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Патент USA US2405441

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Aug. 6, 194s.
Filed 1144.16, 1945
.. .
2 sheets-sheet 1
Aug. e, 1946.
v Filed DeC. 16, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
-`'GUN sIGHTING Dnvror.>
Edward J. ll-Iartin, Pleasant Ridge, Mich., assign
or to General Motors Corporation, Detroit.
Mich., a corporation of Delaware 'Y
v f
. _ ‘e Application December 16, 194s, serial No. 514,440
4 Claims. (Cl. 8&-7-4)
6 _and a front sight _8.- .This rear sight may either
This invention relates to adjusting means and
more specifically to means for setting or. adjust
ing the sights on riñes. With large scale produc
tion of rifies, such as those used for the armed
forces, the problem 7of initially setting or -adjust
ing the sighting means thereony becomes very im
portant. First, from a standpoint of accuracy,
secondly, fromv a standpoint ofttime consumed in
be a V groove or a' peep sight, depending upon
the rifle supplied bythe manufacturer, _Iñ‘order
to rproperly align these two sights so that the line
through them Will be parallel to the lille through
' the bore of .the barrel, `I have provided means
which caribe easily and quickly _applied to the .
rifle. vThe >first portion which _isapplied to the
rifle is a unitary member having a cylindrical
the operation; and, thirdly, from :a standpoint of
1the~ammunition expended during such operation. 10 portion lil which has _projecting from its one face
ran _integral ,rod I2 which extends back into the
By using live ammunition and actually firing each
muzzle of the rifle for an appreciable distance.
It might be mentioned at this point that through
ence has been that it took approximately thir
various investigation it has been discovered that
`teenl to fifteen rounds of ammunition to bring the
sights to their requireddegree ,of accuracy. This 15 the last four ,inches in the barrel of the rifle de
termine thev pathicr trajectory _of the .bullet and
method also requires theuse of a hundred yard
. 'gun 'to ,initially set `the sights, thejformer experi
- rifle range and considerable time.
therefore the integral rod approximate'ly‘four
It can readily '
inches long' and `its position is determined Aby the
:be seen Ythat by the vuse of this number of rounds
dominating _portion of the barrel. _
of ammunition Aper gun, the expenditure of am
munition in this process WWhere any number of 20 _ >The ycylindrical_member I0 has _a hollow _in
terior into which projects acentral rod I4 also
fguns are built is considerably high. There is of
integral .therewith and which vis in alignment with
the oppositely lextending rod I2. This forwardly
projecting rod I4 maybe radiallyadjusted with
It l'is therefore an object :of my invention to'pro
'vide >means for initially adjusting the sights of 25 in the cavity 4I6 of lthe cylinder l0 by adjusting
Y course the further ¿problem of >safety concerned in
handling these guns.
screws ¿I8 'which are threaded into the cylinder _
-a Ari'fie‘vvithout the use of lrifle ammunition.
Itis a further .object of my invention to `pro
lll from three sides at Aapproximately 120° apart,
and-'so' may move the uouter end of this rod I4
vide means -for accurately adjusting the sights
on a rifie utilizing light rays.
within the cavity I6 for yalignment purposes. To
provide means' forinitially adjusting the sights
rored plate' >2i) vbyanysuitable means suchas
It is a still further object-ofmy invention to .30 the forward end of this rod I4 is fastened amir
lof la rifle Which Will occupy only a 'very limited
' 'space' and which will permit quick Aadjustment to
the proper degree.
spot Welding. _
` 'The second‘portîon ofthe ,apparatus applied to
the'rifle is adapted to serI in oron the sights 6
or 8 and _this consists of an elongated _cylinder
` -With these and other objects in view which will# ,
'become apparent as the Aspecification proceeds, ` >22 of a telescope having an eye piece `2li movable
in one end thereof which inthe example shown
ïthe embodiments of my invention will be best
'will be that end nearest the butt or stock and
understood »by reference to the following speci
'which ’has a suitable lens system therein, such
’fication and `claims 'and the illustrations in the
as flens 26, to view the mirrored surface ofthe
accompanying-drawings, in which: ,
disc 20. inserted Within eye piece T24 is a small
f Figure '1 is aside View partially in seotions'how-' refiectordisc 28 which may eitherbe half vsilvered
"ing one _for-m of sighting means embodying myîn
as fat 29V or merely ¿a glass diagonal ,-set in .at ¿ap
proximately a 45m-angle -adjacent an opening'Sil
Figure §2v1£is -a Sectional VvîeW `taken ron line 2--2
inthe upper surface »of the veye -piece and »through
winch opening light rays are projected kfrom `_a
Figure 3 fis »a schematic perspective viewshow.-l
light ¿source 32 which vthen travel down .the full
in'g'fa ‘modi'ñedsystem .of adjusting the sights of
length of kthe .telescope to the mirrored ,surface
the rifle according to my invention.
