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Aug- 6, 1946= w. M. SCOTT, JR ‘ 2,405,454 I CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 3, 1941 9 Sheéts-Sheet 1 ' mumMillie; " " I INVENTOR. BY ATTORNEY. Aug. 6, 1946, I w_ M_ SCOTT, JR 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 5, l94l 9 Sheets-Sheet 2 _ [if @ k ‘L2 M “=1 212 WW“ 2/5 III | 2/” v @1 I I © g! | a. 2.14 l W‘ ,IH: 215 Q m ‘ I /‘ rs ‘I 1 I © Z14 I T @2247 | |(! ° \‘ IIIIIIL _ l \ m, M -‘L...‘ 1:= m: ‘TE m 1"- ~ \ III .w -\ ~ ' \ \/ F IG. 2. INV NTOR. I BY mam Z 2 f .g' ATTORNEY, Aug- 6, 1946- w. M. SCOTT, JR 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 3, 1941 9 Sheets-Sheet 3 4 7 29;? 4 ' 4' 2%’ 4,; ( M; A‘ |_ @1207“; M415 ("I @(207 4? .\ INVENTOR. BY i‘ ATTORNEY. Aug. 6, 1946. w. M. SCOTT, JR 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTRQL THEREFOR ‘Filed Jan. 3, 1941 9 Sheets-Sheet, 4 2a z I rII/II/l. IN VENTOR. BY 4 “@322 ATTORNEY. Aug. 6, 1946. . ’ ‘ w. M. scoTT, JR 4' ' CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 5, 1941 \':‘ ‘ \ I v9 Sheets-Sheet 5 m" o 2,405,454 Q Aug. 6, 1946. 2,405,454 W. M. SCOTT, JR CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL-THEREFOR Filed ‘Jan. 3,1941 ' 205 /45 N 2a! 9 Sheets-Sheet 6 5 'H' W, ~ZOZ Z55 FIG.8. ‘HEM BY ,INVENTOR. A , -, ,m, ATTORNEY. ‘Aug. 6, 1946. ' w, M, SCQTT, JR 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 3, 1941 9 Sheets-Sheet 8 J06 IN VENTOR. BY WM! ATTORNEY. Aug- 5, 1946' w. M. scb'r'r, JR 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR Filed Jan. 3, 1941 9_ Sheets-Sheet 9 95 - FIG. l4. ‘BY. g INVENTOR. Mgr. [(52:21 ATTORNEY. Patented Aug. 6,. 1946 2,405,454 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,405,454 CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR William Maxwell Scott, Jr., Bryn Mawr, Pa., as signor to I. TIE. Circuit Breaker Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl Vania Application January 3, 1941, Serial No. 373,051 9 Claims. (01. 200-82) 2 1 My invention relates in general to the ?eld of The contacts of the individual circuit breaker circuit interrupters and more speci?cally con cerns a novel and improved form circuit breaker and a control means therefor. means or by automatically or manually disen gaging a latch. This latch is carried upon a lever poles may be separated by releasing the closing It is frequently possible in certain polyphase Cl intermediate between the piston and a pivoted arm which carries the movable contact. In either circuits that a single phase thereof may, under faulty conditions, carry a current many times in excess of its rated value whereas the associated phases will continue to carry substantially normal currents. Under these circumstances, it is par ticularly desirable to have an extremely high speed circuit breaker operate in the overloaded circuit with the subsequent interruption of the other circuits. Trip free operation is provided by the latch and its associated contact carrying arm and thus the contacts will be automatically disengaged if closed upon a fault despite the continued operation of the closing mechanism. Each circuit breaker pole includes an over-cur ' More speci?cally, in the operation of a poly phase mercury arc recti?er, it is oftenv that a single anode may, due to a “back fire” or simi lar electronic fault carry excessive currents while normal conditions will prevail in the associated anode circuits. case, however, the contacts will separate under the influence of the normal spring biasing means. 15 rent trip unit operatively arranged with respect to the latch, which may be of the conventional elec tromagnetic type. Thus over-current in one‘ of the plurality of single pole circuit breakers will cause instantaneous interruption thereof. Due to the independence of the contact mechanisms, the compressed air within the closing cylinders of the associated breakers (assuming a pneumatL ' It is obvious from mechanical considerations that a multiple breaker, wherein all of the poles cally operated closing mechanism) will still main are rigidly interlocked will require more time for tain contact engagement. However, I provide an interruption than a single pole breaker in the affected circuit. Therefore, in order to preclude 25 interlocking control system for the individual poles of the multipole breaker which in one form possible destruction of the overloaded anode and includes a switch on each of the circuit breaker its energizing circuits, it is desirable to have a poles actuated by displacement of the movable high speed single pole circuit breaker in the anode contact. These switches are arranged to energize circuit operate independently to open the affect the compressed air control means so that upon ed anode circuit instantaneously. To complete the separation of the contacts of an individual the isolation of the recti?er, it is then necessary breaker due to automatic or manual energization, to actuate the remaining poles of the circuit the compressed air within all closed cylinders will breaker to cause the separation of all of the be released to effect complete isolation of the contacts. My invention contemplates a high speed single #1 LA circuit into which the breaker is connected. This manner of interlocking the several poles employed pole circuit breaker of simple design which is par ticularly adaptable for use in the protection of may, of course, be employed with any other clos ing system. polyphase circuits of the character described. The individual circuit breakers are provided Thus, I may combine a plurality of these single pole elements upon a common frame to form a 40 with any are extinguishing or are quenching structure such as a magnetic blow-out. In my novel circuit breaker, the movable con multipole breaker in which each of the poles may open its contacts independently of the other poles. Normally, however, the contacts of all of the poles may be simultaneously engaged and sep arated. The single pole circuit breaker comprises es sentially a pair of cooperable contacts, spring biased toward the open position, which may be engaged and maintained in engagement by any suitable pneumatic, electrical or mechanical means. Thus, compressed air may be introduced tact and the closing apparatus required for each pole are supported within a metallic frame. This frame is mounted upon a pair of supporting mem bers which in turn are carried by the main frame of‘the multipole breaker. The supporting mem bers also carry the arc chute which is hingedly at tached thereto to facilitate contact inspection and 50 into a cylinder on each circuit breaker, and act upon a piston to cause circuit closures. How ever, if desired, a solenoid or an electric motor may be utilized for this purpose. x55 repair, A preferable pneumatic control system com prises a valve which determines the flow of air to a manifold communicating with each of the single pole closing cylinders. The valve may be operated manually by a pair of plungers, or may 2,405,454. 