magnetic structure in the casing by
supported by a headband or the like, so that the
electromagnetic system hangs free and, inas
much as this system has substantial mass, it re
spring means softer or less resistant to flexing
than the stiff reed, i. e., which will íieX before
20 the reed fleXes under abnormal pressures, so that
mains stationary while the contactor vibrates
the entire electromagnetic system iìoats within
the casing to be restored to its normal position
Each class of bone conduction receiver has
by the spring means when the abnormal pressure
certain advantages over the other, as well as cer
is released, without impairment in its operation
tain disadvantages. Thus, inasmuch as the re- 25 during the period of abnormal pressure.
action type of receiver vibrates bodily as a unit,
The receiver of this invention is also prefer
it necessarily also vibrates the connecting por
ably mounted directly on the headband which
relatively thereto by reaction.
tion of the headband as well, which imposes some
lies iiatvvise against the head so that any pres
restraint on the vibration requiring increased
sure against vthe headband will not change the
mass against which the reed may react, thus ren 30 position of the electromagnetic structure resili
quiring considerable power for operation.
ently supported within the casing in the man
The direct acting bone receiver does not re
ner described.
y
l
Uluire vibration of the headband since only the
For a more complete understanding of the in
reed and contactor are vibrated, but the neces
vention, reference may be had to the accompany
sary pressure of the contactor against the bone 35 ing drawing, in which:
in order to obtain good conduction is consider
Figure 1 illustrates the bone conduction re
able, and that results in suppression of the reed
ceiver of this invention supported cn a headband
or diaphragm to which the contactor is con
and connected in a microphone circuit;
nected and variation of the air gap. This objec
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through the
tion to direct action receivers is largely overcome 40 receiver illustrating the interior construction
in the improvement disclosed in my Patent No.
thereof; and
2,144,458, in which the contactor, forming part
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section through a modi
of the casing wall engaging the body, is carried
ñed form of the receiver of this invention.
by the reed, which is made suiîiciently stiff to
Referring to Fig. l, the bone conduction re
resist deformation and consequent varying of the 45 ceiver A includes a casing I0 ofv hard rubber, phe
air gap under headband normal pressures.
nolic resin, or the like, mounted on a headband
Nevertheless, under abnormal conditions, a
Il, which forms a closure for the corresponding
greater pressure is applied to the button, some
open side of the casing I0 and also serves as a
times on the order of a pound or more, so that
face plate for the receiver .A as it is held flatwise
the stiff reed cannot withstand this abnormal 50 against the head. Projecting slightly beyond the
pressure and is ñeXed with consequent variance
surface of the face plate Il’ is a bone-engaging
of the air gap and ineñicient and ineffective re
contactor or button l2, which is víbrated by elec
production. In one form of the invention of my
trical means within the casing lil so as to trans
said patent, resilient material, such as rubber or
mit its vibrations through the intervening bone
felt is interposed between the contactor and the 55 to the inner ear of the user. The electrical means
2,405,433
.3
4
is energized by voice currents picked up by a suit
able microphone I3 ln circuit with a battery or
the stiffness of spring I8 is made such that it
flexes before the reed 2I is flexed, e. g., when
other source of power I4 and preferably a vac
uum tube or carbon booster amplifier, not shown,
plied to the contactor I2. These degrees of stiff
connected to the electrical means within the cas
ness are predicated on normal headband pres
sures in the neighborhood of ñve ounces, so that a
a pressure in excess of six to seven ounces is ap
ing A by the flexible electric cord I5 having the
separable plug type connectors I6 plugged into
pressure in excess thereof is abnormal. Obvious
ly, if the normal headband pressure is greater or
less than that in the given example, the reed 2|
The aforemetioned electrical means within the
casing Iil may be electromagnetic, a piezo-electric LU will be made stiffer or softer, as the case may be,
crystal, or any other means responsive to ener
and spring I8 will always be made to flex under a
gization by voice currents to produce sufficiently
contactor pressure somewhat less than that re
quired to deflect the reed 2 I.
powerful vibrations for intelligible transmission
In operation of the bone conduction receiver il_
through the bone to the inner ear. Electromag
netic means are shown in the drawings by way of 15 iustrated in Figs. 1 and _2, the face plate I I' is held
firmly against the head, such as on the mastoid
illustration of the invention, and in Fig. 2 comi
the casing I0.