_and are 1reflected and the reflected _rays _can kbe
-'Referring An‘ovv more specifically to Figure 1,
Vthere is :shown therein ,afgun or zrifle 2 Which is 50
:supported inany ysuitable :support 4 :having .fopen
ings `:for the stock'and .barrelfof the rifle so vthat
it :may :be inserted '.thereinfan-d rremoved easily.
The :rifle therefore ¿in Ithis _support „assumes the
position .shown ¿and .is provided with a" .rea'r `'sight
viewedby the eye.
Mounted just ahead of thisangled _member 28
and ,in the eyepiece ,2t y_area pair of _right angled
f cross hairs v3l fsimilar vto >_those `_used Yin a _great '
number of opticalinstrumentsl ,et 100th thefrònt
,and rear >portions of the telescope adjustable
moved relatively to the sights. In adjusting sights
for rifles it might be necessary to move both the
front and the rear sights both horizontally and
vertically with respect to the barrel. However,
it is seldom necessary to move each sight in both
' directions Vand in the present instance, while the
apparatus could be made to function as above
mentioned, it has been found satisfactory to pro
Y vide only vertical adjustment or height with re-í
anism may be now considered properly set.
The bore plug and telescope assembly are then
removed from the master rifle and a rifle to be
adjusted is then placed in the supporting block 4.
The bore plug IIJ is inserted into the rifle muzzle
y 4and the telescope assembly placed upon the sights
as shown in Figure l. 'If in viewing through the
telescope the cross hairs do _not coincide with the
image thereof, theoperator then knows that the
gard to the front sight and horizontal or trans-.
verse adjustment with regard to the rear sight ' '
sights are not correct. He then turns, for exam
ple, the vertical micrometer screwf36 to raise the
forward end of the telescope, or lower as the case
may be, until the horizontal cross hair positions . '
and therefore in both instances thek equipment
actually used comprises only such adjustment as f
j above mentioned, though the drawings of Figure 1 17.5 correspond.
show adjustments in two planes at right >angles
to each other.
adjusted axis of the telescope, the aligning mech
brackets are provided so that both ends may be
When that has been accomplished,
Y the operator then turns the horizontal adjusting
micrometer screw 38 in the rear assembly until
the vertical cross hairs and their image coincide.
The reading on each of these two micrometer
eter -adjustment screws 33 and 38 for both >hori 20 screwsAfrom the scales such as 52 which are found
thereon, gives an index as to the amount that
zontal andvertical adjustment; VThe frontend
With regard to the front sight, there is provided,Y
a suitable frame such as 34 which carries microm
ofY the telescope is therefore supported by this
frame between the movable screwends ofthe
the sights must be -moved or ground to be correct.
In this respect, the front sight is always pro
vided too high so that it may be ground olf to the
micrometer mechanisms and' two springbiasing
ribbons 4l)y and »42. YA block 44 rigidly secured 25 proper height andthe rear sight is in a hori
zontal slot sothat-it can be moved back and
to the lower surface of the frame 34h`as an open
forth as the need demands. ¿The telescope is then
ing therein YadaptedV to ñt over the upwardly pro
jecting end of the front sight 8.. »'I‘hus by mov
ing eitherïof the micrometer screws,- the telescope
ofcourse removed-and the parts adjusted as indi
cated and the telescope then replaced to see'if the >
may be moved horizontally or vertically in either 30 - adjustmentis now correct. This is repeated until
the micrometer screws' can be placed in their nor
directionwithinithe frame 34 to align> the tele
mal zero position and the cross hairs coincide with
scope with 4the rifle.- -`
-l Y Y
vThe same type of frame supports the-rearend
of the telescope as shown at 34'» andthis also
supports v-two micrometer screwadjustm'en'ts 36'
and 38', the supporting-block 44’ in this instance
. however having a rearwardly lextending pin 46
which is adapted> to lie in the V slot or’peep of
the rear sight 6.> Theteles'cope is provided with,4
al bracket 48 which is connected to theapproxi
their image as reflected.