3 be operated automatically by solenoids which are in operative arrangement with respect to the plungers. ' Energization of one of these solenoids will cause the control valve to admit air to the closing cyl inders and energization of the other will release this air to cause contact separation. It is therefore an object of my invention to pro vide a single pole circuit breaker of simple con struction which opens its contacts at an extremely high speed and may be closed by pneumatic, elec trical or mechanical means. Another object of my invention is to provide a novel mounting means for combining a plurality of individual single pole breakers to provide a 4 cuit breaker mounting means taken along the line li-ll of Figure 5. Figure 12 is a cross-sectional view of the pneu matic operating means in the position correspond ing to the circuit breaker open circuit posi tion. Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the pneu matic operating means corresponding to the cir cuit breaker closed position. Figure 14 is an end cross-sectional view of the pneumatic operating means taken along the line ll3—ltl of Figure 13. As illustrated in Figure 1. the circuit breaker is built upon a unit pole basis and any number may be assembled to form a multi-pole breaker. unitary multipole structure. A six~pole breaker is illustrated in Figure 1, the individual poles being supported upon a common frame 2 l, and operated from a central pneumatic means through compressed air manifold 22. The main frame 2! as is more particularly illus the contacts of theyassociated poles. 20 trated in Figures 2 and 5 comprises a pair of par A further object of my invention is to pro allel channels 23 and 2d which may be supported vide a circuit breaker wherein contact engage ment is caused and maintained by pneumatic in any suitable manner. The individual circuit electrical or mechanical means and contact sep breaker poles are supported between these two aration by resilient means. 25 channels by means of a plurality of parallel cross A still further object of my invention is to pro bars 25 which extend between the two channel vide a multipole circuit breaker having individual members and are detachably secured thereto. poles interlocked so that automatic or manual A main U~shaped metallic structure 26 car tripping of a single pole will cause the tripping \ries the individual circuit breaker operating ele ments and is in turn supported by two of the par of all of the associated poles. Another object of my invention is to provide a allel cross-bars 25, as is more clearly illustrated multipole circuit breaker which is formed by as in Figures 2 and 8. The U-shaped member 26 sembling a plurality of single pole circuit break is ?xed to the cross-bars 25 by means of a plu ers interlocked by means of a common compressed rality of screws 21 which pass through metallic air manifold. 35 blocks 28 and engage in corresponding, the It is a further object of my invention to pro threaded perforations 3| in a, plurality of lugs 32. vide a multipole circuit breaker formed of indi These lugs are preferably reinforced integral ex vidual circuit breaker poles and interlocked by a tensions of the walls of the U-shaped member 26. compressed air manifold, the tripping of which The metallic blocks 28 are recessed at 33 to is controlled by an electrically or manually oper 40 correspond with the periphery of the cross-bars 25, which are surfaced with an insulating mate— ated valve. These and other objects of my invention will rial 34 in order to preclude short circuiting of the Still another object of my invention is to- pro vide a multipole circuit breaker wherein the con tacts of one pole may operate independently of become apparent from the following speci?cation various conductive elements supported thereupon taken in connection with the accompanying draw and to isolate the circuit breaker elements from 4-5 the ground potential of the frame. ings, in which: Figure l is a front view of the multi-pole cir Each pair of cross-bars 25 and its associated cuit breaker and the supporting means there ‘circuit breaker pole is secured to the parallel channels 23 and 25 by a pair of clamping mem for. Figure 2 is a side view of one of the units taken bers 35 one of which is most clearly illustrated 50 in Figure 11. This clamp constitutes a ribbed along the line 2—2 of Figure 1. Figure 3 is a fragmentary side view of one of main portion extending parallel to upper ?ange the circuit breaker units illustrating ' the arc of the channel with which it is respectively asso~ quencher in its raised position. ciated, and a pair of end extensions 38 which are Figure 4 is a top View of the arc quenching arranged to press down upon the upper surfaces unit taken along line 4—4l of Figure 3. 55 of the cross-bars. Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view of one of the A metal plate 29 secured to the web of chan units taken along the line 5—5 of Figure 1. The nel 24, projects above the upper ?ange thereof contacts are illustrated in the closed position. and serves to locate the ends of the cross-bars Figure 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view 25 during assembly. Also, a plurality of locating corresponding to a portion of Figure 5 and show plates 36 of length equal to the distance between ing the contacts immediately after tripping. the two parallel cross-bars, are ?xed to the chan Figure 7 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view nels to expedite uniform spacing of the individual of one of the units corresponding to a portion circuit breaker poles. The required pressure be of Figure 5 and showing the latch and contacts tween the cross-bars and the upper flange of the 65 channel is obtained by an appropriate bolt 31 in their final open or reset position. Figure 8 is an end sectional view of one of the which freely passes through a central perfora circuit breaker units taken along the line 8--8 tion 4| in the clamp 35 and engages in a corre of Figure 5. sponding threaded perforation 42 in the plate 36 Figure 9 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view and the ?ange of the channel member. of the magnetic blow out coil taken along line 70 Thus by tightening bolt 31 against the lock washer 43 the clamp is brought to bear against 5-9 of Figure 5. Figure 10 is a top cross-sectional view of the the cross-bars and so secures each circuit breaker to the frame. automatic trip unit taken along line iii-40 of This type of circuit breaker mounting greatly Figure 5. Figure 11 is a cross-sectional view of the cir 75 facilitates the removal of the individual poles 2,405,454 5 ‘6 for repair and the subsequent assembly thereof. member of length equal to the sum of the lengths of all of the movable contacts. The multiplicity of movable contacts, each biased by an individual compression spring 12 is provided in order that effective low resistance engagement between the stationary and movable contacts may at all times be obtained. Thus is due to the high temperature arcs Which may be drawn between the contacts high spots A single circuit breaker pole may be removed without disturbing the associated units by loos ening the pair of clamps 35 associated therewith and removing the entire