close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2405434

код для вставки
Allg» 6» 1946-
E. H. KRAINER
2,405,434
BROACHING MACHINE
Filed Aug. 2, 1944
_2 Sheets-She‘et 1
E. H. KRAMER
BROACHING _ MACHINE
Filed'Aug. 2, 1944 '
s.
.
2 _Sheets-Sheet 2
9
'
695W
.-1
ves
a?
29@
4
2 9.
2
6Y
9
23
„as
iNvEN-roR
Mama sv
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,43
UNITED sATes PATNi‘
ÍCE
2,405,434
eaoAcHINo MAC
Edgar H. Krainer, Milwaukee, Wis.,assignor to `
The Oilgear Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a cor
poration of Wisconsin
Application August 2, 1944, Serial No. 547,693
4 Claims. (Cl. 90--33)
2
This invention relates to surface breaching
machines of the type having a tool' carriage
which carries a breaching tool and is recipro
cated along a ñxed path, a work carriage which '
a more powerful work carriage motor and larger
and heavier parts in order to initially stress the
machine structure.
«
'
VThe present invention has as an object to
greatly reduce or eliminate entirely the tendency
ofthe work carriage to move away from the tool
carries the werk to be breached and is recipro
catedvaleng a fixed path toward and from the
path of the tool, and means for reciprocating the
during the Abreaching operation.
'
two carriages alternately in such a manner that
According to the invention in a general aspect,
the tool will take a cut from the work during
the work carriage is mounted upon a support
movement of the tool carriage in one direction 10 which is inclined toward the path of the breach
_and the work carriage will retract the work out
ing tool.
Y
4
ofthe path of the tool before the tool carriage
The invention is exempliñed by the breaching
moves in the opposite direction, such as the
machine shown somewhat schematically -in the
breaching machine shown in Patent No. 2,190,642.
accompanying drawings in which the views are
In machines of this type the force required to 15 as follows:
breach the work is resolved into an axial cem
Fig. `1 is a side view of the machine with a
ponent which tends to move the werk in the
part‘of one side broken away to expose the in
terior parts.
direction of movement of the tool and a lateral
component which tends to move the werk out of
Fig. 2 'is a section taken on a line 2--2 of Fig. 1
engagement with the tool. That is, the axial
but with the work and work fixture omitted.
component presses the work carriage againstA its
Eig, 3 is a diagram of hydraulic and electric
support and the lateral component tends to move
circuits which may be employed for operating
the work carriage along its support away from
and controlling the machine.
the »path of the tool.
Fig. 4 is a View showing a diiîerential valve in
a position different from that shown in Fig. 3.
In the machine shown in Patent No. 2,190,642
the work carriage is advanced into and retracted
For the purpose of illustration, the invention
from its breaching position by a hydraulic motor
has `been shown incorporated in a vertical
acting through a lever and linkage system. The
breaching machine having a single tool carriage
work carriage is advanced into breaching posi
but it'may as «readily beV incorporated in hori
tion and then the levers go to dead center and 30 Zental er other machines and in machines hav- `
positively lock the carriage in that position.
ing a plurality of tool carriages.
The machine is highly successful andin exten
The machine chosen for illustration had its
sive commercial use but under extreme condi
mechanism carried by frame l which is of ordi
tions the lateral component of the breaching
nary construction and provided -with vertical
force is so great that it causes the lever and 35 ways (not shown) in which a tool slide or car
linkage system to yield and the work carriage
riage 2 is mounted for vertical reciprocation.
to move a few tenths of a thousandth of an inch
Carriage 2 has a breaching tool 3 ñxed upon
from its exact breaching position so that the
its outerjface and it is adapted to be reciprocated
vertically by a hydraulic motor having its cylin
>iinished work is not absolutely accurate.
In order to prevent the work carriage from 40 der 4 rigidly secured within frame I and its
backing up under any and all conditions, a ma
piston 5 connected by a rod 6 to the upper end
chine similar to the machine shown in Patent
of carriage 2.
