Патент USA US2405441код для вставки
Aug. 6, 194s. 2,405,441 E. J. MARTIN GUN SIGHTING DEVICE Filed 1144.16, 1945 ...kmvàx .. . _ 2 sheets-sheet 1 Aug. e, 1946. I _ E. J; MARTIN '2,405,441v GUN SIGHTÍING 'DEVICE v Filed DeC. 16, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Snventor . www r attorney? l Patented Aug. 6, 1946 , UNITED ' ‘ ' -_ 2,405,441 ’ STATES ' _ '_ " ' PATENT 2,405,441 ~ OFFICE* I ' ' - i ' -`'GUN sIGHTING Dnvror.> Edward J. ll-Iartin, Pleasant Ridge, Mich., assign or to General Motors Corporation, Detroit. _ Mich., a corporation of Delaware 'Y v f . . _ ‘e Application December 16, 194s, serial No. 514,440 4 Claims. (Cl. 8&-7-4) 1 6 _and a front sight _8.- .This rear sight may either This invention relates to adjusting means and more specifically to means for setting or. adjust ing the sights on riñes. With large scale produc tion of rifies, such as those used for the armed forces, the problem 7of initially setting or -adjust ing the sighting means thereony becomes very im portant. First, from a standpoint of accuracy, secondly, fromv a standpoint ofttime consumed in be a V groove or a' peep sight, depending upon the rifle supplied bythe manufacturer, _Iñ‘order to rproperly align these two sights so that the line through them Will be parallel to the lille through ' the bore of .the barrel, `I have provided means which caribe easily and quickly _applied to the . rifle. vThe >first portion which _isapplied to the rifle is a unitary member having a cylindrical the operation; and, thirdly, from :a standpoint of 1the~ammunition expended during such operation. 10 portion lil which has _projecting from its one face ran _integral ,rod I2 which extends back into the By using live ammunition and actually firing each muzzle of the rifle for an appreciable distance. It might be mentioned at this point that through ence has been that it took approximately thir various investigation it has been discovered that `teenl to fifteen rounds of ammunition to bring the sights to their requireddegree ,of accuracy. This 15 the last four ,inches in the barrel of the rifle de termine thev pathicr trajectory _of the .bullet and method also requires theuse of a hundred yard . 'gun 'to ,initially set `the sights, thejformer experi - rifle range and considerable time. therefore the integral rod I2.is approximate'ly‘four It can readily ' inches long' and `its position is determined Aby the :be seen Ythat by the vuse of this number of rounds dominating _portion of the barrel. _ , of ammunition Aper gun, the expenditure of am munition in this process WWhere any number of 20 _ >The ycylindrical_member I0 has _a hollow _in terior into which projects acentral rod I4 also fguns are built is considerably high. There is of integral .therewith and which vis in alignment with the oppositely lextending rod I2. This forwardly projecting rod I4 maybe radiallyadjusted with It l'is therefore an object :of my invention to'pro 'vide >means for initially adjusting the sights of 25 in the cavity 4I6 of lthe cylinder l0 by adjusting Y course the further ¿problem of >safety concerned in handling these guns. ' - . screws ¿I8 'which are threaded into the cylinder _ -a Ari'fie‘vvithout the use of lrifle ammunition. Itis a further .object of my invention to `pro lll from three sides at Aapproximately 120° apart, and-'so' may move the uouter end of this rod I4 vide means -for accurately adjusting the sights on a rifie utilizing light rays. within the cavity I6 for yalignment purposes. To provide means' forinitially adjusting the sights rored plate' >2i) vbyanysuitable means suchas It is a still further object-ofmy invention to .30 the forward end of this rod I4 is fastened amir lof la rifle Which Will occupy only a 'very limited ' 'space' and which will permit quick Aadjustment to the proper degree. ik spot Welding. _ _ a ` ~ _ ` 'The second‘portîon ofthe ,apparatus applied to the'rifle is adapted to serI in oron the sights 6 or 8 and _this consists of an elongated _cylinder ` -With these and other objects in view which will# , 'become apparent as the Aspecification proceeds, ` >22 of a telescope having an eye piece `2li movable in one end thereof which inthe example shown ïthe embodiments of my invention will be best 'will be that end nearest the butt or stock and understood »by reference to the following speci 'which ’has a suitable lens system therein, such ’fication and `claims 'and the illustrations in the as flens 26, to view the mirrored surface ofthe accompanying-drawings, in which: , disc 20. inserted Within eye piece T24 is a small f Figure '1 is aside View partially in seotions'how-' refiectordisc 28 which may eitherbe half vsilvered "ing one _for-m of sighting means embodying myîn as fat 29V or merely ¿a glass diagonal ,-set in .at ¿ap vention; K_ v proximately a 45m-angle -adjacent an opening'Sil Figure §2v1£is -a Sectional VvîeW `taken ron line 2--2 inthe upper surface »of the veye -piece and »through winch opening light rays are projected kfrom `_a Figure 3 fis »a schematic perspective viewshow.