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Патент USA US2405454

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Aug- 6, 1946=
w. M. SCOTT, JR
‘
2,405,454
I
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 3, 1941
9 Sheéts-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
BY
ATTORNEY.
Aug. 6, 1946,
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w_ M_ SCOTT, JR
2,405,454
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 5, l94l
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Aug- 6, 1946-
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CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 3, 1941
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INVENTOR.
BY
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ATTORNEY.
Aug. 6, 1946.
w. M. SCOTT, JR
2,405,454
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTRQL THEREFOR
‘Filed Jan. 3, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet, 4
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BY
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Aug. 6, 1946.
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CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 5, 1941
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Aug. 6, 1946.
2,405,454
W. M. SCOTT, JR
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL-THEREFOR
Filed ‘Jan. 3,1941 '
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ATTORNEY.
‘Aug. 6, 1946.
'
w, M, SCQTT, JR
2,405,454
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 3, 1941
9 Sheets-Sheet 8
J06
IN VENTOR.
BY
WM!
ATTORNEY.
Aug- 5, 1946'
w. M. scb'r'r, JR
2,405,454
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Filed Jan. 3, 1941
9_ Sheets-Sheet 9
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ATTORNEY.
Patented Aug. 6,. 1946
2,405,454
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,454
CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER AND CONTROL
THEREFOR
William Maxwell Scott, Jr., Bryn Mawr, Pa., as
signor to I. TIE. Circuit Breaker Company,
Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl
Vania
Application January 3, 1941, Serial No. 373,051
9 Claims. (01. 200-82)
2
1
My invention relates in general to the ?eld of
The contacts of the individual circuit breaker
circuit interrupters and more speci?cally con
cerns a novel and improved form circuit breaker
and a control means therefor.
means or by automatically or manually disen
gaging a latch. This latch is carried upon a lever
poles may be separated by releasing the closing
It is frequently possible in certain polyphase Cl intermediate between the piston and a pivoted
arm which carries the movable contact. In either
circuits that a single phase thereof may, under
faulty conditions, carry a current many times in
excess of its rated value whereas the associated
phases will continue to carry substantially normal
currents. Under these circumstances, it is par
ticularly desirable to have an extremely high
speed circuit breaker operate in the overloaded
circuit with the subsequent interruption of the
other circuits.
Trip free operation is provided by the latch and
its associated contact carrying arm and thus the
contacts will be automatically disengaged if closed
upon a fault despite the continued operation of
the closing mechanism.
Each circuit breaker pole includes an over-cur
'
More speci?cally, in the operation of a poly
phase mercury arc recti?er, it is oftenv that a
single anode may, due to a “back fire” or simi
lar electronic fault carry excessive currents while
normal conditions will prevail in the associated
anode circuits.
case, however, the contacts will separate under
the influence of the normal spring biasing means.
15 rent trip unit operatively arranged with respect to
the latch, which may be of the conventional elec
tromagnetic type. Thus over-current in one‘ of
the plurality of single pole circuit breakers will
cause instantaneous interruption thereof.
Due
to the independence of the contact mechanisms,
the compressed air within the closing cylinders
of the associated breakers (assuming a pneumatL
'
It is obvious from mechanical considerations
that a multiple breaker, wherein all of the poles
cally operated closing mechanism) will still main
are rigidly interlocked will require more time for
tain contact engagement. However, I provide an
interruption than a single pole breaker in the
affected circuit. Therefore, in order to preclude 25 interlocking control system for the individual
poles of the multipole breaker which in one form
possible destruction of the overloaded anode and
includes a switch on each of the circuit breaker
its energizing circuits, it is desirable to have a
poles actuated by displacement of the movable
high speed single pole circuit breaker in the anode
contact. These switches are arranged to energize
circuit operate independently to open the affect
the compressed air control means so that upon
ed anode circuit instantaneously. To complete
the separation of the contacts of an individual
the isolation of the recti?er, it is then necessary
breaker due to automatic or manual energization,
to actuate the remaining poles of the circuit
the compressed air within all closed cylinders will
breaker to cause the separation of all of the
be released to effect complete isolation of the
contacts.
My invention contemplates a high speed single #1 LA circuit into which the breaker is connected. This
manner of interlocking the several poles employed
pole circuit breaker of simple design which is par
ticularly adaptable for use in the protection of
may, of course, be employed with any other clos
ing system.
polyphase circuits of the character described.
The individual circuit breakers are provided
Thus, I may combine a plurality of these single
pole elements upon a common frame to form a 40 with any are extinguishing or are quenching
structure such as a magnetic blow-out.
In my novel circuit breaker, the movable con
multipole breaker in which each of the poles may
open its contacts independently of the other poles.
Normally, however, the contacts of all of the
poles may be simultaneously engaged and sep
arated.
The single pole circuit breaker comprises es
sentially a pair of cooperable contacts, spring
biased toward the open position, which may be
engaged and maintained in engagement by any
suitable pneumatic, electrical or mechanical
means. Thus, compressed air may be introduced
tact and the closing apparatus required for each
pole are supported within a metallic frame. This
frame is mounted upon a pair of supporting mem
bers which in turn are carried by the main frame
of‘the multipole breaker. The supporting mem
bers also carry the arc chute which is hingedly at
tached thereto to facilitate contact inspection and
50
into a cylinder on each circuit breaker, and act
upon a piston to cause circuit closures. How
ever, if desired, a solenoid or an electric motor
may be utilized for this purpose.
x55
repair,
A preferable pneumatic control system com
prises a valve which determines the flow of air
to a manifold communicating with each of the
single pole closing cylinders. The valve may be
operated manually by a pair of plungers, or may
2,405,454.
3
be operated automatically by solenoids which are
in operative arrangement with respect to the
plungers.
'
Energization of one of these solenoids will cause
the control valve to admit air to the closing cyl
inders and energization of the other will release
this air to cause contact separation.
It is therefore an object of my invention to pro
vide a single pole circuit breaker of simple con
struction which opens its contacts at an extremely
high speed and may be closed by pneumatic, elec
trical or mechanical means.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
novel mounting means for combining a plurality
of individual single pole breakers to provide a
4
cuit breaker mounting means taken along the
line li-ll of Figure 5.