_
No. 2,190,642 is provided with an abutment for
Liquid for operating motor 45 may be sup
locating the work carriage in its exact breaching
plied from any suitable source but for the pur
position, the carriage engages the abutment. 45 pose of illustration the machine has been shown
while one of the joints in the lever mechanism
provided with a reversible variable delivery pump
is still a considerable distance from its dead cen
'I_wh'ich may be of the type illustrated in rPatent
ter position and then the lever mechanism is
No. 2,074,068` and provided with a control of the
moved to dead center position and presses >the
type shown schematically in Patent No. 2,190,642.
carriage against the abutment with a force which 50 It is deemed suiñc'ient to state herein that pump
is greater than the lateral component vof `the
breaching force. That is, the carriage is-pre
loaded in a direction opposite to the direction of
1 is controlled by two solenoidsv 8 and 9, that
when 'solenoid s _isrenergized Vthepulnp will dis
ì charge liquid inte a channel l0, that when sole
the lateral component of the breaching. force.
noid 'Seis _energized the pump will discharge
This arrangement is satisfactory but it 'requires 55 liquid into a channel lvl, and that when both
2,405,434
3
solenoids are deenergized the pump will be at
zero stroke and no liquid will be discharged
thereby.
As shown, channel I8 is connected to a port
l5 of a diñerential valve I6 which has a second
port l1 connected by a channel I8 to the upper
end of cylinder 4.
Channel ll is connected
the side portions oi the carriage. Ways 38 are
inclined downward toward the path of tool 3 to
reduce or overcome entirely any tendency of the
work to move away from the tool during a broach
ing operation as will presently be explained.
In machines of this type the work carriage is
ordinarily reciprocated >by a hydraulic motor
through a foot valve I9 to a channel 20 which is
through the medium of a lever mechanism and
connected to the lower end of the cylinder 4 and
this arrangement is particularly advantageous in
to a port 2| of differential valve I6.
that the carriage is gradually accelerated and de
celerated. It is also advantageous in a duplex
machine for the reason that the lever mecha
nism enables a single motor to move the two work
Y
Foot valve I9 includes a check valve 22 an
a resistance valve 23 which open in opposite
directions. Check valve 22 permits liquid to flow
freely from channel H to channel 2&1 but pre- „
vents flow in the opposite direction except
through resistance valve 23-which opens at a
pressure slightly higher than the pressure created
in cylinder '4 by the weight of piston 5 and the,
parts connected thereto so that carriage 2 is
prevented from descending when the machine _is
idle.
.
'
‘
i
`
'
carriages in opposite directions simultaneously.
For the salie of simplicity however~ carriage 35
has been shown as having a lug 4l) fixed to its
underside and connected directly to the rod 4l
of`a 'piston ¿i2 fitted in a cylinder 43 which is
.fixed in a stationary position as by being attached
to a web_44 of frame l.
Liquid'for operating motor 41E-_43 is preferably
Ysupplied thereto from a source other than the
Differential valve i6 also has a port 24 formed
source from which motor 4-5is supplied. For
therein and connected through a low pressure
example. liquid may be supplied to motor 42-43
resistance valve 25 to a drain channel 26 which
discharges into the sump of pump 1. Communi 25 by la gear pump 45 which has been shown as a
separate pump but which is ordinarily driven in
cation between the several ports of valve i6 is
unison with pump 1 and arranged in the casing
controlled by a valve member 21 which is ñtted in
thereof according to the usual practice. Gear
a suitable bore and provided with a cannelure 28
pump 45 draws liquid from a reservoir 45 and dis
and a duct 29 which extends from cannelure 23
charges it into a channel 41 having connected
through the interior of valve member 21 to the
thereto a relief valve 48 through which liquid
right end thereof, cannelure 28 being so located
discharged by gear pump 45 in excess of require
that it registers with port 24 whenv valve member
v ments- is exhausted and which enables gear pump
21 is in the position shown in Fig. 4.
45 to supply liquid to motor 42-43 at a constant
The arrangement is such that, when pump l
discharges liquid into channel l0, the liquid will 35 pressure.
The delivery of liquid from pump 45 to motor
flow through port l5 and move valve member 21
@ll-»43 is controlled by a valve 49 which prefer
to the position shown in Fig. 4 and thenit‘will
flow through port I1 and channel I8 to the upper
ably is of the spring centered type but which for
end of cylinder 4 and cause piston 5 to move car
riage 2 downward on a working stroke and to
eject liquid from cylinder 4 into channel 29.