assembly by means of the two parallel cross-bars 25. The mounting of each circuit breaker pole as sembly comprises positioning the pair of parallel cross-bars 25 by means of the plates 29 and 36 and tightening the bolts 31. Furthermore, the 10 or other similar deformations are formed upon either the stationary contact or any one of the circuit breaker elements may be disassembled movable contacts, the remaining movable con and reassembled without necessarily removing tacts will still maintain an effective low resist the complete circuit breaker structure from the ance path therebetween. parallel channels 23 and 24. Thus, by loosening The contact carrying arm 53 is supported and the bolts 21 the U-shaped member 26 and the 15 pivotally mounted upon the shaft 8| which in operating mechanism associated therewith, may turn is secured to the side walls of the U shaped be removed. frame 26. The arm 53 and its associated mov An arc quenching unit 45, preferably of the able contacts 52 are continuously biased towards magnetic blow out type, is provided for each of the open circuit position by means of a pair of the circuit breaker poles. It is mounted upon the stationary contact and blow out coil assem bly which is supported upon the insulated cross bars 25 by means of metallic blocks 45 similar to the blocks 28 as will hereinafter be more com pletely described. The are quenching unit may be raised as illustrated in Figure 3 but during normal operation is in the lowered position as illustrated in Figure 5, when it is secured to the U shaped frame 26. Associated with the arcing chamber is a sta- . tension springs 82 which are carried between sup ports 83 and 84 that are pivotally mounted upon the shafts BI and 85 respectively as is more clearly illustrated in Figures 3 and 8. The open circuit position of the contacts is most clearly illustrated in Figure 7. It may be seen that the individual movable contacts 52 have been rotated with respect to shaft 6| by means of compression spring 12 so that the flat extensions 65 of the contact carrying members tionary contact 5| which is engageable by a plu rality of complementary movable contacts 52 as illustrated in Figures 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The mov are in surface engagement with a projection 9| of the cross member 51. This projection serves to limit the maximum rotation of the individual able contacts 52 are supported upon a contact contacts. carrying member 53 which comprises, as is illus trated in Figure 8, a pair of side members 54 and 55 maintained in spaced relationship by means The tension springs 52 still exert a force upon the contact carrying arm and thus maintain the contacts 52 in the open circuit position. As illus trated, the pivoted support for each end of the of a spacer 56 at the base and by means of a tension springs 82 permits freedom of motion, cross-member 57 at the upper end thereof. The plurality of movable contacts 52 are each. 40 and the tension of spring 82 may be adjusted by pivoting the support 84 upon shaft 85 through supported upon an individual member 60, which any one of a plurality of perforations 92. members are in turn pivotally mounted upon a The open circuit position of the contact carry shaft 6| . The shaft 6| passes between corre ing arm 53 is determined by engagement be sponding aligned perforations in the side mem 45 tween surface 94 of the cross member 5'! and a bers 54 and 55 of the contact carrying arm. contact buffer or resilient, shock absorbing mem The movable contacts 52 are angular mem ber 95 which is ?xed to the frame of the circuit bers having a contacting surface 62 and a sup breaker. porting flange 63 through which a plurality of By rotating the arm 53 in a clockwise manner screws 64 pass and secure the contacts to the pivoted contact carrying members 60. Each con 60 as viewed in Figure 7, engagement between con tacts 52 and 5| is obtained. As a result, however, tact carrying member 60 is provided with an ex of the previous clockwise rotation of contacts 52 tension 65 to which a ?exible conductor 66 may about shaft 6| under the in?uence of the com be secured in any manner, as for instance, by the pression springs 12, contact will ?rst be estab rivet 61. In order to minimize the time required for cir 65 lished between the upper portions of contacts 52 and 5|. Continued clockwise rotation of the cuit interruption, all of the movable members contact carrying arm 53, however, will cause the employed are made as light as possible. This movable contacts to yield against the action of necessitates a reduction in the cross-sectional compression springs ‘12 and rotate about the pivot 60 6|. Obviously this will cause a wiping action between the surfaces of these contacts, and when Therefore, vertical vanes ‘H, preferably made rotation of arm 53 is complete, surface engage of light and highly conductive metal such as alu area of the conductors, and consequently, there is an increase in the generation of heat. minum are ?xed upon the contact carrying mem ment will be established over the lower areas of both movable and stationary contacts 52 and 5| bers 60 in order to provide a greater cooling sur 65 as illustrated in Figures 3 and 5. face and thus decrease the rate of contact de Conversely, counterclockwise rotation of the terioration. contact carrying arm 53 during circuit inter Compression springs 12 supported within re ruption will cause surface engagement to- be cesses 13 in the cross-member 51 of the contact transferred first from the lower areas to the upper operating arm and recesses 14 in each of the con 70 areas of the contact faces prior to the actual tact carrying members 60 bias the movable con disengagement between the two surfaces. tacts 52 in a clockwise direction about shaft 6!, Thus it may be seen that contact will ?rst be when viewed as in Figures 5, 6 and 7. established by engagement of the upper portions The stationary contact 5| which is supported of the contacts and circuit openings will occur within the arc quenching structure is a single 75 over a similar portion thereof. Therefore, for 2,405,454 7 8 most eifective operation, each of the contacts extension N5 of the arm H3 continuously biases the piston i 92 downwardly as viewed in Figure 5. may be faced with two bands of metal as illus trated in Figure 5. The lower portions of the contacts may be faced with a highly conductive. material such as silver and the upper portions thereof may be faced with an are resistant mate rial such as silver-graphite or silver-tungsten alloy. If the latch I25 is rotated in a counterclock wise direction about pivot IZG when viewed as in Figure 5, to disengage the pin i321, the contact carrying arm 53 will be free to move under the in?uence of tension springs 82 and will thus be rapidly displaced to the open circuit position which is determined by contact buffer 95 as illus Circuit breaker closures are effected by pneu ‘ matic means mounted upon the main supporting 10 trated in Figure 6. If now the force which maintains piston I02 structure. As illustrated, most clearly in Figures in. the raised position against the force