-l light ¿source 32 which vthen travel down .the full in'g'fa ‘modi'ñedsystem .of adjusting the sights of length of kthe .telescope to the mirrored ,surface the rifle according to my invention. _and are 1reflected and the reflected _rays _can kbe -'Referring An‘ovv more specifically to Figure 1, Vthere is :shown therein ,afgun or zrifle 2 Which is 50 :supported inany ysuitable :support 4 :having .fopen ings `:for the stock'and .barrelfof the rifle so vthat it :may :be inserted '.thereinfan-d rremoved easily. The :rifle therefore ¿in Ithis _support „assumes the position .shown ¿and .is provided with a" .rea'r `'sight n. viewedby the eye. . _ ^ Mounted just ahead of thisangled _member 28 and ,in the eyepiece ,2t y_area pair of _right angled f cross hairs v3l fsimilar vto >_those `_used Yin a _great ' 55 number of opticalinstrumentsl ,et 100th thefrònt ,and rear >portions of the telescope adjustable 2,405,441 3 4 moved relatively to the sights. In adjusting sights for rifles it might be necessary to move both the front and the rear sights both horizontally and vertically with respect to the barrel. However, it is seldom necessary to move each sight in both ' directions Vand in the present instance, while the apparatus could be made to function as above mentioned, it has been found satisfactory to pro Y vide only vertical adjustment or height with re-í anism may be now considered properly set. The bore plug and telescope assembly are then removed from the master rifle and a rifle to be adjusted is then placed in the supporting block 4. The bore plug IIJ is inserted into the rifle muzzle y 4and the telescope assembly placed upon the sights as shown in Figure l. 'If in viewing through the telescope the cross hairs do _not coincide with the image thereof, theoperator then knows that the . gard to the front sight and horizontal or trans-. verse adjustment with regard to the rear sight ' ' sights are not correct. He then turns, for exam ple, the vertical micrometer screwf36 to raise the forward end of the telescope, or lower as the case may be, until the horizontal cross hair positions . ' and therefore in both instances thek equipment actually used comprises only such adjustment as f j above mentioned, though the drawings of Figure 1 17.5 correspond. show adjustments in two planes at right >angles to each other. ' ' ' ' ' ' ` , adjusted axis of the telescope, the aligning mech brackets are provided so that both ends may be When that has been accomplished, Y the operator then turns the horizontal adjusting micrometer screw 38 in the rear assembly until the vertical cross hairs and their image coincide. The reading on each of these two micrometer eter -adjustment screws 33 and 38 for both >hori 20 screwsAfrom the scales such as 52 which are found thereon, gives an index as to the amount that zontal andvertical adjustment; VThe frontend With regard to the front sight, there is provided,Y a suitable frame such as 34 which carries microm ofY the telescope is therefore supported by this frame between the movable screwends ofthe the sights must be -moved or ground to be correct. In this respect, the front sight is always pro vided too high so that it may be ground olf to the micrometer mechanisms and' two springbiasing ribbons 4l)y and »42. YA block 44 rigidly secured 25 proper height andthe rear sight is in a hori zontal slot sothat-it can be moved back and to the lower surface of the frame 34h`as an open forth as the need demands. ¿The telescope is then ing therein YadaptedV to ñt over the upwardly pro jecting end of the front sight 8.. »'I‘hus by mov ing eitherïof the micrometer screws,- the telescope ofcourse removed-and the parts adjusted as indi cated and the telescope then replaced to see'if the > may be moved horizontally or vertically in either 30 - adjustmentis now correct. This is repeated until the micrometer screws' can be placed in their nor directionwithinithe frame 34 to align> the tele mal zero position and the cross hairs coincide with scope with 4the rifle.- -` ~ -l Y Y vThe same type of frame supports the-rearend of the telescope as shown at 34'» andthis also supports v-two micrometer screwadjustm'en'ts 36' and 38', the supporting-block 44’ in this instance . however having a rearwardly lextending pin 46 which is adapted> to lie in the V slot or’peep of the rear sight 6.