.
prises a bar magnet I'I resiliently supported with
eminence, by the headband II, with a normal
in the casing IB by means of a leaf spring I8 se
cured at one end thereto by screws I9 and at its
pressure of five ounces. The contactor I2 does
not move under this pressure because the stiffness
of the reed 2I is such that a greater'pressure is
required on the contactor I2 before the reed is
other end to the face plate II', as by bolts 20
countersunk in the face plate I I ’_
YAlso secured to the same end of the bar magnet
I'I is the reed 2 I, having a generally L shape and
flexed.
forming at its free end a narrow air gap 22 with
surrounding skin-engaging portion of the face
the opposed end of the pole shoe 23 secured to 25
the other end of the bar magnet I1 by screws 24
and carrying the voice coil 25. The reed 2l and
the magnet I'I are free of and spaced from face
plate I I', so that a ñrm vibration conducting cou
plate I I' and casing I0, respectively.
Consequently the contactor compresses
the skin beneath it slightly more than does the
_
Voice coil 425 is connected to connector plugs
pling between it and the bone is provided. Ener
gization of the electromagnetic system results in
vibration of the contactor I2 relatively to the
headband II and casing Iß and transmission of
its vibrations through the intervening bone to the
IB by filaments 26 soldered to studs 2l on conduc
inner ear.
tor plates 28 insulated from headband I I and
connected through springs 29 and friction buttons
abnormally, as when the user presses on the cas
30 to the plugs I6.
If the pressure on the contactor I2 is increased
ing I0 while it is on his head, or presses his finger
'
Secured to the free end of the reed 2I is a con
35 on the contactor I2 while the receiver is not on
tactor button I2 whose outer surface projects only
slightly beyond the skin engaging surface of face
his head, the spring I8 will ñex, allowing the con
than the surrounding skin beneath the face plate
- or a tight hat placed over the headband II pro
tactor I2 to recede into the casing, the entire
magnet system moving therewith without any
plate I I'. For a small area contactor I2 as shown
flexing of the reed 2l. Even when the device is
such slight projection is desired in order that the
skin beneath it will be compressed slightly more 40 in use and the casing is pressed against the head
I I', so that the skin is firm and hence more con
ductive of the vibrations at the point of applica
tion thereof.
`
`
ducing a similar effect, the operation of the re
ceiver is not impaired.
By securing the lcasing Ill to the headband II,
The average degree of skin compressibility, over
the mastoid eminence, for example, is such that
the projection of the contactor I2 beyond the face
plate II’ need not exceed from l@ to 1&2 of` an
inch, so that the button is substantially flush with
the face plate. The degree of projection of the 60
gages the head, the effect of pressure on the head
band, as by a tight hat, is minimized and usually
precluded. This advantage is not possible with
headbands of the pivoted fork type Shown in my
said patent, where the headband is spaced from
contactor in the drawings is shown exaggerated
the head and hence is more susceptible of move
as shown, so that a large area of the latter en
ment and consequent suppression of the contac
tor under abnormal pressures. It will be under
that where the contactor constitutes a large vpart
stood that this arrangement of headband co-ex
or -all of the area of the face plate, as shown in
my aforementioned patent, there will be less or no 55 tensive with or continuous with the face plate
may be employed with advantage on any type of
projection of the contactor beyond the faceplate,
bone receiver, such as those described in my said
because the need for localized skin compression
in the interest of clarity. It will be understood
decreases as the area of the contactor increases.
patent.