which is 5, 6, and 7, a compressed air cylinder IQI is transmitted thereto from spring I 35 by means supported upon the circuit breaker frame and houses a piston m2 which is operated by means of compressed air delivered through the port I103. The cylinder head is an integral part of the U shaped frame 25. A cylindrical skirt 2 @i which is an integral por tion of the piston M32 is in slidable relation with the interior of the cylinder it)! and carries a rod I05 between the walls thereof. A cup shaped packing member E96 is utilized to preclude air leakage and a bolt Hill, which secures the pack of arm H3, that is, if air pressure existing Within ' the lower portion of cylinder IilI is released, then the lever i M will rotate about pivot BI under the in?uence of spring I35 to the position illustrated in Figure 7. However, in moving from the position illus trated in Figure 6 to that illustrated in Figure '7, the edge i?l of the latch will ride over the pin I32 and cause the engagement therebetween as illustrated in Figure 7. The contacts therefore may now be reclosed by introducing air under ing to the piston “32 serves as a stop to limit the downward movement thereof. 25 pressure through the port I03 into the lower The cylinder MI and its associated skirt EM portion of the cylinder. This will cause the pis are slotted at HI and H2 respectively so that a ton to rise which will correspondingly rotate the ?at extension IE3 of the contact closing lever lever arm Iiéi about the pivot 8i, and inasmuch II 4 may communicate with the interior of the as the pin I32 is captured within the notch I34, cylinder. A projection N5 of the arm H3 rests _ upon an unrestrained roller I I6 which is support ed upon the shaft Hi5 within the skirt IM. The slots H I and 1 i2 are maintained in align this movement of lever arm H4 will cause rota tion of contact arm 53 and contact engagement as illustrated in Figure 5. The latch E25 may be actuated by means of a ment by means of a bolt Ii‘! which has an un plunger Mi which is part of the tripping unit Hi2. threaded portion IE8 of reduced diameter that 35 This plunger may be operated automatically engages an axial groove i2I within the wall of under fault conditions which will hereinafter be the skirt IM. The upward movement of the arm described, or may be operated manually by rais H3 and thus the piston and its associated skirt ing the plunger knob I43. Thus when the con is limited by means of a stop H22 in the form tacts are in the position illustrated in Figure 5, of a bolt which projects through the cylinder circuit interruption may be obtained by manually head. or automatically causing the operation of plunger The lever H4 comprises the flat portion H3 MI. and a pair of integral parallel side members iii-3 As previously described, this will result in the and I 24, as is illustrated in Figure 8, spaced upon contact moving to the position illustrated in Fig a widened part of the arm till. These parallel 45 ure 6. Since it is desirable to place the breaker members contain aligned perforations L29 (see in condition for immediate reclosure, means must Figures 6 and 8) and the lever H 1i is thereby necessarily be provided for releasing the air con rotatably supported upon the shaft 8i, which as tained within the lower portion of cylinder it]! previously described, also supports the contact after the circuit interruption.‘ Upon release of 50 carrying arm 53. air pressure from the cylinder, the springs N35 A latch H25 is pivotally supported within a cause the piston to assume the position illustrated bifurcated lower portion of the lever i M by means in Figure 7 and permits the latch to recapture the of pin i255 and is continuously biased towards pin E32 of the contact carrying arm 53. clockwise rotation about pin MS by means of The control system will be described in a later a compression spring i271 which is retained in a ' paragraph. recess 1128 in the lever I913. The latch i25 has a The trip unit M2 may comprise any of the well sloping surface it! so that it may ride smoothly known solenoid or similar electromagnetic de over a pin i32 which is rotatably supported within vices for actuating a plunger such as it! to raise ball bearings 533 recessed into the side members the latch upon fault current. For certain appli 5!; and 55 of the contact carrying arm 53. 60 cations, the trip unit may be arranged to cause A notch I34 in the latch B25 is engageable circuit interruption for relatively low values of with the pin I32 as illustrated in Figure 5. It reverse current and relatively high values of may be observed that if the lever H4 is fixed forward current, according to the particular ap in the position indicated in Figure 5 (by air pres plication thereof. sure in the lower section of the cylinder IM), 65 It may be seen that the individual circuit and if the notch ltd is in engagement with the pin I32, then the contacts will be fully engaged, breaker poles and the operating mechanism associated therewith are entirely trip free. Thus, against the normal action of springs 32. assume the contacts to be in the position illus A pair of tension springs E35 are carried be tween the supports !38 and ltl which are piv 70 trated in Figure 7 and assume that it is desired to close the circuit breaker. The introduction of otally mounted upon the frame of the circuit compressed air of any ?uid under pressure into breaker and the lever Ht respectively. These the lower portion of cylinder Wt will cause the tension springs I35 are arranged to bias the clockwise rotation of lever lid and accordingly lever I 54 to counterclockwise rotation about shaft 8| when viewed as in Figure 5. Accordingly the 75 clockwise rotation of contact carrying arm 53, 2,405,454 ' 9 10 the force required therefor being transmitted through the latch I25. manner similar to the mounting for the U -shaped frame 26. This plate contains additional per forations for permitting the attachment of the coil 2I6 by means of bolts 224 which pass into tapped holes in the coil members. If a fault occurs during the engagement of the contacts 52 and 5|, the trip unit will instan taneously be energized to raise the latch I25. This will immediately cause the disengagement of contact carrying arm 53 from lever H4 and permit rapid return to the open circuit position as illustrated in Figure 6, despite the fact that air may still be allowed to enter into the cyl inder IOI. ' When the circuit breaker operating mechanism is in the position illustrated in Figure 5, the ten sion springs 82 and the tension spring I35 all The coil 2I6 is a double turn of copper of rec tangular cross section through which the line current ?ow-s. Thus, as illustrated in Figures 5 and 9, the current enters from the bus bar 226 which is fastened directly to one section 221 of the coil 2|6. This section 22‘! passes completely around a rectangular magnetic core 23I and then branches out at 232 into two parallel sections 233 and 234 which again pass around the core exert a force upon the members which tends to 15 23I. Each of these two sections then branches rotate the contact carrying arm to the open cir