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Allg» 6» 1946- E. H. KRAINER 2,405,434 BROACHING MACHINE Filed Aug. 2, 1944 _2 Sheets-She‘et 1 E. H. KRAMER BROACHING _ MACHINE Filed'Aug. 2, 1944 ' s. . 2 _Sheets-Sheet 2 9 ' 695W .-1 ves a? 29@ 4 2 9. 2 6Y 9 23 „as iNvEN-roR Mama sv Patented Aug. 6, 1946 2,405,43 UNITED sATes PATNi‘ ÍCE 2,405,434 eaoAcHINo MAC Edgar H. Krainer, Milwaukee, Wis.,assignor to ` The Oilgear Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a cor poration of Wisconsin Application August 2, 1944, Serial No. 547,693 4 Claims. (Cl. 90--33) 2 This invention relates to surface breaching machines of the type having a tool' carriage which carries a breaching tool and is recipro cated along a ñxed path, a work carriage which ' a more powerful work carriage motor and larger and heavier parts in order to initially stress the machine structure. « ' VThe present invention has as an object to greatly reduce or eliminate entirely the tendency ofthe work carriage to move away from the tool carries the werk to be breached and is recipro catedvaleng a fixed path toward and from the path of the tool, and means for reciprocating the during the Abreaching operation. ' two carriages alternately in such a manner that According to the invention in a general aspect, the tool will take a cut from the work during the work carriage is mounted upon a support movement of the tool carriage in one direction 10 which is inclined toward the path of the breach _and the work carriage will retract the work out ing tool. Y 4 ofthe path of the tool before the tool carriage The invention is exempliñed by the breaching moves in the opposite direction, such as the machine shown somewhat schematically -in the breaching machine shown in Patent No. 2,190,642. accompanying drawings in which the views are In machines of this type the force required to 15 as follows: breach the work is resolved into an axial cem Fig. `1 is a side view of the machine with a ponent which tends to move the werk in the part‘of one side broken away to expose the in terior parts. direction of movement of the tool and a lateral component which tends to move the werk out of Fig. 2 'is a section taken on a line 2--2 of Fig. 1 engagement with the tool. That is, the axial but with the work and work fixture omitted. component presses the work carriage againstA its Eig, 3 is a diagram of hydraulic and electric support and the lateral component tends to move circuits which may be employed for operating the work carriage along its support away from and controlling the machine. the »path of the tool. Fig. 4 is a View showing a diiîerential valve in a position different from that shown in Fig. 3. In the machine shown in Patent No. 2,190,642 the work carriage is advanced into and retracted For the purpose of illustration, the invention from its breaching position by a hydraulic motor has `been shown incorporated in a vertical acting through a lever and linkage system. The breaching machine having a single tool carriage work carriage is advanced into breaching posi but it'may as «readily beV incorporated in hori tion and then the levers go to dead center and 30 Zental er other machines and in machines hav- ` positively lock the carriage in that position. ing a plurality of tool carriages. The machine is highly successful andin exten The machine chosen for illustration had its sive commercial use but under extreme condi mechanism carried by frame l which is of ordi tions the lateral component of the breaching nary construction and provided -with vertical force is so great that it causes the lever and 35 ways (not shown) in which a tool slide or car linkage system to yield and the work carriage riage 2 is mounted for vertical reciprocation. to move a few tenths of a thousandth of an inch Carriage 2 has a breaching tool 3 ñxed upon from its exact breaching position so that the its outerjface and it is adapted to be reciprocated vertically by a hydraulic motor having its cylin >iinished work is not absolutely accurate. In order to prevent the work carriage from 40 der 4 rigidly secured within frame I and its backing up under any and all conditions, a ma piston 5 connected by a rod 6 to the upper end chine similar to the machine shown in Patent of carriage 2. _ No. 2,190,642 is provided with an abutment for Liquid for operating motor 45 may be sup locating the work carriage in its exact breaching plied from any suitable source but for the pur position, the carriage engages the abutment. 