In the modiñed form of the invention shown in
face plate II', which is suñiciently oversize that 60 Fig. 3, the bar magnet I‘I' is suspended by a
spring i8' from the inside of the casing I0 to
there is no contact between the contactor I2 and
which spring I8’ is secured by bolts 32 located
the face plate I I'. The consequent narrow annu
opposite the center of the magnet I‘I’. Secured
lar slot around the contactor I2 is sealed by a
to opposite ends of magnet I'I' by screws 33 is a
ring of felt 3| against ingress of moisture, dirt
U-shaped spring 34 carrying at its center the
and the like, this ring 3I being clamped between
armature 35 screwed to contactor I2', which may
the contactor I2 and the reed 2 I .‘
The contactor I2 extends through a hole in the
be a hard rubber button or other non-metallic
The air gap 22 has a width on the order of a
material. Pole shoes 23' also secured to the
few thousandths of an inch and the reed 2I 'is
ends of the bar magnet I'I by the screws 33 form
thick and consequently stiff, so that a force on
the contactor I2 in excess of normal headband 70 narrow air gaps with the armature 35 and carry
the voice coils 25' connected in the microphone
pressures, i. e., greater than about five ounces, is
necessary in order to deflect the reed 2| suficient
circuit through filaments 26', bushings 36, and
connectors I6'.
ly to aifect the air gap 22. Thus, if the stiffness
selected for reed 2l is such that a force of eight
The contactor projects slightly beyond the sur
ounces is lnecessary to deflect it at the air gap, 75 face of the face plate II”, which is coextensive
2,405,433
with vthe 'headband Il, and a felt washer 3|’
seals the annular space between the perimeter
ofthe contactor l2’ and the hole therefor in the
face plate l l’. As before, th'e spring 34, which
corresponds tothe reed 2l of Fig. '1 as a spring,
is suñicientlystilf that it does not lleX under
pressures of button i2’ on the bone equal to
normal or slightly greater, depending upon re
quirements. However, spring I8’ is softer than
spring 34, so that it ilexes under abnormal >pres
sures on contactor I2', allowing the entire elec
tromagnetic structure to move inwardly until
equilibrium is obtained. When the pressure is
released the system is restored by spring I8',
electrical means, a headband secured to «said
casing and forming ak wall thereof vengaging the
body of the user with a predetermined pressure,
resilient means directly connecting said electrical
means to said casing for bodily movement re1
atively thereto, said resilient means having a
stiffness .precluding substantial flexing under
pressures approximately equal to said predeter
mined pressure, a contactor vibrated by said elec
trical means and extending through said wall
for engaging the body of the user simultaneously
with said wall, and spring means connecting -said
contactor to said electrical means and having a
stiffness greater than that of said resilient means,
without impairment of the operation of the re-v
whereby pressure on said contactor in excess of
ceiver during this interval of abnormal pressure.
said predetermined pressure causes flexing of
The arrangement of Fig. 3 differs from that of
said resilient means and bodily movement of
Fig. 2 in that the ñux paths are shorter and
said electrical means, spring means and oon
the movement under abnormal pressure is in the
tactor as a unit relatively to said casing.
direction of the pressure instead of about spring 20
4. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
i8’ as a form of pivot in Fig. 2. The operation is
of an electrical means adapted to respond to
the same in each case.
It will be seen that the present invention pro
vides a simple and effective solution to the prob
varying currents substantially throughout the
audible frequency range, a headband having a
relatively flat portion adapted to engage the head
lem of operation of bone conduction receivers, 25 of the user, a casing for said electrical means
while preserving th'e advantages thereof, and
having a wall coextensive with said headband
while certain preferred embodiments of the in
portion, and a contactor vibrated by said elec
vention have been illustrated and described
trical means and adapted to engage the head
herein, it is to be understood that they are merely
of the user simultaneously with said headband
illustrative and do not limit the invention within 30 portion.
the scope of the claims.
5. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
I claim:
of an electrical means adapted to respond to
l. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
varying currents substantially throughout the
of an electromagnetic means adapted to respond
audible frequency range, a headband having a
to varying currents substantially throughout th‘e
audible frequency range, a casing having a face
relatively flat portion adapted to engage the head
of the user, a contactor vibrated by said electrical
plate adapted to engage the body of the user, a
means and substantially flush with said head
contactor forming at least part of the body
band portion for transmitting its vibrations
engaging surface of said face plate and vibrated
through the bone to the inner ear, and a casing
by said electromagnetic means relatively to said 40 for said electrical means mounted on said head
casing, relatively stiíf spring means connectingr
band.
said contactor and electromagnetic means, and
6. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
resilient means connecting said electromagnetic
of electro-magnetic means adapted to respond
means directly connected to said casing and sup
to varying currents substantially throughout the
porting said electromagnetic means, spring means
audible frequency range, said electromagnetic
and contactor for bodily movement of the same
means comprising a unit including a magnet
as a unit relatively to said face plate in response
structure, voice coil, vibratory armature, a rel
to excessive pressures applied to said contactor,
atively stilf spring connecting said armature and
said resilient means having a stiffness less than _ magnet structure and a contactor connected to
that of said spring means.
said armature for vibration therewith, a casing
2. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
for said electromagnetic means, said contactor
of an electrical means adapted to respond to var
forming at least part of a wall of said casing,
ying currents substantially throughout the audi
resilient means directly connecting said magnet
ble frequency range, a casing having a face plate
structure to said casing and having less stiff
adapted to engage the body of the user, a con
ness than said spring, whereby excessive pressure
tactor forming at least part of the body-engaging
on said contactor causes said resilient means to
surface of said face plate and vibrated by said
flex to permit bodily movement of said electro
electrical means relatively to said casing, rela
magnetic means as a unit relatively to said
tively stiff spring means connecting said contac
casing.
tor and electrical means, means supporting said 60
7. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
face plate and contactor in simultaneous connec
of electromagnetic means adapted to respond to
tion with the bone structure of the user with a
Varying currents substantially throughout the
predetermined pressure less than that required
audible frequency range, said electromagnetic
to substantially flex said spring means, and resil
ient means directly connecting said electrical- 65 means comprising a unit including a magnet
structure, voice coil, vibratory armature, a rel
means to said casing and supporting said electri
atively stiff spring connecting said armature and
cal means, spring means and contactor and said
magnet structure and a contactor connected to
supporting means for bodily movement of »the
said armature for vibration therewith, a head
same as a unit relatively to said face plate under
pressure on said contactor greater than said pre 70 band having an aperture for said contactor, a
determined pressure.
casing for said electromagnetic means mounted
3. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
on said headband, said headband forming a wall
of an electrical means adapted to respond to
of the casing, and resilient means directly con
varying currents substantially throughout the
necting said magnet structure to said Casing and
audible frequency range, a casing enclosing said 75 having a stilfness less than said spring, whereby
2,405,433
7
8
_
said electromagnetic means moves bodily as a
unit in said casing in response to excessive pres
sures on said contactor.
,
8. In an audiphone receiver, the combination
of electromagnetic means adapted to respond to
varying currents substantially throughout the
audible frequency range, said electromagnetic
means comprising a unit including a magnet
band having an aperture for said contacter, a
casing for said electromagnetic means mounted
von said headband, said headband forming a wall
of the casing, and a second spring directly con
necting said magnet structure to said headband
and affording bodily movement of said electro
magnetic means as a unit relatively to said casing
in a direction opposite to that of application of
the contacter to the body of the user, said second
structure, voice coil. vibratory armature, a rel
atively stiñ spring connecting said armature and 1o spring having less stiffness than Said first Spring.
HENRY KOCH.
magnet structure and a contacter connected to
said armature for vibration therewith, a head
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