Figure 12 is a cross-sectional view of the pneu
matic operating means in the position correspond
ing to the circuit breaker open circuit posi
tion.
Fig. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the pneu
matic operating means corresponding to the cir
cuit breaker closed position.
Figure 14 is an end cross-sectional view of the
pneumatic operating means taken along the line
ll3—ltl of Figure 13.
As illustrated in Figure 1. the circuit breaker
is built upon a unit pole basis and any number
may be assembled to form a multi-pole breaker.
unitary multipole structure.
A six~pole breaker is illustrated in Figure 1, the
individual poles being supported upon a common
frame 2 l, and operated from a central pneumatic
means through compressed air manifold 22.
The main frame 2! as is more particularly illus
the contacts of theyassociated poles.
20
trated in Figures 2 and 5 comprises a pair of par
A further object of my invention is to pro
allel channels 23 and 2d which may be supported
vide a circuit breaker wherein contact engage
ment is caused and maintained by pneumatic
in any suitable manner. The individual circuit
electrical or mechanical means and contact sep
breaker poles are supported between these two
aration by resilient means.
25 channels by means of a plurality of parallel cross
A still further object of my invention is to pro
bars 25 which extend between the two channel
vide a multipole circuit breaker having individual
members and are detachably secured thereto.
poles interlocked so that automatic or manual
A main U~shaped metallic structure 26 car
tripping of a single pole will cause the tripping
\ries the individual circuit breaker operating ele
ments and is in turn supported by two of the par
of all of the associated poles.
Another object of my invention is to provide a
allel cross-bars 25, as is more clearly illustrated
multipole circuit breaker which is formed by as
in Figures 2 and 8. The U-shaped member 26
sembling a plurality of single pole circuit break
is ?xed to the cross-bars 25 by means of a plu
ers interlocked by means of a common compressed
rality of screws 21 which pass through metallic
air manifold.
35 blocks 28 and engage in corresponding, the
It is a further object of my invention to pro
threaded perforations 3| in a, plurality of lugs 32.
vide a multipole circuit breaker formed of indi
These lugs are preferably reinforced integral ex
vidual circuit breaker poles and interlocked by a
tensions of the walls of the U-shaped member 26.
compressed air manifold, the tripping of which
The metallic blocks 28 are recessed at 33 to
is controlled by an electrically or manually oper 40 correspond with the periphery of the cross-bars
25, which are surfaced with an insulating mate—
ated valve.
These and other objects of my invention will
rial 34 in order to preclude short circuiting of the
Still another object of my invention is to- pro
vide a multipole circuit breaker wherein the con
tacts of one pole may operate independently of
become apparent from the following speci?cation
various conductive elements supported thereupon
taken in connection with the accompanying draw
and to isolate the circuit breaker elements from
4-5 the ground potential of the frame.
ings, in which:
Figure l is a front view of the multi-pole cir
Each pair of cross-bars 25 and its associated
cuit breaker and the supporting means there
‘circuit breaker pole is secured to the parallel
channels 23 and 25 by a pair of clamping mem
for.
Figure 2 is a side view of one of the units taken
bers 35 one of which is most clearly illustrated
50 in Figure 11. This clamp constitutes a ribbed
along the line 2—2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary side view of one of
main portion extending parallel to upper ?ange
the circuit breaker units illustrating ' the arc
of the channel with which it is respectively asso~
quencher in its raised position.
ciated, and a pair of end extensions 38 which are
Figure 4 is a top View of the arc quenching
arranged to press down upon the upper surfaces
unit taken along line 4—4l of Figure 3.
55 of the cross-bars.
Figure 5 is a cross-sectional view of one of the
A metal plate 29 secured to the web of chan
units taken along the line 5—5 of Figure 1. The
nel 24, projects above the upper ?ange thereof
contacts are illustrated in the closed position.
and serves to locate the ends of the cross-bars
Figure 6 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view
25 during assembly. Also, a plurality of locating
corresponding to a portion of Figure 5 and show
plates 36 of length equal to the distance between
ing the contacts immediately after tripping.
the two parallel cross-bars, are ?xed to the chan
Figure 7 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view
nels to expedite uniform spacing of the individual
of one of the units corresponding to a portion
circuit breaker poles. The required pressure be
of Figure 5 and showing the latch and contacts
tween the cross-bars and the upper flange of the
65 channel is obtained by an appropriate bolt 31
in their final open or reset position.
Figure 8 is an end sectional view of one of the
which freely passes through a central perfora
circuit breaker units taken along the line 8--8
tion 4| in the clamp 35 and engages in a corre
of Figure 5.
sponding threaded perforation 42 in the plate 36
Figure 9 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view
and the ?ange of the channel member.
of the magnetic blow out coil taken along line 70
Thus by tightening bolt 31 against the lock
washer 43 the clamp is brought to bear against
5-9 of Figure 5.
Figure 10 is a top cross-sectional view of the
the cross-bars and so secures each circuit breaker
to the frame.
automatic trip unit taken along line iii-40 of
This type of circuit breaker mounting greatly
Figure 5.
Figure 11 is a cross-sectional view of the cir 75 facilitates the removal of the individual poles
2,405,454
5
‘6
for repair and the subsequent assembly thereof.
member of length equal to the sum of the lengths
of all of the movable contacts.
The multiplicity of movable contacts, each
biased by an individual compression spring 12 is
provided in order that effective low resistance
engagement between the stationary and movable
contacts may at all times be obtained.
Thus is due to the high temperature arcs Which
may be drawn between the contacts high spots
A single circuit breaker pole may be removed
without disturbing the associated units by loos
ening the pair of clamps 35 associated therewith
and removing the entire assembly by means of
the two parallel cross-bars 25.