out again at 235 and 236 into two additional sec cuit position. tions 231 and 238 and upon completing their half Tripping, as has hereinabove been described circuit about the core are joined together at 24I. may be accomplished by raising the latch I25. This novel arrangement thus provides the The contact carrying arm 53 will then be dis 20 equivalent of two complete turns about the mag placed to the open circuit position under the in netic core 23I. The individual turns of the coil fluence of springs 82. However, tripping may are braced by the insulating bolts 243 which pass also be accomplished by releasing the air con through aligned perforations 244. tained within cylinder IOI. Under these circum The core 23I as is more clearly illustrated in stances, the contact carrying arm will again be Figures 1, 2, 3 and 8 is formed from a series of isplaced towards the open circuit position under stacked rectangular laminations of some mag the in?uence of tension springs 82. Also, the netic material such as soft iron clamped together combined e?ort of the springs 82 and I35 accel by means of the bolts 25I. erate the downward motion of the piston and These laminations are stacked with their poles increase the rate at which air is exhausted from ' to form a U-shaped magnet having the two side the cylinder. members 252 and 253 extending from the central Should any faul develop in the air lines, then core 23!. These side members as illustratedcome the consequent decrease in the air pressure within into close frictional contact with the central mag the cylinder will result in the opening of the cir netic structure 2 I 2 supported upon the sides of the cuit breaker. arcing chamber. The are quencher 45 as illustrated is of the Thus when the arcing chamber is lowered, as well known magnetic blow out type. Essentially this structure comprises a pair of parallel in sulating plates 2M and 292 as illustrated in Fig~ ures 4 and 8, spaced by the end insulating mem bers 283 and 254. Within the box like structure formed thereby are a plurality of parallel in sulating plates 285 in spaced relation with each other which form a plurality of ?ues exhausting to the atmosphere through the open top of the arc quencher. The parallel insulating plates 255 are separated by spacers 286 which are in turn supported by means of the bolts 251 which pass through the arc quencher. illustrated in Figure 2, energization of the core 23I by the line current ?owing through the coil 2I6 will cause the magnetization of all of the members 2“, 2I2, 2I3 which are strapped to the sides of the arcing chamber to produce a trans verse magnetic ?eld across the arc chamber. The magnetic core 23I is wrapped with an in sulating material 253 to preclude the short cir cuiting of the turns of the coils 2 I6. The coil 2I6 terminates in the extension MI, and as indicated in Figures 5, 6 and 7, the sta tionary contact 5I is supported thereupon by means of a plurality of bolts 254 which pass Mounted upon the sides of the arc quenching 50 through countersunk perforations therein and en» structure are a plurality of magnetizable mem gage correspondingly threaded perforations in the bers 2i I, and 253 formed from some laminated extension 24 I . material and each communicating with and con A plurality of projections 255 and 255 are pro nected to a central magnetic member 2I2 by vided upon the coil 2 I6 in order to properly posi means of the bolts 2I0 passing through exten 55 tion the coil and the attached arcing chamber sions 2I4. The magnetic members 2H and 2I3 are positioned against the side insulating plates 2N and 262 by means of a plurality of straps 215 fastened thereto by the bolts 23?, which as previously mentioned serve also to space the upon the plate 222. The material utilized for the coil is preferably a highly conductive one such as copper, the cross sectional area of which is selected to carry nor mal load currents at standard temperature rise. The coil is braced to withstand the mechanical stresses imposed thereon by the weight of the arc means of a pair of plates 220, which are secured chute, and those imposed during the ?ow of fault to the walls of the arc quenching structure as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, upon a shaft 2I'I 65 currents. A conductive arcing plate ZBI of resilient ma which in turn is supported by means of the terial, extends along the lower insulating plate metallic brace 22L (This brace is fastened as 263 of the arc chute and is fastened thereto by illustrated Figure 5 to one section of the coil plates 255. The entire structure is pivotally mounted, by 2I8 by means of the bolts 225.) The magnetic members 21 I—2I3 are mag means of the screws 265, which also secure the 70 replaceable arcing horn 264. When the arc chute netically energized by means of a coil 2I5 which is in normal position as indicated in Figure 5, the is supported upon the insulated cross bars 25. plate 2'5I is sprung away from the insulating plate Thus, as is illustrated in Figures 5, 6 and "I, a plate and Dresses against the stationary contact 5! 222 is secured to the cross bars 25 by means of within a recess 262. This pressure ensures low clamping blocks 46 and associated bolts 223 in a resistance engagement between the conductive 2,405,454 1l 12 members to provide for the flow of the arcing current. This arrangement permits the pivoting of the Control system As previously described, circuit closures are effected by means of the piston 102 operating in cylinder Mil by compressed air delivered from arc chute when necessary and the flow of arcing current when the arc chute is in its normal posi tion. The flexible conductor 66, joined at one end to an air storage means. The air is delivered to the cylinder l 01 through the insulated pipe ‘Sill, suitably connected there to, and through an‘electrically controlled valve interposed between the air supply and the oper the movable contacts, is electrically connected, at the other end, to the trip coil and to the main 10 ating cylinders. frame 26. The trip coil may comprise, as seen in Figures The control valve which is most clearly illus 5 and 10, a single turn of copper about a control trated in Figures 12, 13 and 14 is operated by magnetic member. The ?exible conductor 65 is a pair of oppositely disposed solenoids; that is, fastened to the coil upon the integral projection trip solenoid SM and closing solenoid 393. 