y '
j lIn this system it is of. course necessary-for an
operator t0 continuously'view through the eye
piece'the mirroredsurface and'make small ad
justments which may be fatiguing. I have there
fore provided' a modified optical arrangement for
adjusting sights in which the image of cross hairs
40 or vits equivalent may be thrown upon a screen
so thatit will not be necessary for an operator
to continuously squint through a telescope. In>
» to extend around the rifle and support below the
this instance, as before, the riñe is supported
>same »a Yweight 50-which is adapted to maintain
in a suitable block (not shown’ in Fig. 3) and in
thetelescope assembly in the proper position on
the sights by gravity. The same may therefore be 45 this case the muzzle plug is supported in the end
of the muzzle as before, which' is shown diagram
>lifted and placed on the sights, and whenV the
matically'in Fig. 3 at 6B.' However, in this in
riñe has been properly adjusted, may be removed
stance the forward face of the mirror 20 is pol
without anyv complicated >clamping or supporting
ished to form a reflecting surface 'rather than
` .
The ñrst step~in the use of vmy equipment is 50 the surface facing the rifle.A
FThe Itelescope'assembly is replaced in »this in
to adjust the bore plug mirror so thatfits'reñect- ‘
stance by an ordinary straight bar 62 having a
mate center thereofY and which is so formed as
ing >surface is> perpendicular'to the axis -of the
bore plug-itself. This may be `done by mounting
- supporting block 64 mounted on the front sight
of a riñe.- It is then turned slightly'and ad
and a second- supportingV block 66~having a pin
55 T58 which projects into the opening in the rear
justed by means of the -adjustingscrews I8 until
a spot of lightreflected by the mirror remains
. Y instance happens to be broken away, h'as a pendu
the lbore plug in >a lathe or fitting itto a muzzle v
sight. This bar 62 therefore lies over thebarrel
of the gun, and at its center section, which in this
stationary.V Of course, once this boreV plug'has
lum rod on the broken away portion (not shown)
been adjusted, it is not necessary to thereafter
similar to 48 and’50 of Figure 1> to maintain it in Y
further adjust the same, but only check itv occa 00 position on top of the sights. Applied to the for
sionally.`_ When this has been so adjusted, Vthe
bore plug and mirror are inserted into the bore `of
a ‘master` rifle which has previously had its sights
adjusted xandîis known to becor'rect. »The auto
ccuimating telescope is thenmminted in the pof
sition as shown >in, Figure v1 fand the horizontal
f ward surface of the bar 62 and at right angles
to the axis thereof is a second mirror ¿10 whose
surface is adapted to lie substantially parallel to
the mirror 60, depending upon the Valignment of
.the ybar 62 with th'e bore of the rifle barrel.
A source of light 12 is provided to one side, fthe
rays from which are adapted to ilow through the
andverticaladjusting micrometers are set so that
vertical and ‘horizontal slots 'I4 of a small disc
the image of the cross hairs reilected by the muz
zle mirror 2B»l coincide with the hairs themselves 70 16, thus forming a cross in the nature- of the
cross hairs in the modification‘of Figures 1 and 2.
asÍseen through the eye piece. The axis of the
'I'h'ese rays which project through the slots in
telescopewill now lie parallel with’ the bore of
the opaque disc-16 proceedthrough a lens 18 and
Vtheïrifle, and since the supporting blocks`44 and
..44’,"which either themselves or through their as-V
fall on‘both `mirroredsurfaces 60 and 'I0 and are
sociated parts, contact thesights, Vdetermine the 75 then reflected through a second lens system `80
after which they proceed to a mirror 82 which is
merely a reversed mirror to bring them back to
that it is highly accurate and not subject to errors
a screen et.
that it accurately provides indications as to when
a line through the sights and that through the
axis of the barrel are parallel and that the sys
tem as a whole is simple, rugged and easily oper
usually` occasioned by short sighting means, but
This screen may be viewed either
directly or through an enlarging lens, such as 86,
for micrometer adjustment. A series of colored
filters such as 88 and 9D shown in dotted lines v
adjacent to theV lens 80 may be applied if desired.
These ñlters may if more easily applied be located
adjacent the mirrors 6E) and li) if desired.