45 pose of illustration the machine has been shown while one of the joints in the lever mechanism provided with a reversible variable delivery pump is still a considerable distance from its dead cen 'I_wh'ich may be of the type illustrated in rPatent ter position and then the lever mechanism is No. 2,074,068` and provided with a control of the moved to dead center position and presses >the type shown schematically in Patent No. 2,190,642. carriage against the abutment with a force which 50 It is deemed suiñc'ient to state herein that pump is greater than the lateral component vof `the breaching force. That is, the carriage is-pre loaded in a direction opposite to the direction of 1 is controlled by two solenoidsv 8 and 9, that when 'solenoid s _isrenergized Vthepulnp will dis ì charge liquid inte a channel l0, that when sole the lateral component of the breaching. force. noid 'Seis _energized the pump will discharge This arrangement is satisfactory but it 'requires 55 liquid into a channel lvl, and that when both 2,405,434 3 solenoids are deenergized the pump will be at zero stroke and no liquid will be discharged thereby. As shown, channel I8 is connected to a port l5 of a diñerential valve I6 which has a second port l1 connected by a channel I8 to the upper end of cylinder 4. Channel ll is connected the side portions oi the carriage. Ways 38 are inclined downward toward the path of tool 3 to reduce or overcome entirely any tendency of the work to move away from the tool during a broach ing operation as will presently be explained. In machines of this type the work carriage is ordinarily reciprocated >by a hydraulic motor through a foot valve I9 to a channel 20 which is through the medium of a lever mechanism and connected to the lower end of the cylinder 4 and this arrangement is particularly advantageous in to a port 2| of differential valve I6. that the carriage is gradually accelerated and de celerated. It is also advantageous in a duplex machine for the reason that the lever mecha nism enables a single motor to move the two work Y Foot valve I9 includes a check valve 22 an a resistance valve 23 which open in opposite directions. Check valve 22 permits liquid to flow freely from channel H to channel 2&1 but pre- „ vents flow in the opposite direction except through resistance valve 23-which opens at a pressure slightly higher than the pressure created in cylinder '4 by the weight of piston 5 and the, parts connected thereto so that carriage 2 is prevented from descending when the machine _is idle. . ' ‘ i ` ' carriages in opposite directions simultaneously. For the salie of simplicity however~ carriage 35 has been shown as having a lug 4l) fixed to its underside and connected directly to the rod 4l of`a 'piston ¿i2 fitted in a cylinder 43 which is .fixed in a stationary position as by being attached to a web_44 of frame l. Liquid'for operating motor 41E-_43 is preferably Ysupplied thereto from a source other than the Differential valve i6 also has a port 24 formed source from which motor 4-5is supplied. For therein and connected through a low pressure example. liquid may be supplied to motor 42-43 resistance valve 25 to a drain channel 26 which discharges into the sump of pump 1. Communi 25 by la gear pump 45 which has been shown as a separate pump but which is ordinarily driven in cation between the several ports of valve i6 is unison with pump 1 and arranged in the casing controlled by a valve member 21 which is ñtted in thereof according to the usual practice. Gear a suitable bore and provided with a cannelure 28 pump 45 draws liquid from a reservoir 45 and dis and a duct 29 which extends from cannelure 23 charges it into a channel 41 having connected through the interior of valve member 21 to the thereto a relief valve 48 through which liquid right end thereof, cannelure 28 being so located discharged by gear pump 45 in excess of require that it registers with port 24 whenv valve member v ments- is exhausted and which enables gear pump 21 is in the position shown in Fig. 4. 45 to supply liquid to motor 42-43 at a constant The arrangement is such that, when pump l discharges liquid into channel l0, the liquid will 35 pressure. The delivery of liquid from pump 45 to motor flow through port l5 and move valve member 21 @ll-»43 is controlled by a valve 49 which prefer to the position shown in Fig. 4 and thenit‘will flow through port I1 and channel I8 to the upper ably is of the spring centered type but which for end of cylinder 4 and cause piston 5 to move car riage 2 downward on a working stroke and to eject liquid from cylinder 4 into channel 29. Enough of the ejected liquid to supply pump 1 will flow from channel 2!) through resistance valve 23 and channel Il to pump 1 and the remainder of the ejected liquid will flow from channel 2l! through port 2l, duct 29, cannelure 28, port 24, the »sake of simplicity has been shown as a simple ll-way valve having its valve member 59 connected to two solenoids 5| and 52 for moving it from one to the other of its two positions. Cylinder 43 has opposite ends thereof connected by two chan nels 53 and 54 to valve 49 at spaced apart points lintermediate the ends thereof, channel 41 is con nected to