2% at one end, and the bus bar 28! is joined to Compressed air from the storage means en- ' the other end. The uninsulated bolts 29! passing ters the control valve through pipe 305 and flows through perforations in the trip coil fix the coil to and from the operating cylinder through the to the main frame 26 and thereby maintain this manifold 22. These pipes 364 and 22 are secured frame at the potential of the movable contact. to the valve by means of a block 306 suitably Additional support is provided for the coil by bolt 292. However, this bolt is insulated from the frame as shown in Figure 5, to preclude the short circuiting of the trip coil. A secondary complementary metal arcing horn 266 is disposed upon the lower insulating plate 261 and the lower edge 2H thereof is arranged perforated which, in turn, is supported upon the main circuit breaker frame, as illustrated in Figure 1. The control valve comprises a cylindrical body portion 301 which is secured to the block 306 by a plurality of bolts 29'! which pass through corre sponding lugs 295 on either side of the block 306 and the cylindrical body 301 respectively. A gas ket 2H is interposed between these members to to be adjacent the end 212 of the movable con tact 52 when the contact is in the open position as is best illustrated in Figure 7. prevent air leakage thereat. An integral projection 213 of the arcing horn 2% is perforated at 214 and is engageable with a stud 215 which is mounted upon the main frame 26 of the circuit breaker. A pair of adjustable nuts 21% provide means for positioning and se The cylindrical member 301 is cored to produce annular air chambers 312 and 3l3 which are sep arated by means of a integrally cast partition 3H3. Supported upon the partition, is another curely clamping projection 213 to the main frame 35 hollow cylindrical member 3|5 which is bored out to afford a passage 316 between the two an through stud 215. nular chambers 3 i 2 and 3 i 3. This extension 2'53 which is ?xed to the arc Operable within the cylinder 34% is a spool quenching unit therefore provides means for lock shaped member 3| 1 which essentially comprises a ing the arc quencher to the main frame. Also since it is metallic and is mechanically and elec 40 central portion of narrow diameter and two pis tons 321 and 322 which are operable along the trically connected to the main frame of the cir inner surface thereof. The end ‘323 of the inner cylindrical member cult breaker it is at the potential of the movable contact. t is therefore possible to transfer the is of smaller diameter than the opposite end able contact to the lower portion 21! of the metal 45 thereof in order to provide an abutment 32-4 for a compression spring 325 which constantly ex lic arcing horn 266. erts a force on piston 32! towards the left as The current entering at bus bar 22% ?ows viewed in Figures 12 and 13. through coil 2M and through the integral exten Adjacent the pistons, as indicated more partic sion 24!. The current then passes through the engaged contacts and through the ?exible con 50 ularly in Figure 14, are star-shaped elements 33l and ‘332 as indicated in Figure 14, which main ductor 655 and through the tripping unit M2 and tain alignment when the pistons are displaced leaves the circuit breaker by means of bus bar 28 i. beyond the ends of the passage; while permit As is illustrated in Figure 5, the central portion ting air to flow therethrough. 2 l 2 of the magnetic members which are supported. are drawn during circuit interruption from mov The open ends of the main cylindrical mem upon the side walls of the arc chute are disposed 55 ber Sill are sealed by a pair of ?exible diaphragm in the vicinity of the contacts, when the arc valves 331 and 336 ?rmly secured thereto by a chute is lowered. corresponding pair of dome shaped circular mem The polarity of the magnetized members (due here 333 and 334, fastened to the main structure to the line current ?owing through the coil) is by any suitable means as for example screws 335. arranged so that the transverse magnetic ?eld 60 The diaphragm 336 is free of the piston 32| whereas the diaphragm 331 is attached by means of screws 34! and metal plate 342 to the piston which will force them up into the chamber; the .322. In addition, piston 322 also carries a cy arc terminals travelling along the metallic sheets 265 and 2%. The are chute acts in the well 65 lindrical member 363 which is faced with a layer of valve seat material 344. known manner to attenuate and quench arcs This cylindrical member 343 is preferably ?xed drawn between the contacts and transferred to passing through the arcing chamber will act upon arcs drawn between the contacts in a manner the arcing horns. In order to inspect the contacts, the upper of the two nuts 21% is removed and the entire arc chute is swung back about its pivot 211 to the position indicated in. Figure 3. This exposes as is seen in Figure 3, both the stationary and mov able contacts and thus greatly facilitates clean ing and replacement thereof. to a rod 345 which is slidable within a corre sponding perforation 345 within the piston 322 and is constantly biased from the diaphragm 331 by means of leaf spring 361 which accordingly serves as a shock absorber during closures of valve 3124, as will be described. As illustrated in Figures 12 and 13, the circuit breaker closing manifold 22 enters into the cyl 2,405,454 13 14 inder 3|6 which is supported by partition 3l4. Air is exhausted from the control valve through ing stop 315, then the passage 36-2 will vent the dome shaped space 353 to the atmosphere. annular passage 313 and the exhast pipe 35! con Inasmuch as the equalizing air flow through nected thereto. When the control system valves relatively small passage 352 is less than the air are arranged as illustrated in Figure 12, the cir 5 ?ow to the atmosphere through the larger passage cuit breaker air cylinders l4l are at atmospheric 362, the high pressure air within chamber 3| 2 pressure and the contacts are in the open circuit will act to displace diaphragm 331 toward the position as in Figure 7. right when viewed as in Figure 12. The air in annular passage 312 is at the pres The displacement of diaphragm 331 will ac sure of the supply system, and thus the left face cordingly cause the displacement of the attached of diaphragm 331 is acted upon by a correspond spool-shaped member 311 and thus piston 322 will ing force. move beyond the open end 323 of cylindrical However, as illuustrated, a small passage 352 interconnects the dome 353 and the annular chamber 3l2, thus equalizing the unit pressures on the faces of diaphragm 331. Since the high pressure air in annular space 3 I 2 acts upon an annular area whereas high pres sure air within the space 333 acts upon a full circular area of equal outer diameter, the dia 20 phragm valve 331 is displaced to the left (the maximum displacement being indicated in Fig ure 12). The spring 325, as may also be seen, member 3H3 and permit the high pressure air to enter the circuit breaker manifold through the star-shaped member 331 as is more particularly ilustrated in Figure 13. Piston 321 will, by virtue of the displacement of the entire member 311, enter the cylinder 3l5 and block the flow of air from the manifold to the atmosphere through pipe 351. The increase in pressure Within manifold 22 will cause a corresponding increase in pressure in the space 355 due to the equalizing passage acting upon the spool shaped member 311, adds 354. Since the right hand face of this diaphragm to the force which draws diaphragm 331 in this 25 is obviously at atmospheric pressure, this increase direction. in pressure will act to force and maintain ?exible When the valve diaphragms are in the posi diaphragm 336 against its seat 382 and thu effectively seal the passage 3l6. ‘ tion indicated, the circuit breaker operating cyl inders l6l are vented through insulating pipe 36! Thus actuation of plunger 356, as hereinabove and through pipe 22 which leads to the cylindri 30 mentioned, will cause the various operating mem bers to assume the positions illustrated in Figure 13, wherein as indicated by the air flow arrow ment 332 into the annular passage 3l3 and thus heads, compressed air from the supply passes to the atmosphere through the exhaust pipe 35!. through the star-shaped member 33l and enters Pressures on the opposite faces of diaphragm 35 the circuit breaker manifold 22 and thus causes contact engagement. 