The mounting of each circuit breaker pole as
sembly comprises positioning the pair of parallel
cross-bars 25 by means of the plates 29 and 36
and tightening the bolts 31. Furthermore, the 10 or other similar deformations are formed upon
either the stationary contact or any one of the
circuit breaker elements may be disassembled
movable contacts, the remaining movable con
and reassembled without necessarily removing
tacts will still maintain an effective low resist
the complete circuit breaker structure from the
ance path therebetween.
parallel channels 23 and 24. Thus, by loosening
The contact carrying arm 53 is supported and
the bolts 21 the U-shaped member 26 and the 15
pivotally mounted upon the shaft 8| which in
operating mechanism associated therewith, may
turn is secured to the side walls of the U shaped
be removed.
frame 26. The arm 53 and its associated mov
An arc quenching unit 45, preferably of the
able contacts 52 are continuously biased towards
magnetic blow out type, is provided for each of
the open circuit position by means of a pair of
the circuit breaker poles. It is mounted upon
the stationary contact and blow out coil assem
bly which is supported upon the insulated cross
bars 25 by means of metallic blocks 45 similar to
the blocks 28 as will hereinafter be more com
pletely described. The are quenching unit may
be raised as illustrated in Figure 3 but during
normal operation is in the lowered position as
illustrated in Figure 5, when it is secured to the
U shaped frame 26.
Associated with the arcing chamber is a sta- .
tension springs 82 which are carried between sup
ports 83 and 84 that are pivotally mounted upon
the shafts BI and 85 respectively as is more
clearly illustrated in Figures 3 and 8.
The open circuit position of the contacts is
most clearly illustrated in Figure 7. It may be
seen that the individual movable contacts 52
have been rotated with respect to shaft 6| by
means of compression spring 12 so that the flat
extensions 65 of the contact carrying members
tionary contact 5| which is engageable by a plu
rality of complementary movable contacts 52 as
illustrated in Figures 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The mov
are in surface engagement with a projection 9|
of the cross member 51. This projection serves
to limit the maximum rotation of the individual
able contacts 52 are supported upon a contact
contacts.
carrying member 53 which comprises, as is illus
trated in Figure 8, a pair of side members 54 and
55 maintained in spaced relationship by means
The tension springs 52 still exert a force upon
the contact carrying arm and thus maintain the
contacts 52 in the open circuit position. As illus
trated, the pivoted support for each end of the
of a spacer 56 at the base and by means of a
tension springs 82 permits freedom of motion,
cross-member 57 at the upper end thereof.
The plurality of movable contacts 52 are each. 40 and the tension of spring 82 may be adjusted by
pivoting the support 84 upon shaft 85 through
supported upon an individual member 60, which
any one of a plurality of perforations 92.
members are in turn pivotally mounted upon a
The open circuit position of the contact carry
shaft 6| . The shaft 6| passes between corre
ing arm 53 is determined by engagement be
sponding aligned perforations in the side mem
45 tween surface 94 of the cross member 5'! and a
bers 54 and 55 of the contact carrying arm.
contact buffer or resilient, shock absorbing mem
The movable contacts 52 are angular mem
ber 95 which is ?xed to the frame of the circuit
bers having a contacting surface 62 and a sup
breaker.
porting flange 63 through which a plurality of
By rotating the arm 53 in a clockwise manner
screws 64 pass and secure the contacts to the
pivoted contact carrying members 60. Each con 60 as viewed in Figure 7, engagement between con
tacts 52 and 5| is obtained. As a result, however,
tact carrying member 60 is provided with an ex
of the previous clockwise rotation of contacts 52
tension 65 to which a ?exible conductor 66 may
about shaft 6| under the in?uence of the com
be secured in any manner, as for instance, by the
pression springs 12, contact will ?rst be estab
rivet 61.
In order to minimize the time required for cir 65 lished between the upper portions of contacts
52 and 5|. Continued clockwise rotation of the
cuit interruption, all of the movable members
contact carrying arm 53, however, will cause the
employed are made as light as possible. This
movable contacts to yield against the action of
necessitates a reduction in the cross-sectional
compression springs ‘12 and rotate about the pivot
60 6|. Obviously this will cause a wiping action
between the surfaces of these contacts, and when
Therefore, vertical vanes ‘H, preferably made
rotation of arm 53 is complete, surface engage
of light and highly conductive metal such as alu
area of the conductors, and consequently, there
is an increase in the generation of heat.
minum are ?xed upon the contact carrying mem
ment will be established over the lower areas of
both movable and stationary contacts 52 and 5|
bers 60 in order to provide a greater cooling sur
65 as illustrated in Figures 3 and 5.
face and thus decrease the rate of contact de
Conversely, counterclockwise rotation of the
terioration.
contact carrying arm 53 during circuit inter
Compression springs 12 supported within re
ruption will cause surface engagement to- be
cesses 13 in the cross-member 51 of the contact
transferred first from the lower areas to the upper
operating arm and recesses 14 in each of the con 70 areas of the contact faces prior to the actual
tact carrying members 60 bias the movable con
disengagement between the two surfaces.
tacts 52 in a clockwise direction about shaft 6!,
Thus it may be seen that contact will ?rst be
when viewed as in Figures 5, 6 and 7.
established by engagement of the upper portions
The stationary contact 5| which is supported
of the contacts and circuit openings will occur
within the arc quenching structure is a single 75 over a similar portion thereof. Therefore, for
2,405,454
7
8
most eifective operation, each of the contacts
extension N5 of the arm H3 continuously biases
the piston i 92 downwardly as viewed in Figure 5.
may be faced with two bands of metal as illus
trated in Figure 5. The lower portions of the
contacts may be faced with a highly conductive.
material such as silver and the upper portions
thereof may be faced with an are resistant mate
rial such as silver-graphite or silver-tungsten
alloy.
If the latch I25 is rotated in a counterclock
wise direction about pivot IZG when viewed as in
Figure 5, to disengage the pin i321, the contact
carrying arm 53 will be free to move under the
in?uence of tension springs 82 and will thus be
rapidly displaced to the open circuit position
which is determined by contact buffer 95 as illus
Circuit breaker closures are effected by pneu
‘
matic means mounted upon the main supporting 10 trated in Figure 6.
If now the force which maintains piston I02
structure. As illustrated, most clearly in Figures
in. the raised position against the force which is
5, 6, and 7, a compressed air cylinder IQI is
transmitted thereto from spring I 35 by means
supported upon the circuit breaker frame and
houses a piston m2 which is operated by means
of compressed air delivered through the port I103.
The cylinder head is an integral part of the
U shaped frame 25.