valve 49 at a point intermediate chan nels '53 and 54, and a drain channel 55 is con nected to opposite ends of valve 49 and discharges resistance valve 25 and channel 26 to the sump Vof pump 1, the pressure required `to open resist ance valve 25 being enough higher than the pres 50 into reservoir 45. sure required to open resistance valve 23 to assure The arrangement is such that, when valve an ample supply of liquid for pump 1. member 5U is in the position shown, _liquid from When pump 1 is reversed and discharges liquid gearV pump 45 will ñow through channel 41, valve into channel Il, the weight of‘piston 5 and the 49 and channel 53 to the head end of cylinder 43 parts connected thereto will cause pressure to rise and cause piston 42 to move work carriage 35 out and shift valve member 21 to the position shown ward to the' position shown and hold it in that in Fig. 3. Then the liquid discharged by pump 1 position until valve member 50Vis shifted to its will enter the lower end of cylinder Il and cause right hand position and then liquid from gear piston 5 to raise carriage 2 and the liquid ejected pump 45 will flow through channel 41, valve 49 from the upper end of cylinder 4 by piston 5 will ñow through channel I8, differential valve I5 and 60 and channel 54 to the rod end of cylinder 43 and cause piston 42 to move work carriage 35 inward channel 2B to the lower end of cylinder 4iso that to the limit of its movement and hold it in that pump 1 need Vsupply only a volume equal »to the position until valve member 50 is again shifted to ,displacement of rod 6 and carriage 2 will be raised its left hand position. , _ at high speed. (i5 Inward movement of work carriage 35 is limited For the purpose of moving work into and out by a pair of abutments 55 thereonengaging a pair of position to be broached by tool 3, the machine of adjustable stops 51 which are carried by frame is provided with a tool carriage 35 upon which l and arranged upon opposite sides of tool car the work is'fastened as_-indicated in dotted lines riage 2 so that it can pass between them. Stops which represent a work piece 36 rigidly secured 51 are’ adapted( to be so adjusted that they will upon the top of carriage 35 by a ñxture 31. Car stop carriage 35 whenthe work is in the correct riage 35 is mounted upon an inclined surface of position to be broached by tool 3. , f a support which is attached to or forms a part After <the work has been rigidly` secured in of frame l.Y As shown, carriage 35_;is slidably position. upon carriage135, motor 42-43* advances mounted upon aV pair of waysv 38 and prevented carriage 35 until abutments 56 engage stops 51 from tilting by a pair of gibs 39 which overlap 2,405,434 5 and then motor 4-5 advances carriage 2 to cause tool 3 to broach the work. It has been previously are so simple that a description thereof is deemed unnecessary. explained that the work is ordinarily of such a uature that the breaching force is resolved into a vertical component or cutting force and a hori zontal component or push olf force which tends to move the work out of engagement with the tool. With the parts in the position shown, the ma chine is idle and tool carriage 2 is held up by liquid trapped in the lower end of cylinder 4 by When the tool takes a cut solely from a sur« Operation resistance valve 23. When the pumps are started, gear pump 45 maintains pressure in cylinder 43 face which is normal to the path of the tool such to hold work carriage 35 in its outer position. as by taking a cut across the end of the work to 10 After the work has been clamped upon carriage lform a substantially flat surface thereon, >the 35, the machine is started by closing switch SSI push-oir force is approximately equal to and which establishes a circuit from power Iline LI sometimes greater than the cutting force. If the through solenoid 5I to power line L2 to energize work carriage support were normal to the path of solenoid 5I which will shift valve member 50 to its thetool as in the previous machines, a hold-on 15 right hand position, thereby causing motor ¿I2-43 force greater than the push-off-force would be to be energized andmove carriage 35 inward required to hold the work carriage ñrmly in en against stops 57 as previously explained. ` gagement with its stops but with the work car As soon as carriage 35 starts to move, switch riage support inclined downward toward the path LSI will close and establish a circuit (line LI of the tool as shown both the cutting force and 20 switch LS I-wire (i3-_switch LS3-_wire SII-sole» the push--oii^ force press the work carriage against noid 5I----line L2) to keep solenoid 5I energized. its support and, if the support were inclined at an Just as or before carriage 35 engages stops 51, angle somewhat greater than 45°, the horizontal actuator 60 closes switch LS2 to establish a cir component