With this equipment, assuming of course that
the muzzle plug 60 has been adjusted so that the
mirror is perpendicular to the barrel or rod I2
which projects back into th’e barrel as before de
scribed, this plug is then inserted into the end
of the gun barrel, and by using a master rifle to
initially set the equipment, the bar 62 is laid
upon the front andV rear sights 8’ and t'. The
I claim:
l. In aligning means for guns having visible
sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted
on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter
mined by the bore thereof, a second light reflect
ing means mounted upon the sights and whose
position is determined by the alignment thereof,
- means for projecting a beam having dei-‘mite con
figuration onto the two reflecting surfaces simu.
taneously, and means operatively positioned with
light l2 is then energized. and a cross beam of
rays is projected upon the mirrors 6G and lil. If
the two mirrors are exactly parallel, a single
respect to the light reflecting means to project
image of th‘e crossed beams projecting through '
2. In aligning means for guns having visible
said rays onto an image plane in such a way
that the coincidence of Ithese rays may be ob- '
slots M will fall upon the mirror 82 and there
fore upon the screen 84. This Will indicate that
the axis of the bar 52 is parallel with the bore of e
‘the rifle- barrel.
If, however, two images ofthe cross appear on
sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted
on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter
mined by the bore thereof, a second light reñect
ing means mounted upon the sights and whose '
position is determined by the alignment thereof,
the screen 84, then the mirrors 60 and 10 are not
parallel, and since we are assuming that a master
means for projecting a beam having a definite
configuration onto the two reflecting surfaces
bar 62 so that it will lie parallel to the axis of the ¿= « simultaneously, means operatively positioned with
respect to the light reflecting means to project
rifle barrel. Thus through micrometric adjust
said rays onto an image plane in such a Way
ment means similar to that shown in Figure 1 and
that the coincidence of these rays may be ob
illustrated diagrammatically only as supporting
served, ancl means to adjust the position of the
blocks 64, 65 and 68, these axes may be aligned.
As before mentioned, for all practical purposes iii) second light refiecting means with respect to the
sights to bring the rays into coincidence.
if the adjustment on the front sight is vertical
3. In aligning means for guns having visible
and that on th'e rear horizontal, most sighting
sights thereon, light reflecting means mounted
means can be properly aligned. I have indicated
on the barrel of the gun whose position is deter
such adjustment by arrows in Figure 3.
mined by the bore thereof, a second light reñect
The master riiie is then removed and these two
ing means ymounted upon the sights and whose
parts are placed in a rifle to be tested. If there
position is determined by the alignment thereof,
appears two images of the slots in the disc 'i6 not
rifle is being used, we must adjust the axis of the
in coincidence on the screen 84, the micrometers
at the front and rear plugs are moved until the
same are coincident. This adjustment as read
means for projecting a beam having definite con
figuration onto the two reñecting surfaces simul
\. taneously, means operatively positioned With re
on the micrometer screws th'en gives an indica
spect to the light reflecting means to project said
tion as to how far these parts must be moved or
rays onto an image plane in such a Way that ,
ground away to bring them into alignment and
such correction is then made following which a
second check is made by the equipment shown in
Figure 3. This is repeated until a single image
the coincidence of these rays may be observed,
and color filter means interposed in the paths of
the two rays to give each a different identifying
4. In aligning means for guns having sighting
In order to facilitate the alignment, if a color
means thereon, a pair of reflecting surfaces,
means extending into the bore of the gun for
ñlter 88 is inserted either as shown in dotted lines
or adjacent the mirror 60, and- a second color 55 mounting one of the surfaces, means engaging
filter of complementary'color such as 90 is ap
the sights for supporting the second surface ad
plied to intercept the rays from the second mir
justably with repect to said sights, light means
for projecting a predetermined pattern on both
ror, it will be easier for the operator to super
impose these two images. By using such com
surfaces, means for receiving the reñected rays,
plementary colors, such, for example, as red and 60 said reflecting surfaces being so positioned and
green, two diiferent images of the slots will ap
associated with respect to one another and to the
of the cross slots appears.
receiving m'eans that the reiiected rays are di
rected to said receiving means, means to adjust
the means supporting the second surface to bring
a yellow cross will appear which will be a very 65 the two images on said receiving means into coin
cidence, and indicating means on the adjustable
accurate indication to the operator that the two
crosses are coincident and therefore assist in
means to provide information as to corrective
the adjustment.
movement of the sights.
pear on the screen, one red and one green, if
the equipment is not in alignment. However,
upon bringing these two images into coincidence,
It will be obvious that with this equipment only
a relatively small area or test location is required; 70
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