Enough of the ejected liquid to supply pump 1
will flow from channel 2!) through resistance valve
23 and channel Il to pump 1 and the remainder
of the ejected liquid will flow from channel 2l!
through port 2l, duct 29, cannelure 28, port 24,
the »sake of simplicity has been shown as a simple
ll-way valve having its valve member 59 connected
to two solenoids 5| and 52 for moving it from
one to the other of its two positions. Cylinder 43
has opposite ends thereof connected by two chan
nels 53 and 54 to valve 49 at spaced apart points
lintermediate the ends thereof, channel 41 is con
nected to valve 49 at a point intermediate chan
nels '53 and 54, and a drain channel 55 is con
nected to opposite ends of valve 49 and discharges
resistance valve 25 and channel 26 to the sump
Vof pump 1, the pressure required `to open resist
ance valve 25 being enough higher than the pres 50 into reservoir 45.
sure required to open resistance valve 23 to assure
The arrangement is such that, when valve
an ample supply of liquid for pump 1.
member 5U is in the position shown, _liquid from
When pump 1 is reversed and discharges liquid
gearV pump 45 will ñow through channel 41, valve
into channel Il, the weight of‘piston 5 and the
49 and channel 53 to the head end of cylinder 43
parts connected thereto will cause pressure to rise
and cause piston 42 to move work carriage 35 out
and shift valve member 21 to the position shown
ward to the' position shown and hold it in that
in Fig. 3. Then the liquid discharged by pump 1
position until valve member 50Vis shifted to its
will enter the lower end of cylinder Il and cause
right
hand position and then liquid from gear
piston 5 to raise carriage 2 and the liquid ejected
pump
45 will flow through channel 41, valve 49
from the upper end of cylinder 4 by piston 5 will
ñow through channel I8, differential valve I5 and 60 and channel 54 to the rod end of cylinder 43 and
cause piston 42 to move work carriage 35 inward
channel 2B to the lower end of cylinder 4iso that
to the limit of its movement and hold it in that
pump 1 need Vsupply only a volume equal »to the
position until valve member 50 is again shifted to
,displacement of rod 6 and carriage 2 will be raised
its left hand position.
, _
at high speed.
(i5
Inward movement of work carriage 35 is limited
For the purpose of moving work into and out
by a pair of abutments 55 thereonengaging a pair
of position to be broached by tool 3, the machine
of adjustable stops 51 which are carried by frame
is provided with a tool carriage 35 upon which
l and arranged upon opposite sides of tool car
the work is'fastened as_-indicated in dotted lines
riage 2 so that it can pass between them. Stops
which represent a work piece 36 rigidly secured
51 are’ adapted( to be so adjusted that they will
upon the top of carriage 35 by a ñxture 31. Car
stop
carriage 35 whenthe work is in the correct
riage 35 is mounted upon an inclined surface of
position to be broached by tool 3. ,
f
a support which is attached to or forms a part
After <the work has been rigidly` secured in
of frame l.Y As shown, carriage 35_;is slidably
position. upon carriage135, motor 42-43* advances
mounted upon aV pair of waysv 38 and prevented
carriage 35 until abutments 56 engage stops 51
from tilting by a pair of gibs 39 which overlap
2,405,434
5
and then motor 4-5 advances carriage 2 to cause
tool 3 to broach the work. It has been previously
are so simple that a description thereof is deemed
unnecessary.
explained that the work is ordinarily of such a
uature that the breaching force is resolved into a
vertical component or cutting force and a hori
zontal component or push olf force which tends
to move the work out of engagement with the tool.
With the parts in the position shown, the ma
chine is idle and tool carriage 2 is held up by
liquid trapped in the lower end of cylinder 4 by
When the tool takes a cut solely from a sur«
Operation
resistance valve 23. When the pumps are started,
gear pump 45 maintains pressure in cylinder 43
face which is normal to the path of the tool such
to hold work carriage 35 in its outer position.
as by taking a cut across the end of the work to 10
After the work has been clamped upon carriage
lform a substantially flat surface thereon, >the
35, the machine is started by closing switch SSI
push-oir force is approximately equal to and
which establishes a circuit from power Iline LI
sometimes greater than the cutting force. If the
through solenoid 5I to power line L2 to energize
work carriage support were normal to the path of
solenoid 5I which will shift valve member 50 to its
thetool as in the previous machines, a hold-on 15 right hand position, thereby causing motor ¿I2-43
force greater than the push-off-force would be
to be energized andmove carriage 35 inward
required to hold the work carriage ñrmly in en
against stops 57 as previously explained.