of the cutting force would be greater cuit (line LI-wire E53-_switch LS3-wire 65 than the push-off force and would hold the work 25 solenoid 8-~-wire Sii-switch LS2-line L2) to carriage ñrmly against its stops so that no addi energize solenoid 8 which will cause pump 'I to tional hold-on force would be required. go on stroke and liquid therefrom to flow to the When the tool takes cuts solely from the sides upper end of cylinder 4 and cause piston 5 to of the workor from the sides of a recess in the move carriage 2 downward on a working stroke end of the work, it does not tend to push the work outward. That is, the push-olf force is zero and the cutting force is equal to the broaching force as previously explained. As carriage 2 starts downward, switch LSII will close but it will have no effect as the circuit con so that only a slight inclination of the work car riage support is necessary to cause the work car trolled by it is open at switch LSI. Carriage 2 will continue downward and cause tool 3 to riage to be pressed firmly against its stops. broach the work on carriage 35. The tool cannot The above are extreme conditions and the work push the work outward as carriage 35 is held ordinarily broached upon machines of this type is ñrmly against its stops by the horizontal com of such a nature that each piece requires cuts ponent with the cutting force, as previously ex to be taken both from the sides and end thereof plained, and by gear pump pressure acting upon or from the sides and end of a recess formed 40 piston 42. therein so that the push-off force is considerably After tool 3 has completed the broaching op less than the cutting force. eration, actuator 6I will operate limit switch LS3 If a machine was only required to operate upon which will break the circuit through solenoid 8 a single kind of work, its work carriage support to deenergize it so that pump 'I will go to zero could be arranged _at such an angle that the hori stroke as previously explained, it will break the zontal component of the cutting force would be circuit through solenoid 5I to deenergize it and just enough greater than the push-01T force to it will establish a circuit (line LI-wire 6'I-hold the work carriage firmly against its support solenoid 52-line L2) to energize solenoid 52 but many different kinds of work are often which will shift valve member 50 to its left hand broached upon the same machine. Experience has shown that the push-oil'` force on the average type of work is such that an in clination of from 25 degrees to 30 degrees of the 50 position to cause motor 42-43 to retract car ' riage 35 as previously explained. As carriage 35 starts to retract, switch LS2 will open but it will have no effect as the circuit there through was broken by switch LS3. When car work carriage support is suiîìcient to prevent the work from backing away from the tool. With the 55 riage 35 reaches its outer position, actuator 60 work carriage support arranged at such an angle, will operate switch LSI to establish a circuit (line the force urging the work carriage against stops LI-solenoid 9-wire (iS-switch LSII-wire 63 is not excessive when the push-olf force is zero switch LSI-line L2) to energize solenoid 9 which and only a relatively small additional force is will cause pump 1 to go on stroke and liquid there necessary to hold the work carriage against its 60 from to flow to the lower end of cylinder 4 and stops when the push-off force is equal to the cut cause piston 5 to raise carriage 2 as previously ting force. The additional hold-on force may be provided by the maintaining pressure in the work carriage motor or by operating the work'carriage explained. - As carriage 2 starts upward, switch LS3 will operate and break the circuit through solenoid through a lever system which goes to dead center 65 52 to deenergize the same and it will close upon after the work carriage engages its stops. its other contacts but it cannot establish circuits The machine may be provided with any suit through solenoids 8 and 5I as those circuits are able control either manual, semi-automatic or open at switch LSI and LSZ respectively. When automatic. As shown, it is provided with a simple carriage 2 reaches its upper position, actuator 62 electric control including a starting switch SSI, will open switch LS4 to break the circuit through two limit switches LSI and LS2 which are op solenoid 9 which is thus deenergized and permits erated by an actuator 60 carried by work carriage pump 1 to go to zero stroke. The machine will 35 and two limit switches LS3 and LSdgwhich are then be at rest with the parts in position to start operated, respectively, by two actuators 6I and 62 another cycle of operations when switch SSI is ‘ carried by tool carriage 2. The electric circuits 75 again closed. 