A cylindrical skirt 2 @i which is an integral por
tion of the piston M32 is in slidable relation with
the interior of the cylinder it)! and carries a
rod I05 between the walls thereof. A cup shaped
packing member E96 is utilized to preclude air
leakage and a bolt Hill, which secures the pack
of arm H3, that is, if air pressure existing Within
' the lower portion of cylinder IilI is released, then
the lever i M will rotate about pivot BI under the
in?uence of spring I35 to the position illustrated
in Figure 7.
However, in moving from the position illus
trated in Figure 6 to that illustrated in Figure '7,
the edge i?l of the latch will ride over the pin
I32 and cause the engagement therebetween as
illustrated in Figure 7. The contacts therefore
may now be reclosed by introducing air under
ing to the piston “32 serves as a stop to limit
the downward movement thereof.
25 pressure through the port I03 into the lower
The cylinder MI and its associated skirt EM
portion of the cylinder. This will cause the pis
are slotted at HI and H2 respectively so that a
ton to rise which will correspondingly rotate the
?at extension IE3 of the contact closing lever
lever arm Iiéi about the pivot 8i, and inasmuch
II 4 may communicate with the interior of the
as the pin I32 is captured within the notch I34,
cylinder.
A projection N5 of the arm H3 rests _
upon an unrestrained roller I I6 which is support
ed upon the shaft Hi5 within the skirt IM.
The slots H I and 1 i2 are maintained in align
this movement of lever arm H4 will cause rota
tion of contact arm 53 and contact engagement
as illustrated in Figure 5.
The latch E25 may be actuated by means of a
ment by means of a bolt Ii‘! which has an un
plunger Mi which is part of the tripping unit Hi2.
threaded portion IE8 of reduced diameter that 35 This plunger may be operated automatically
engages an axial groove i2I within the wall of
under fault conditions which will hereinafter be
the skirt IM. The upward movement of the arm
described, or may be operated manually by rais
H3 and thus the piston and its associated skirt
ing the plunger knob I43. Thus when the con
is limited by means of a stop H22 in the form
tacts are in the position illustrated in Figure 5,
of a bolt which projects through the cylinder
circuit interruption may be obtained by manually
head.
or automatically causing the operation of plunger
The lever H4 comprises the flat portion H3
MI.
and a pair of integral parallel side members iii-3
As previously described, this will result in the
and I 24, as is illustrated in Figure 8, spaced upon
contact moving to the position illustrated in Fig
a widened part of the arm till. These parallel 45 ure 6. Since it is desirable to place the breaker
members contain aligned perforations L29 (see
in condition for immediate reclosure, means must
Figures 6 and 8) and the lever H 1i is thereby
necessarily be provided for releasing the air con
rotatably supported upon the shaft 8i, which as
tained within the lower portion of cylinder it]!
previously described, also supports the contact
after the circuit interruption.‘ Upon release of
50
carrying arm 53.
air pressure from the cylinder, the springs N35
A latch H25 is pivotally supported within a
cause the piston to assume the position illustrated
bifurcated lower portion of the lever i M by means
in Figure 7 and permits the latch to recapture the
of pin i255 and is continuously biased towards
pin E32 of the contact carrying arm 53.
clockwise rotation about pin MS by means of
The control system will be described in a later
a compression spring i271 which is retained in a ' paragraph.
recess 1128 in the lever I913. The latch i25 has a
The trip unit M2 may comprise any of the well
sloping surface it! so that it may ride smoothly
known solenoid or similar electromagnetic de
over a pin i32 which is rotatably supported within
vices for actuating a plunger such as it! to raise
ball bearings 533 recessed into the side members
the latch upon fault current. For certain appli
5!; and 55 of the contact carrying arm 53.
60 cations, the trip unit may be arranged to cause
A notch I34 in the latch B25 is engageable
circuit interruption for relatively low values of
with the pin I32 as illustrated in Figure 5. It
reverse current and relatively high values of
may be observed that if the lever H4 is fixed
forward current, according to the particular ap
in the position indicated in Figure 5 (by air pres
plication
thereof.
sure in the lower section of the cylinder IM), 65
It may be seen that the individual circuit
and if the notch ltd is in engagement with the
pin I32, then the contacts will be fully engaged,
breaker poles and the operating mechanism
associated therewith are entirely trip free. Thus,
against the normal action of springs 32.
assume the contacts to be in the position illus
A pair of tension springs E35 are carried be
tween the supports !38 and ltl which are piv 70 trated in Figure 7 and assume that it is desired to
close the circuit breaker. The introduction of
otally mounted upon the frame of the circuit
compressed air of any ?uid under pressure into
breaker and the lever Ht respectively. These
the lower portion of cylinder Wt will cause the
tension springs I35 are arranged to bias the
clockwise rotation of lever lid and accordingly
lever I 54 to counterclockwise rotation about shaft
8| when viewed as in Figure 5. Accordingly the 75 clockwise rotation of contact carrying arm 53,
2,405,454
' 9
10
the force required therefor being transmitted
through the latch I25.
manner similar to the mounting for the U -shaped
frame 26. This plate contains additional per
forations for permitting the attachment of the
coil 2I6 by means of bolts 224 which pass into
tapped holes in the coil members.
If a fault occurs during the engagement of
the contacts 52 and 5|, the trip unit will instan
taneously be energized to raise the latch I25.
This will immediately cause the disengagement
of contact carrying arm 53 from lever H4 and
permit rapid return to the open circuit position
as illustrated in Figure 6, despite the fact that
air may still be allowed to enter into the cyl
inder IOI.
'
When the circuit breaker operating mechanism
is in the position illustrated in Figure 5, the ten
sion springs 82 and the tension spring I35 all
The coil 2I6 is a double turn of copper of rec
tangular cross section through which the line
current ?ow-s. Thus, as illustrated in Figures 5
and 9, the current enters from the bus bar 226
which is fastened directly to one section 221 of
the coil 2|6. This section 22‘! passes completely
around a rectangular magnetic core 23I and then
branches out at 232 into two parallel sections
233 and 234 which again pass around the core
exert a force upon the members which tends to 15 23I. Each of these two sections then branches
rotate the contact carrying arm to the open cir
out again at 235 and 236 into two additional sec
cuit position.
tions 231 and 238 and upon completing their half
Tripping, as has hereinabove been described
circuit about the core are joined together at 24I.
may be accomplished by raising the latch I25.