336 are equalized through small passage 354 which cal passage 3|6. The air is then free to ?ow from this passage through the star-shaped ele The cylindrical member 343 and its associated valve seat 344 will act subsequent to displacement Fine strainers are preferably introduced into to seal passage 352 against the escape of high the auxiliary equalizing passages 352 and 354 to 40 pressure air. Subsequent to circuit breaker clo preclude the entry into the dome of dust or other sure, there will be no tendency for the spool foreign particles which would cause faulty seating shaped member to return to the position indicated of the valves. in Figure 12, since the combined forces of the high The dome-shaped elements 333 and 334 are‘ pressure air acting upon the left surfaces of the centrally perforated at 36I and 352 respectively 45 diaphrag'ms is substantially greater than the to form a pair of auxiliary valves which may be combined forces of the compression spring 325 sealed by solenoid plungers 365 and 366 surfaced and the air acting on the right surface of dia phragm 331. with layers of valve seat material 363 and 364 re spectively. These plungers are spring pressed to The closing solenoid plunger 365 may be per Ward their respective valves by compression 50 mitted to return to the position indicated in Fig springs 361 and 31] which are retained within ure 12 to minimize air leakage through passage interconnects the manifold 22 and the dome shaped space 355. axial recesses in the plunger and in the solenoid stops 369 and 310. The force exerted by the 362. The diaphragm 331 as illustrated in Figure 13 springs must be su?icient to ensure effective valve is maintained in a position clear of its seat and closures when full supply pressure exists within 65 thus permits air flow through star-shaped mem the dome shaped spaces. Manual operation of the plungers is provided for by plunger rods 312 and 313 tapped into their corresponding plungers and which pass through appropriate centralizing ber 3-3l to compensate for any leakage within the various elements, as for instance, the circuit breaker closing cylinders. Energization of the trip solenoid 332, or manual bushings in the solenoid steps. 60 actuation of rod 312 to cause the displacement of The coils solenoids 362 and 363 are preferably plunger 355 to the left as viewed in Figures 12 and energized from a control circuit hereinafter de 13, and will accordingly permit air passage 3‘8I to scribed and are supported upon the main valve vent the high pressure air contained within the structure by means of the posts 33L dome 355 to the atmosphere. This venting acting will occur at a more rapid 65 Control valve operation rate than the ?ow of equalizing air from the high pressure manifold through passage 354 and thus As previously mentioned, when the valve mem the diaphragm 336 will tend to move towards its bers are as illustrated in Figure 12, the circuit neutral position. breaker contacts are open and the manifold 22 is vented through exhaust pipe 351 to the atmos 70 Therefore, under the in?uence of spring 325 phere. and the high pressure air, the spool shaped mem If the closing solenoid 303 is energized or if the her 311 will correspondingly be displaced and plunger rod 313 is actuated so that the plunger thus will pull the diaphragm 331 against its seat 366 is drawn in against the action of compres to preclude the further flow of air to the mani sion spring 3'" and bears against its correspond 75 fold. > 2,405,454 15 16 will be evident to those skilled in the art, I pre for to be bound, not by these speci?c disclosures, but by the scope of the appended claims. This motion of the diaphragm is accelerated by the drop in pressure in the central cylinder 3W which occurs as soon as the air therein exhausts I claim: to the atmosphere and the leading edge of pis ton 322 enters its cylinder. 1. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising a pair of insulated bars, a first contact secured to said bars, a second complementary contact and operating mechanism therefor, a frame detach Thus the control valve members will again as sume the position indicated in Figure 12, vent the manifold, and open the circuit breaker contacts. ably secured to said bars, said frame carrying Following circuit interruption, the plunger 365 10 said second contact and said operating mecha may be allowed to close passage set as is re quired for a succeeding circuit closure. The hereinabove described multipole circuit nism, and an arc quencher pivotally mounted upon said bars. _ interrupter and the associated pneumatic control 2. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising a pair of insulated bars, a winding secured to said system provide effective means for instantane ously interrupting fault currents ?owing in the 15 bars, and a ?rst contact attached to said wind ing, a second complementary contact and operat circuit to which it is connected. However, this ing mechanism therefor, a frame for carrying form of circuit breaker is particularly advan tageous in polyphase circuits wherein a single said second contact detachably secured to said bars, and an arc quencher pivotally supported phase may, upon the occurrence of a fault, be subjected to a current far in excess of the rated 20 upon said winding. 3. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising value, whereas the other phases may continue to carry a substantially safe current. a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de tachably secured to said bars, said structure com prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst and is known as a back?re. Upon the establish 25 contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl ment of a back?re, the faulty anode is subjected inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en to the current from each of the other anodes and gaged with said piston at one end and carrying from the recti?er cathode. a latch at the other end thereof, said latch being Obviously, upon the occurrence of such a fault, engageable with said contact carrying arm, a it is desirable to have an interrupter in the af 30 second contact secured to said bars, a source of fected anode circuit open as rapidly as is possible compressed air, said piston being operative upon to preclude the destruction of the anode or the the admission of said compressed air into said transformer feeding the anode. A minimum cylinder to rotate said lever and said contact interrupting time will be obtained if the affected carrying arm to cause and maintain contact en anode breaker pole is permitted to open inde gagement. pendently of the unaffected anode breaker poles 4. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising while automatically energizing a control which a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de will cause the operation of all the breakers, to tachably secured to said bars, said structure com isolate the circuit. prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst Thus, if in the multipole circuit .breaker illus 40 contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl trated in Figure 1, a fault actuates the tripping inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en“ unit of a single pole, its latch its will be raised gaged with said piston at one end and carrying and permit the instantaneous opening of its con a latch at the other end thereof, said latch being tacts under the influence of tension springs 82. engageable with said contact carrying arm, a The contact carrying arm is preferably arranged, 45 second contact secured to said bars, resilient as previously mentioned, to actuate the pneu means for biasing said ?rst contact, away from matic means to vent the cylinders lei. Accord said second contact, a source of compressed air, ingly, an auxiliary switch may be supported upon said piston being operative upon the admission each circuit breaker pole, operable by the con of said compressed air into said cylinder to ro tact carrying arm All of the switches are tate said lever, said latch and said contact carry~ joined in series and are arranged so that the ing arm to cause contact engagement. switch contacts are closed when the associated 5. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising This type of fault is commonly found in the operation of polyphase mercury arc recti?ers circuit breaker pole is closed. This series arrangement of switches is in cir cuit with a relay which is energized when all of the switches are closed. Deenergization of the relay closes contacts thereupon which in turn causes the energization of the tripping solenoid 3532 to vent the closing cylinders til i. Hence, the automatic tripping of a single pole will open a set of contacts in the relay circuit and permit the venting of the manifold 22 and all of the circuit breaker closing cylinders. The release of the compressed air automatically places all the poles of the breaker in condition for reclosure. ' Therefore this breaker and associated control system provide means whereby an individual phase of a polyphase network may be opened in stantaneously and independently of its associ ated phases. The same circuit breaker equip ment permits the simultaneous closure and in terruption of all of the circuit poles. Since various modi?cations of the hereinabove described circuit breaker and control system " a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de tachably secured to said bars, said structure com prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en gaged with said piston at one end and carrying a latch at the other end thereof, said latch be ing engageable with said contact carrying arm, a second contact secured to said bars, resilient means for biasing said ?rst contact away from said second contact, a source of compressed air, said piston being operative upon the admission of said compressed air into said cylinder to rotate said lever, said latch and said contact carrying arm to cause contact engagement, said resilient means being operative to separate said contacts when said latch is disengaged and when said com pressed air is exhausted from said cylinder. 6. In electrical protective equipment for a poly phase circuit, individual circuit breaker elements in each phase thereof, each of said elements com prising a pair of cooperable contacts biased, while 2,405,454 17 18 held in closed position, toward the open circuit position, a pneumatic cylinder and piston, mech arm operates under the action of said biasing anism engaged by said piston and operable by displacements of said piston for closing and main der control of said compressed ?uid for operat ing said second arm into relatching engagement with said ?rst contact arm, whereby said com pressed ?uid regains control of said movable con tact to operate it into engagement position. taining said contacts in current carrying engage ment, a latch mechanically maintaining said mechanism in rigid relation, the operation of said contacts to closing position being effected while said latch maintains said mechanism in rigid relation. and automatic means responsive to pre determined circuit conditions at said contacts for operating said latch to disengage said piston from means to open position, and means operative un 8. In a circuit breaker having a ?xed and mov able contact, a source of compressed fluid, a piston operated by said fluid, a rigid mechanical con nection extending from said piston to said mov able contact and including a latch, means respon sive to circuit conditions at said contacts for op said mechanism and for operating said contacts erating said latch to mechanically disengage said into disengagement while said piston of said pneu matic cylinder is displaced to contact closing po 15 movable contact from said piston, means for nor mally biasing said movable contact to open po sition, and means whereby when said piston is sition and operable when said latch is disengaged to operate said movable contact to disengaged position while said piston is in circuit closing 7. In a ?rst circuit breaker having a ?xed and 20 position under control of said ?uid. displaced to its non-closing position, said latch rapidly reengaging said mechanism for operation of said contacts by said piston. 9. In a circuit breaker having a ?xed and mov movable contact, a ?rst pivoted arm for carrying able contact, a source of compressed ?uid, a me said movable contact, a source of compressed chanical connection extending from said source ?uid, a second pivoted arm operable by said source of compresed ?uid to said movable contact and of compressed ?uid, a latch connection between said arms for rocking said ?rst pivoted contact 25 including a latch, means selectively responsive to circuit conditions at said contacts and manually arm under control of said second pivoted arm to operable for operating said latch to disengage the position in which said movable contact en_ said movable contact from said source of com gages said ?xed contact, means for biasing said pressed ?uid, means for normally biasing said movable contact to its open position against the action of said compressed ?uid, said means being 30 movable contact to open position and operable normally ine?ective to disengage said contacts against the action of said compressed ?uid, means responsive to circuit conditions at said contacts for operating said latch to disengage said ?rst arm from said second arm whereby said ?rst contact when said latch is disengaged to operate said movable contact to disengaged position while said source of compressed ?uid is in circuit closing position. WILLIAM MAXWELL SCOTT, JR.