2,405,484 The invention herein set forth is susceptible to various modifications and adaptations without departing from the scope of the invention which is hereby claimed as follows: 1. In a breaching machine having a breaching tool and means for moving said tool along a fixed path to enable it te take a out from the surface of work extending into said path whereby the 8 carriage, and a main pump for energizing said motor to enable it te reciprocate said carriage and cause said tool to breach work extending into the path of said tool, the force exerted by said tool upon said work being resolved into an axial component which tends to move said work in the direction of movement of said tool and a lateral component which tends to move said work away from said tool, the combination of a stationary force exerted by said means upon said tool is Vre solved into an axial component which tends to 10 support arranged adjacent the path of said tool and having a surface inclined toward said path, move said work in the direction of movement of a work carriage movable upon said surface and said tool and a lateral component which tends to move said work away from said tool, the cem adapted to carry the work to be breached, a sec bination of a stationary support arranged adja ond hydraulic motor for reciprocating said work cent the path of said tooland having a surface 15 carriage, an auxiliary pump for energizing said second motor, and means for controlling said sec inclined toward said path, a carriage movable upon said surface toward and from the path ond motor to cause it to move said werk carriage along said surface te thereby move said work of said tool and adapted to carry the work to be breached, abutment means for limiting the move into and out of position to be breached, said sur ment of said carriage toward said tool and ad 20 face being inclined in such a direction that both justable to stop said carriage in such a position the axial and lateral components of said force press said carriage against said surface. that the work thereon is in the correct position 4. In a breaching machine having a tool car to be breached, and hydraulic means for moving said carriage along said surfaceinto and out of riage, a surface breaching tool ñxed to said car engagement with said abutment means, said sur 25 riage, a main hydraulic motor connected to said face being inclined in such a direction that both the axial and lateral components of said force carriage, and a main pump for energizing said motor to enable it to reciprocate said carriage press said carriage against said surface. and cause said tool to breach work extending into 2. In a breaching machine having a breaching the path of said tool, the force exerted by said tool and means for movingY said tool along a ñxed 30 tool upon said work being resolved into an axial path to enable it to take a cut from the surface component, which tends to move said work in the of wor-k extending into said path whereby the direction of movement of said tool and a lateral component which tends to move said work away force' exerted by said means uponsaid tool is re from said tool, the combination of a stationary solved inte an axial component which tends to move said work in the direction of movement of 35 support arranged adjacent the path of said tool and having a surface inclined toward said path, said tool anda lateral component vwhich tends a work carriage movable upon said surface and to move said work away from said tool, the com bination of` a stationary support arranged adja adapted to carry the work te be breached, a stop for so locating said work carriage that the work cent the path of said tool and having a surface inclined toward said path, a carriage movable up 40 thereon is in position to be breached, a second hydraulic motor for reciprocating said work car on said surface and adapted to carry the work riage, an auxiliary pump for energizing said sec to be breached, a stop fer so locating said car ond motor, and means for controlling said second riage that the work thereon is in position te motor to cause it to move said work carriage along >be breached, and means for moving said carriage into and out of engagement with said stop and said surface into and out of engagement with said stop and for holding said work carriage for holding said carriage against said stop while against vsaid stop while said work is being said work is being breached, said surface being inclined in such a direction that beth the axial breached, said surface being inclined in such a and lateral components of said force press said direction that both the axial and lateral com carriage against said surface. ' ponents of said force press said carriage against 3. In a breaching -machine having a tool car riage, a surface breaching tool fixed to said car riage, a main hydraulic motor connected to said said surface. ~ ~ EDGAR H. KRAINER.