This novel arrangement thus provides the
The contact carrying arm 53 will then be dis 20 equivalent of two complete turns about the mag
placed to the open circuit position under the in
netic core 23I. The individual turns of the coil
fluence of springs 82. However, tripping may
are braced by the insulating bolts 243 which pass
also be accomplished by releasing the air con
through aligned perforations 244.
tained within cylinder IOI. Under these circum
The core 23I as is more clearly illustrated in
stances, the contact carrying arm will again be
Figures 1, 2, 3 and 8 is formed from a series of
isplaced towards the open circuit position under
stacked rectangular laminations of some mag
the in?uence of tension springs 82. Also, the
netic material such as soft iron clamped together
combined e?ort of the springs 82 and I35 accel
by means of the bolts 25I.
erate the downward motion of the piston and
These laminations are stacked with their poles
increase the rate at which air is exhausted from ' to form a U-shaped magnet having the two side
the cylinder.
members 252 and 253 extending from the central
Should any faul develop in the air lines, then
core 23!. These side members as illustratedcome
the consequent decrease in the air pressure within
into close frictional contact with the central mag
the cylinder will result in the opening of the cir
netic structure 2 I 2 supported upon the sides of the
cuit breaker.
arcing chamber.
The are quencher 45 as illustrated is of the
Thus when the arcing chamber is lowered, as
well known magnetic blow out type. Essentially
this structure comprises a pair of parallel in
sulating plates 2M and 292 as illustrated in Fig~
ures 4 and 8, spaced by the end insulating mem
bers 283 and 254. Within the box like structure
formed thereby are a plurality of parallel in
sulating plates 285 in spaced relation with each
other which form a plurality of ?ues exhausting
to the atmosphere through the open top of the
arc quencher. The parallel insulating plates 255
are separated by spacers 286 which are in turn
supported by means of the bolts 251 which pass
through the arc quencher.
illustrated in Figure 2, energization of the core
23I by the line current ?owing through the coil
2I6 will cause the magnetization of all of the
members 2“, 2I2, 2I3 which are strapped to the
sides of the arcing chamber to produce a trans
verse magnetic ?eld across the arc chamber.
The magnetic core 23I is wrapped with an in
sulating material 253 to preclude the short cir
cuiting of the turns of the coils 2 I6.
The coil 2I6 terminates in the extension MI,
and as indicated in Figures 5, 6 and 7, the sta
tionary contact 5I is supported thereupon by
means of a plurality of bolts 254 which pass
Mounted upon the sides of the arc quenching 50 through countersunk perforations therein and en»
structure are a plurality of magnetizable mem
gage correspondingly threaded perforations in the
bers 2i I, and 253 formed from some laminated
extension 24 I .
material and each communicating with and con
A plurality of projections 255 and 255 are pro
nected to a central magnetic member 2I2 by
vided upon the coil 2 I6 in order to properly posi
means of the bolts 2I0 passing through exten 55 tion the coil and the attached arcing chamber
sions 2I4. The magnetic members 2H and 2I3
are positioned against the side insulating plates
2N and 262 by means of a plurality of straps
215 fastened thereto by the bolts 23?, which as
previously mentioned serve also to space the
upon the plate 222.
The material utilized for the coil is preferably a
highly conductive one such as copper, the cross
sectional area of which is selected to carry nor
mal load currents at standard temperature rise.
The coil is braced to withstand the mechanical
stresses
imposed thereon by the weight of the arc
means of a pair of plates 220, which are secured
chute, and those imposed during the ?ow of fault
to the walls of the arc quenching structure as
illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, upon a shaft 2I'I 65 currents.
A conductive arcing plate ZBI of resilient ma
which in turn is supported by means of the
terial, extends along the lower insulating plate
metallic brace 22L (This brace is fastened as
263 of the arc chute and is fastened thereto by
illustrated
Figure 5 to one section of the coil
plates 255.
The entire structure is pivotally mounted, by
2I8 by means of the bolts 225.)
The magnetic members 21 I—2I3 are mag
means of the screws 265, which also secure the
70 replaceable arcing horn 264. When the arc chute
netically energized by means of a coil 2I5 which
is in normal position as indicated in Figure 5, the
is supported upon the insulated cross bars 25.
plate 2'5I is sprung away from the insulating plate
Thus, as is illustrated in Figures 5, 6 and "I, a plate
and Dresses against the stationary contact 5!
222 is secured to the cross bars 25 by means of
within a recess 262. This pressure ensures low
clamping blocks 46 and associated bolts 223 in a
resistance engagement between the conductive
2,405,454
1l
12
members to provide for the flow of the arcing
current.
This arrangement permits the pivoting of the
Control system
As previously described, circuit closures are
effected by means of the piston 102 operating in
cylinder Mil by compressed air delivered from
arc chute when necessary and the flow of arcing
current when the arc chute is in its normal posi
tion.
The flexible conductor 66, joined at one end to
an air storage means.
The air is delivered to the cylinder l 01 through
the insulated pipe ‘Sill, suitably connected there
to, and through an‘electrically controlled valve
interposed between the air supply and the oper
the movable contacts, is electrically connected, at
the other end, to the trip coil and to the main
10 ating cylinders.
frame 26.
The trip coil may comprise, as seen in Figures
The control valve which is most clearly illus
5 and 10, a single turn of copper about a control
trated in Figures 12, 13 and 14 is operated by
magnetic member. The ?exible conductor 65 is
a pair of oppositely disposed solenoids; that is,
fastened to the coil upon the integral projection
trip solenoid SM and closing solenoid 393.
2% at one end, and the bus bar 28! is joined to
Compressed air from the storage means en- '
the other end. The uninsulated bolts 29! passing
ters
the control valve through pipe 305 and flows
through perforations in the trip coil fix the coil
to and from the operating cylinder through the
to the main frame 26 and thereby maintain this
manifold 22. These pipes 364 and 22 are secured
frame at the potential of the movable contact.
to the valve by means of a block 306 suitably
Additional support is provided for the coil by bolt
292. However, this bolt is insulated from the
frame as shown in Figure 5, to preclude the short
circuiting of the trip coil.