`
gagement with its stops but with the work car
As soon as carriage 35 starts to move, switch
riage support inclined downward toward the path
LSI will close and establish a circuit (line LI
of the tool as shown both the cutting force and 20 switch LS I-wire (i3-_switch LS3-_wire SII-sole»
the push--oii^ force press the work carriage against
noid 5I----line L2) to keep solenoid 5I energized.
its support and, if the support were inclined at an
Just as or before carriage 35 engages stops 51,
angle somewhat greater than 45°, the horizontal
actuator 60 closes switch LS2 to establish a cir
component of the cutting force would be greater
cuit (line LI-wire E53-_switch LS3-wire 65
than the push-off force and would hold the work 25 solenoid 8-~-wire Sii-switch LS2-line L2) to
carriage ñrmly against its stops so that no addi
energize solenoid 8 which will cause pump 'I to
tional hold-on force would be required.
go on stroke and liquid therefrom to flow to the
When the tool takes cuts solely from the sides
upper end of cylinder 4 and cause piston 5 to
of the workor from the sides of a recess in the
move carriage 2 downward on a working stroke
end of the work, it does not tend to push the work
outward. That is, the push-olf force is zero and
the cutting force is equal to the broaching force
as previously explained.
As carriage 2 starts downward, switch LSII will
close but it will have no effect as the circuit con
so that only a slight inclination of the work car
riage support is necessary to cause the work car
trolled by it is open at switch LSI. Carriage 2
will continue downward and cause tool 3 to
riage to be pressed firmly against its stops.
broach the work on carriage 35. The tool cannot
The above are extreme conditions and the work
push the work outward as carriage 35 is held
ordinarily broached upon machines of this type is
ñrmly against its stops by the horizontal com
of such a nature that each piece requires cuts
ponent with the cutting force, as previously ex
to be taken both from the sides and end thereof
plained, and by gear pump pressure acting upon
or from the sides and end of a recess formed 40 piston 42.
therein so that the push-off force is considerably
After tool 3 has completed the broaching op
less than the cutting force.
eration, actuator 6I will operate limit switch LS3
If a machine was only required to operate upon
which will break the circuit through solenoid 8
a single kind of work, its work carriage support
to deenergize it so that pump 'I will go to zero
could be arranged _at such an angle that the hori
stroke as previously explained, it will break the
zontal component of the cutting force would be
circuit through solenoid 5I to deenergize it and
just enough greater than the push-01T force to
it will establish a circuit (line LI-wire 6'I-hold the work carriage firmly against its support
solenoid 52-line L2) to energize solenoid 52
but many different kinds of work are often
which will shift valve member 50 to its left hand
broached upon the same machine.
Experience has shown that the push-oil'` force
on the average type of work is such that an in
clination of from 25 degrees to 30 degrees of the
50 position to cause motor 42-43 to retract car
' riage 35 as previously explained.
As carriage 35 starts to retract, switch LS2 will
open but it will have no effect as the circuit there
through was broken by switch LS3. When car
work carriage support is suiîìcient to prevent the
work from backing away from the tool. With the 55 riage 35 reaches its outer position, actuator 60
work carriage support arranged at such an angle,
will operate switch LSI to establish a circuit (line
the force urging the work carriage against stops
LI-solenoid 9-wire (iS-switch LSII-wire 63
is not excessive when the push-olf force is zero
switch LSI-line L2) to energize solenoid 9 which
and only a relatively small additional force is
will cause pump 1 to go on stroke and liquid there
necessary to hold the work carriage against its 60 from to flow to the lower end of cylinder 4 and
stops when the push-off force is equal to the cut
cause piston 5 to raise carriage 2 as previously
ting force. The additional hold-on force may be
provided by the maintaining pressure in the work
carriage motor or by operating the work'carriage
explained.
-
As carriage 2 starts upward, switch LS3 will
operate and break the circuit through solenoid
through a lever system which goes to dead center 65 52 to deenergize the same and it will close upon
after the work carriage engages its stops.
its other contacts but it cannot establish circuits
The machine may be provided with any suit
through solenoids 8 and 5I as those circuits are
able control either manual, semi-automatic or
open at switch LSI and LSZ respectively. When
automatic. As shown, it is provided with a simple
carriage 2 reaches its upper position, actuator 62
electric control including a starting switch SSI,
will open switch LS4 to break the circuit through
two limit switches LSI and LS2 which are op
solenoid 9 which is thus deenergized and permits
erated by an actuator 60 carried by work carriage
pump 1 to go to zero stroke. The machine will
35 and two limit switches LS3 and LSdgwhich are
then be at rest with the parts in position to start
operated, respectively, by two actuators 6I and 62
another cycle of operations when switch SSI is
‘
carried by tool carriage 2. The electric circuits 75 again closed.