> Theteles'cope is provided with,4 al bracket 48 which is connected to theapproxi their image as reflected. " y ' j lIn this system it is of. course necessary-for an operator t0 continuously'view through the eye piece'the mirroredsurface and'make small ad justments which may be fatiguing. I have there fore provided' a modified optical arrangement for adjusting sights in which the image of cross hairs 40 or vits equivalent may be thrown upon a screen so thatit will not be necessary for an operator to continuously squint through a telescope. In> » to extend around the rifle and support below the this instance, as before, the riñe is supported >same »a Yweight 50-which is adapted to maintain in a suitable block (not shown’ in Fig. 3) and in thetelescope assembly in the proper position on the sights by gravity. The same may therefore be 45 this case the muzzle plug is supported in the end of the muzzle as before, which' is shown diagram >lifted and placed on the sights, and whenV the matically'in Fig. 3 at 6B.' However, in this in riñe has been properly adjusted, may be removed stance the forward face of the mirror 20 is pol without anyv complicated >clamping or supporting ished to form a reflecting surface 'rather than ` . The ñrst step~in the use of vmy equipment is 50 the surface facing the rifle.A FThe Itelescope'assembly is replaced in »this in to adjust the bore plug mirror so thatfits'reñect- ‘ stance by an ordinary straight bar 62 having a mate center thereofY and which is so formed as arrangement,` - ' . ' . Í " ing >surface is> perpendicular'to the axis -of the bore plug-itself. This may be `done by mounting - supporting block 64 mounted on the front sight of a riñe.- It is then turned slightly'and ad and a second- supportingV block 66~having a pin 55 T58 which projects into the opening in the rear justed by means of the -adjustingscrews I8 until a spot of lightreflected by the mirror remains . Y instance happens to be broken away, h'as a pendu the lbore plug in >a lathe or fitting itto a muzzle v sight. This bar 62 therefore lies over thebarrel of the gun, and at its center section, which in this stationary.V Of course, once this boreV plug'has lum rod on the broken away portion (not shown) been adjusted, it is not necessary to thereafter similar to 48 and’50 of Figure 1> to maintain it in Y further adjust the same, but only check itv occa 00 position on top of the sights. Applied to the for sionally.`_ When this has been so adjusted, Vthe bore plug and mirror are inserted into the bore `of a ‘master` rifle which has previously had its sights adjusted xandîis known to becor'rect. »The auto ccuimating telescope is thenmminted in the pof sition as shown >in, Figure v1 fand the horizontal f ward surface of the bar 62 and at right angles to the axis thereof is a second mirror ¿10 whose surface is adapted to lie substantially parallel to the mirror 60, depending upon the Valignment of .the ybar 62 with th'e bore of the rifle barrel. A source of light 12 is provided to one side, fthe rays from which are adapted to ilow through the andverticaladjusting micrometers are set so that vertical and ‘horizontal slots 'I4 of a small disc the image of the cross hairs reilected by the muz zle mirror 2B»l coincide with the hairs themselves 70 16, thus forming a cross in the nature- of the cross hairs in the modification‘of Figures 1 and 2. asÍseen through the eye piece. The axis of the 'I'h'ese rays which project through the slots in telescopewill now lie parallel with’ the bore of the opaque disc-16 proceedthrough a lens 18 and Vtheïrifle, and since the supporting blocks`44 and ..44’,"which either themselves or through their as-V fall on‘both `mirroredsurfaces 60 and 'I0 and are sociated parts, contact thesights, Vdetermine the 75 then reflected through a second lens system `80 2,405,441 5 6 . after which they proceed to a mirror 82 which is merely a reversed mirror to bring them back to that it is highly accurate and not subject to errors a screen et. that it accurately provides indications as to when a line through the sights and that through the axis of the barrel are parallel and that the sys tem as a whole is simple, rugged and easily oper usually` occasioned by short sighting means, but This screen may be viewed either directly or through an enlarging lens, such as 86, for micrometer adjustment. A series of colored filters such as 88 and 9D shown in dotted lines v adjacent to theV lens 80 may be applied if desired. These ñlters may if more easily applied be located adjacent the mirrors 6E) and li) if desired. With this equipment, assuming of course that the muzzle plug 60 has been adjusted so that the mirror is perpendicular to the barrel or rod I2 which projects back into th’e barrel as before de scribed, this plug is then inserted into the end of the gun barrel, and by using a master rifle to initially set the equipment, the bar 62 is laid upon the front andV rear sights 8’ and t'. The ated. '« I claim: l. In aligning means for guns having visible sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter mined by the bore thereof, a second light reflect ing means mounted upon the sights and whose position is determined by the alignment thereof, - means for projecting a beam having dei-‘mite con figuration onto the two reflecting surfaces simu. taneously, and means operatively positioned with light l2 is then energized. and a cross beam of rays is projected upon the mirrors 6G and lil. If the two mirrors are exactly parallel, a single respect to the light reflecting means to project image of th‘e crossed beams projecting through ' served. 2. In aligning means for guns having visible said rays onto an image plane in such a way that the coincidence of Ithese rays may be ob- ' slots M will fall upon the mirror 82 and there fore upon the screen 84. This Will indicate that the axis of the bar 52 is parallel with the bore of e ‘the rifle- barrel. If, however, two images ofthe cross appear on sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter mined by the bore thereof, a second light reñect ing means mounted upon the sights and whose ' position is determined by the alignment thereof, the screen 84, then the mirrors 60 and 10 are not parallel, and since we are assuming that a master means for projecting a beam having a definite configuration onto the two reflecting surfaces bar 62 so that it will lie parallel to the axis of the ¿= « simultaneously, means operatively positioned with respect to the light reflecting means to project rifle barrel. Thus through micrometric adjust said rays onto an image plane in such a Way ment means similar to that shown in Figure 1 and that the coincidence of these rays may be ob illustrated diagrammatically only as supporting served, ancl means to adjust the position of the blocks 64, 65 and 68, these axes may be aligned. As before mentioned, for all practical purposes iii) second light refiecting means with respect to the sights to bring the rays into coincidence. if the adjustment on the front sight is vertical 3. In aligning means for guns having visible and that on th'e rear horizontal, most sighting sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted means can be properly aligned. I have indicated on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter such adjustment by arrows in Figure 3. mined by the bore thereof, a second light reñect The master riiie is then removed and these two ing means ymounted upon the sights and whose parts are placed in a rifle to be tested. If there position is determined by the alignment thereof, appears two images of the slots in the disc 'i6 not rifle is being used, we must adjust the axis of the in coincidence on the screen 84, the micrometers at the front and rear plugs are moved until the same are coincident. This adjustment as read means for projecting a beam having definite con figuration onto the two reñecting surfaces simul \. taneously, means operatively positioned With re on the micrometer screws th'en gives an indica spect to the light reflecting means to project said tion as to how far these parts must be moved or rays onto an image plane in such a Way that , ground away to bring them into alignment and such correction is then made following which a second check is made by the equipment shown in Figure 3. This is repeated until a single image the coincidence of these rays may be observed, and color filter means interposed in the paths of the two rays to give each a different identifying color. 4. In aligning means for guns having sighting In order to facilitate the alignment, if a color means thereon, a pair of reflecting surfaces, means extending into the bore of the gun for ñlter 88 is inserted either as shown in dotted lines or adjacent the mirror 60, and- a second color 55 mounting one of the surfaces, means engaging filter of complementary'color such as 90 is ap the sights for supporting the second surface ad plied to intercept the rays from the second mir justably with repect to said sights, light means for projecting a predetermined pattern on both ror, it will be easier for the operator to super impose these two images. By using such com surfaces, means for receiving the reñected rays, plementary colors, such, for example, as red and 60 said reflecting surfaces being so positioned and green, two diiferent images of the slots will ap associated with respect to one another and to the of the cross slots appears. receiving m'eans that the reiiected rays are di rected to said receiving means, means to adjust the means supporting the second surface to bring a yellow cross will appear which will be a very 65 the two images on said receiving means into coin cidence, and indicating means on the adjustable accurate indication to the operator that the two crosses are coincident and therefore assist in means to provide information as to corrective the adjustment. movement of the sights. pear on the screen, one red and one green, if the equipment is not in alignment. However, upon bringing these two images into coincidence, It will be obvious that with this equipment only a relatively small area or test location is required; 70 EDWARD J. MARTIN.