A secondary complementary metal arcing horn
266 is disposed upon the lower insulating plate
261 and the lower edge 2H thereof is arranged
perforated which, in turn, is supported upon the
main circuit breaker frame, as illustrated in
Figure 1.
The control valve comprises a cylindrical body
portion 301 which is secured to the block 306 by a
plurality of bolts 29'! which pass through corre
sponding lugs 295 on either side of the block 306
and the cylindrical body 301 respectively. A gas
ket 2H is interposed between these members to
to be adjacent the end 212 of the movable con
tact 52 when the contact is in the open position
as is best illustrated in Figure 7.
prevent air leakage thereat.
An integral projection 213 of the arcing horn
2% is perforated at 214 and is engageable with a
stud 215 which is mounted upon the main frame
26 of the circuit breaker. A pair of adjustable
nuts 21% provide means for positioning and se
The cylindrical member 301 is cored to produce
annular air chambers 312 and 3l3 which are sep
arated by means of a integrally cast partition
3H3. Supported upon the partition, is another
curely clamping projection 213 to the main frame 35 hollow cylindrical member 3|5 which is bored
out to afford a passage 316 between the two an
through stud 215.
nular
chambers 3 i 2 and 3 i 3.
This extension 2'53 which is ?xed to the arc
Operable within the cylinder 34% is a spool
quenching unit therefore provides means for lock
shaped member 3| 1 which essentially comprises a
ing the arc quencher to the main frame. Also
since it is metallic and is mechanically and elec 40 central portion of narrow diameter and two pis
tons 321 and 322 which are operable along the
trically connected to the main frame of the cir
inner surface thereof.
The end ‘323 of the inner cylindrical member
cult breaker it is at the potential of the movable
contact. t is therefore possible to transfer the
is of smaller diameter than the opposite end
able contact to the lower portion 21! of the metal 45 thereof in order to provide an abutment 32-4 for
a compression spring 325 which constantly ex
lic arcing horn 266.
erts a force on piston 32! towards the left as
The current entering at bus bar 22% ?ows
viewed in Figures 12 and 13.
through coil 2M and through the integral exten
Adjacent the pistons, as indicated more partic
sion 24!. The current then passes through the
engaged contacts and through the ?exible con 50 ularly in Figure 14, are star-shaped elements 33l
and ‘332 as indicated in Figure 14, which main
ductor 655 and through the tripping unit M2 and
tain alignment when the pistons are displaced
leaves the circuit breaker by means of bus bar 28 i.
beyond the ends of the passage; while permit
As is illustrated in Figure 5, the central portion
ting air to flow therethrough.
2 l 2 of the magnetic members which are supported.
are drawn during circuit interruption from mov
The open ends of the main cylindrical mem
upon the side walls of the arc chute are disposed 55
ber Sill are sealed by a pair of ?exible diaphragm
in the vicinity of the contacts, when the arc
valves 331 and 336 ?rmly secured thereto by a
chute is lowered.
corresponding pair of dome shaped circular mem
The polarity of the magnetized members (due
here 333 and 334, fastened to the main structure
to the line current ?owing through the coil) is
by any suitable means as for example screws 335.
arranged so that the transverse magnetic ?eld
60
The diaphragm 336 is free of the piston 32|
whereas the diaphragm 331 is attached by means
of screws 34! and metal plate 342 to the piston
which will force them up into the chamber; the
.322. In addition, piston 322 also carries a cy
arc terminals travelling along the metallic sheets
265 and 2%. The are chute acts in the well 65 lindrical member 363 which is faced with a layer
of valve seat material 344.
known manner to attenuate and quench arcs
This cylindrical member 343 is preferably ?xed
drawn between the contacts and transferred to
passing through the arcing chamber will act upon
arcs drawn between the contacts in a manner
the arcing horns.
In order to inspect the contacts, the upper of
the two nuts 21% is removed and the entire arc
chute is swung back about its pivot 211 to the
position indicated in. Figure 3. This exposes as
is seen in Figure 3, both the stationary and mov
able contacts and thus greatly facilitates clean
ing and replacement thereof.
to a rod 345 which is slidable within a corre
sponding perforation 345 within the piston 322
and is constantly biased from the diaphragm 331
by means of leaf spring 361 which accordingly
serves as a shock absorber during closures of
valve 3124, as will be described.
As illustrated in Figures 12 and 13, the circuit
breaker closing manifold 22 enters into the cyl
2,405,454
13
14
inder 3|6 which is supported by partition 3l4.
Air is exhausted from the control valve through
ing stop 315, then the passage 36-2 will vent the
dome shaped space 353 to the atmosphere.
annular passage 313 and the exhast pipe 35! con
Inasmuch as the equalizing air flow through
nected thereto. When the control system valves
relatively small passage 352 is less than the air
are arranged as illustrated in Figure 12, the cir 5 ?ow to the atmosphere through the larger passage
cuit breaker air cylinders l4l are at atmospheric
362, the high pressure air within chamber 3| 2
pressure and the contacts are in the open circuit
will act to displace diaphragm 331 toward the
position as in Figure 7.
right when viewed as in Figure 12.
The air in annular passage 312 is at the pres
The displacement of diaphragm 331 will ac
sure of the supply system, and thus the left face
cordingly cause the displacement of the attached
of diaphragm 331 is acted upon by a correspond
spool-shaped member 311 and thus piston 322 will
ing force.
move beyond the open end 323 of cylindrical
However, as illuustrated, a small passage 352
interconnects the dome 353 and the annular
chamber 3l2, thus equalizing the unit pressures
on the faces of diaphragm 331.
Since the high pressure air in annular space
3 I 2 acts upon an annular area whereas high pres
sure air within the space 333 acts upon a full
circular area of equal outer diameter, the dia 20
phragm valve 331 is displaced to the left (the
maximum displacement being indicated in Fig
ure 12).
The spring 325, as may also be seen,
member 3H3 and permit the high pressure air to
enter the circuit breaker manifold through the
star-shaped member 331 as is more particularly
ilustrated in Figure 13.
Piston 321 will, by virtue of the displacement
of the entire member 311, enter the cylinder 3l5
and block the flow of air from the manifold to the
atmosphere through pipe 351.
The increase in pressure Within manifold 22
will cause a corresponding increase in pressure
in the space 355 due to the equalizing passage
acting upon the spool shaped member 311, adds
354. Since the right hand face of this diaphragm
to the force which draws diaphragm 331 in this 25 is obviously at atmospheric pressure, this increase
direction.
in pressure will act to force and maintain ?exible
When the valve diaphragms are in the posi
diaphragm 336 against its seat 382 and thu
effectively seal the passage 3l6.
‘
tion indicated, the circuit breaker operating cyl
inders l6l are vented through insulating pipe 36!
Thus actuation of plunger 356, as hereinabove
and through pipe 22 which leads to the cylindri 30 mentioned, will cause the various operating mem
bers to assume the positions illustrated in Figure
13, wherein as indicated by the air flow arrow
ment 332 into the annular passage 3l3 and thus
heads, compressed air from the supply passes
to the atmosphere through the exhaust pipe 35!.
through the star-shaped member 33l and enters
Pressures on the opposite faces of diaphragm 35 the circuit breaker manifold 22 and thus causes
contact engagement.
336 are equalized through small passage 354 which
cal passage 3|6.
The air is then free to ?ow
from this passage through the star-shaped ele
The cylindrical member 343 and its associated
valve seat 344 will act subsequent to displacement
Fine strainers are preferably introduced into
to seal passage 352 against the escape of high
the auxiliary equalizing passages 352 and 354 to 40 pressure air. Subsequent to circuit breaker clo
preclude the entry into the dome of dust or other
sure, there will be no tendency for the spool
foreign particles which would cause faulty seating
shaped member to return to the position indicated
of the valves.
in Figure 12, since the combined forces of the high
The dome-shaped elements 333 and 334 are‘
pressure air acting upon the left surfaces of the
centrally perforated at 36I and 352 respectively 45 diaphrag'ms is substantially greater than the
to form a pair of auxiliary valves which may be
combined forces of the compression spring 325
sealed by solenoid plungers 365 and 366 surfaced
and the air acting on the right surface of dia
phragm 331.
with layers of valve seat material 363 and 364 re
spectively. These plungers are spring pressed to
The closing solenoid plunger 365 may be per
Ward their respective valves by compression 50 mitted to return to the position indicated in Fig
springs 361 and 31] which are retained within
ure 12 to minimize air leakage through passage
interconnects the manifold 22 and the dome
shaped space 355.
axial recesses in the plunger and in the solenoid
stops 369 and 310.
The force exerted by the
362.
The diaphragm 331 as illustrated in Figure 13
springs must be su?icient to ensure effective valve
is maintained in a position clear of its seat and
closures when full supply pressure exists within 65 thus permits air flow through star-shaped mem
the dome shaped spaces. Manual operation of
the plungers is provided for by plunger rods 312
and 313 tapped into their corresponding plungers
and which pass through appropriate centralizing
ber 3-3l to compensate for any leakage within the
various elements, as for instance, the circuit
breaker closing cylinders.
Energization of the trip solenoid 332, or manual
bushings in the solenoid steps.
60 actuation of rod 312 to cause the displacement of
The coils solenoids 362 and 363 are preferably
plunger 355 to the left as viewed in Figures 12 and
energized from a control circuit hereinafter de
13, and will accordingly permit air passage 3‘8I to
scribed and are supported upon the main valve
vent the high pressure air contained within the
structure by means of the posts 33L
dome 355 to the atmosphere.
This venting acting will occur at a more rapid
65
Control valve operation
rate than the ?ow of equalizing air from the high
pressure manifold through passage 354 and thus
As previously mentioned, when the valve mem
the diaphragm 336 will tend to move towards its
bers are as illustrated in Figure 12, the circuit
neutral position.
breaker contacts are open and the manifold 22 is
vented through exhaust pipe 351 to the atmos 70
Therefore, under the in?uence of spring 325
phere.
and the high pressure air, the spool shaped mem
If the closing solenoid 303 is energized or if the
her 311 will correspondingly be displaced and
plunger rod 313 is actuated so that the plunger
thus will pull the diaphragm 331 against its seat
366 is drawn in against the action of compres
to preclude the further flow of air to the mani
sion spring 3'" and bears against its correspond 75
fold.
>
2,405,454
15
16
will be evident to those skilled in the art, I pre
for to be bound, not by these speci?c disclosures,
but by the scope of the appended claims.
This motion of the diaphragm is accelerated by
the drop in pressure in the central cylinder 3W
which occurs as soon as the air therein exhausts
I claim:
to the atmosphere and the leading edge of pis
ton 322 enters its cylinder.
1. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising
a pair of insulated bars, a first contact secured to
said bars, a second complementary contact and
operating mechanism therefor, a frame detach
Thus the control valve members will again as
sume the position indicated in Figure 12, vent the
manifold, and open the circuit breaker contacts.
ably secured to said bars, said frame carrying
Following circuit interruption, the plunger 365
10 said second contact and said operating mecha
may be allowed to close passage set as is re
quired for a succeeding circuit closure.
The hereinabove described multipole circuit
nism, and an arc quencher pivotally mounted
upon said bars.
_ interrupter and the associated pneumatic control
2. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising
a pair of insulated bars, a winding secured to said
system provide effective means for instantane
ously interrupting fault currents ?owing in the 15 bars, and a ?rst contact attached to said wind
ing, a second complementary contact and operat
circuit to which it is connected. However, this
ing mechanism therefor, a frame for carrying
form of circuit breaker is particularly advan
tageous in polyphase circuits wherein a single
said second contact detachably secured to said
bars, and an arc quencher pivotally supported
phase may, upon the occurrence of a fault, be
subjected to a current far in excess of the rated 20 upon said winding.
3. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising
value, whereas the other phases may continue to
carry a substantially safe current.
a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de
tachably secured to said bars, said structure com
prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst
and is known as a back?re. Upon the establish 25 contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl
ment of a back?re, the faulty anode is subjected
inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en
to the current from each of the other anodes and
gaged with said piston at one end and carrying
from the recti?er cathode.
a latch at the other end thereof, said latch being
Obviously, upon the occurrence of such a fault,
engageable with said contact carrying arm, a
it is desirable to have an interrupter in the af 30 second contact secured to said bars, a source of
fected anode circuit open as rapidly as is possible
compressed air, said piston being operative upon
to preclude the destruction of the anode or the
the admission of said compressed air into said
transformer feeding the anode. A minimum
cylinder to rotate said lever and said contact
interrupting time will be obtained if the affected
carrying arm to cause and maintain contact en
anode breaker pole is permitted to open inde
gagement.
pendently of the unaffected anode breaker poles
4. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising
while automatically energizing a control which
a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de
will cause the operation of all the breakers, to
tachably secured to said bars, said structure com
isolate the circuit.
prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst
Thus, if in the multipole circuit .breaker illus 40 contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl
trated in Figure 1, a fault actuates the tripping
inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en“
unit of a single pole, its latch its will be raised
gaged with said piston at one end and carrying
and permit the instantaneous opening of its con
a latch at the other end thereof, said latch being
tacts under the influence of tension springs 82.
engageable with said contact carrying arm, a
The contact carrying arm is preferably arranged, 45 second contact secured to said bars, resilient
as previously mentioned, to actuate the pneu
means for biasing said ?rst contact, away from
matic means to vent the cylinders lei. Accord
said second contact, a source of compressed air,
ingly, an auxiliary switch may be supported upon
said piston being operative upon the admission
each circuit breaker pole, operable by the con
of said compressed air into said cylinder to ro
tact carrying arm
All of the switches are
tate said lever, said latch and said contact carry~
joined in series and are arranged so that the
ing arm to cause contact engagement.
switch contacts are closed when the associated
5. A single pole circuit interrupter comprising
This type of fault is commonly found in the
operation of polyphase mercury arc recti?ers
circuit breaker pole is closed.
This series arrangement of switches is in cir
cuit with a relay which is energized when all of
the switches are closed. Deenergization of the
relay closes contacts thereupon which in turn
causes the energization of the tripping solenoid
3532 to vent the closing cylinders til i.
Hence, the automatic tripping of a single pole
will open a set of contacts in the relay circuit
and permit the venting of the manifold 22 and
all of the circuit breaker closing cylinders. The
release of the compressed air automatically
places all the poles of the breaker in condition for
reclosure.
'
Therefore this breaker and associated control
system provide means whereby an individual
phase of a polyphase network may be opened in
stantaneously and independently of its associ
ated phases. The same circuit breaker equip
ment permits the simultaneous closure and in
terruption of all of the circuit poles.
Since various modi?cations of the hereinabove
described circuit breaker and control system "
a pair of insulated bars, a contact structure de
tachably secured to said bars, said structure com
prising a pivoted contact carrying arm, a ?rst
contact at one end of said arm, a pneumatic cyl
inder and piston, a pivotally supported lever en
gaged with said piston at one end and carrying
a latch at the other end thereof, said latch be
ing engageable with said contact carrying arm,
a second contact secured to said bars, resilient
means for biasing said ?rst contact away from
said second contact, a source of compressed air,
said piston being operative upon the admission
of said compressed air into said cylinder to rotate
said lever, said latch and said contact carrying
arm to cause contact engagement, said resilient
means being operative to separate said contacts
when said latch is disengaged and when said com
pressed air is exhausted from said cylinder.
6. In electrical protective equipment for a poly
phase circuit, individual circuit breaker elements
in each phase thereof, each of said elements com
prising a pair of cooperable contacts biased, while
2,405,454
17
18
held in closed position, toward the open circuit
position, a pneumatic cylinder and piston, mech
arm operates under the action of said biasing
anism engaged by said piston and operable by
displacements of said piston for closing and main
der control of said compressed ?uid for operat
ing said second arm into relatching engagement
with said ?rst contact arm, whereby said com
pressed ?uid regains control of said movable con
tact to operate it into engagement position.
taining said contacts in current carrying engage
ment, a latch mechanically maintaining said
mechanism in rigid relation, the operation of said
contacts to closing position being effected while
said latch maintains said mechanism in rigid
relation. and automatic means responsive to pre
determined circuit conditions at said contacts for
operating said latch to disengage said piston from
means to open position, and means operative un
8. In a circuit breaker having a ?xed and mov
able contact, a source of compressed fluid, a piston
operated by said fluid, a rigid mechanical con
nection extending from said piston to said mov
able contact and including a latch, means respon
sive to circuit conditions at said contacts for op
said mechanism and for operating said contacts
erating said latch to mechanically disengage said
into disengagement while said piston of said pneu
matic cylinder is displaced to contact closing po 15 movable contact from said piston, means for nor
mally biasing said movable contact to open po
sition, and means whereby when said piston is
sition and operable when said latch is disengaged
to operate said movable contact to disengaged
position while said piston is in circuit closing
7. In a ?rst circuit breaker having a ?xed and 20 position under control of said ?uid.
displaced to its non-closing position, said latch
rapidly reengaging said mechanism for operation
of said contacts by said piston.
9. In a circuit breaker having a ?xed and mov
movable contact, a ?rst pivoted arm for carrying
able contact, a source of compressed ?uid, a me
said movable contact, a source of compressed
chanical connection extending from said source
?uid, a second pivoted arm operable by said source
of compresed ?uid to said movable contact and
of compressed ?uid, a latch connection between
said arms for rocking said ?rst pivoted contact 25 including a latch, means selectively responsive to
circuit conditions at said contacts and manually
arm under control of said second pivoted arm to
operable for operating said latch to disengage
the position in which said movable contact en_
said movable contact from said source of com
gages said ?xed contact, means for biasing said
pressed ?uid, means for normally biasing said
movable contact to its open position against the
action of said compressed ?uid, said means being 30 movable contact to open position and operable
normally ine?ective to disengage said contacts
against the action of said compressed ?uid, means
responsive to circuit conditions at said contacts
for operating said latch to disengage said ?rst arm
from said second arm whereby said ?rst contact
when said latch is disengaged to operate said
movable contact to disengaged position while said
source of compressed ?uid is in circuit closing
position.
WILLIAM MAXWELL SCOTT, JR.
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