2,405,484
The invention herein set forth is susceptible
to various modifications and adaptations without
departing from the scope of the invention which
is hereby claimed as follows:
1. In a breaching machine having a breaching
tool and means for moving said tool along a fixed
path to enable it te take a out from the surface
of work extending into said path whereby the
8
carriage, and a main pump for energizing said
motor to enable it te reciprocate said carriage
and cause said tool to breach work extending into
the path of said tool, the force exerted by said
tool upon said work being resolved into an axial
component which tends to move said work in the
direction of movement of said tool and a lateral
component which tends to move said work away
from said tool, the combination of a stationary
force exerted by said means upon said tool is Vre
solved into an axial component which tends to 10 support arranged adjacent the path of said tool
and having a surface inclined toward said path,
move said work in the direction of movement of
a work carriage movable upon said surface and
said tool and a lateral component which tends
to move said work away from said tool, the cem
adapted to carry the work to be breached, a sec
bination of a stationary support arranged adja
ond hydraulic motor for reciprocating said work
cent the path of said tooland having a surface 15 carriage, an auxiliary pump for energizing said
second motor, and means for controlling said sec
inclined toward said path, a carriage movable
upon said surface toward and from the path
ond motor to cause it to move said werk carriage
along said surface te thereby move said work
of said tool and adapted to carry the work to be
breached, abutment means for limiting the move
into and out of position to be breached, said sur
ment of said carriage toward said tool and ad 20 face being inclined in such a direction that both
justable to stop said carriage in such a position
the axial and lateral components of said force
press said carriage against said surface.
that the work thereon is in the correct position
4. In a breaching machine having a tool car
to be breached, and hydraulic means for moving
said carriage along said surfaceinto and out of
riage, a surface breaching tool ñxed to said car
engagement with said abutment means, said sur 25 riage, a main hydraulic motor connected to said
face being inclined in such a direction that both
the axial and lateral components of said force
carriage, and a main pump for energizing said
motor to enable it to reciprocate said carriage
press said carriage against said surface.
and cause said tool to breach work extending into
2. In a breaching machine having a breaching
the path of said tool, the force exerted by said
tool and means for movingY said tool along a ñxed 30 tool upon said work being resolved into an axial
path to enable it to take a cut from the surface
component, which tends to move said work in the
of wor-k extending into said path whereby the
direction of movement of said tool and a lateral
component which tends to move said work away
force' exerted by said means uponsaid tool is re
from said tool, the combination of a stationary
solved inte an axial component which tends to
move said work in the direction of movement of 35 support arranged adjacent the path of said tool
and having a surface inclined toward said path,
said tool anda lateral component vwhich tends
a work carriage movable upon said surface and
to move said work away from said tool, the com
bination of` a stationary support arranged adja
adapted to carry the work te be breached, a stop
for so locating said work carriage that the work
cent the path of said tool and having a surface
inclined toward said path, a carriage movable up 40 thereon is in position to be breached, a second
hydraulic motor for reciprocating said work car
on said surface and adapted to carry the work
riage, an auxiliary pump for energizing said sec
to be breached, a stop fer so locating said car
ond motor, and means for controlling said second
riage that the work thereon is in position te
motor to cause it to move said work carriage along
>be breached, and means for moving said carriage
into and out of engagement with said stop and
said surface into and out of engagement with
said stop and for holding said work carriage
for holding said carriage against said stop while
against vsaid stop while said work is being
said work is being breached, said surface being
inclined in such a direction that beth the axial
breached, said surface being inclined in such a
and lateral components of said force press said
direction that both the axial and lateral com
carriage against said surface.
'
ponents of said force press said carriage against
3. In a breaching -machine having a tool car
riage, a surface breaching tool fixed to said car
riage, a main hydraulic motor connected to said
said surface.
~
~
EDGAR H. KRAINER.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
785 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа