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, E94.
2,
.
R. SIGNER
1
METHODS OF ANDVAPPARATUS FOR DIALYTICALLY
_SEPARA'I‘ING MIXTURES 0F SUBSTANCES
Filed Oct.’ 19, 1942
1
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
‘-H'lI~|Wi
~29
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-
Aug. 6, 1946.
'
,
R slGNER
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METHODS OF ‘AND APPARATUS FOR DIALYTICALLY
SEPARATING MIXTURES OF SUBSTANCES
'Filed Oct. 19, 1942
-
>
-
2\ Sheets-Sheet 2'
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,456
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,405,456
METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR DIALY
TICALLY SEPARATING MIXTURES OF SUB
STANCES
Rudolf Signer, Gumligcn, Bern, Switzerland
Application October 19, 1942, Serial No. 462,658
In Switzerland August 23, 1940
2 Claims. (Cl. 210-85)
1
2
This invention relates to methods of and ap
vent side of the cell. The two substances yield
paratus for dialytically separating mixtures of
on the solvent side in small amounts but in a dif
substances.
It is known, that a dialytic cell is provided with
two spaces that are separated from each other by
ferent proportion of concentrations equalling
a porous partition wall or diaphragm. If in one
of the spaces a solvent is contained which in
cludes molecules or ions in dissolved state while
in the other space the same solvent but free from
admixtures is contained the dissolved substance
penetrates through the porous wall into the sol
vent provided that the pores are of greater size
than the molecules. The velocity at which this
penetration of substance takes place depends
0.
M1
If the dialysis endures for a relatively long time
the yield of substance increases on the solvent
side more and more, but the enriching effect de
creases systematically. The second fundamental
di?iculty in applying the dialytic principle for
the separation of substances of low molecular
weights is characterised by this that: maximum
enriching is obtained only when extremely'small
among other things upon the di?erence in con 15 yields are taken into account.
The present invention has for its‘ object a
centration of substance on the two sides of the
method which eliminates both causes of di?iculty
wall, upon the size and the form of the dissolved
molecules and upon the so-called perviousness
in radical manner. It makes possible extensive
of the wall. The perviousnes's is dependent on
dialytic separation of mixtures of substances the
various factors, for example the number of pores 20 component parts of which have different coe?i
per square centimeter of the wall, the diameter
cients of dialysis.
of the pores, the length of the pores, etc.
I
The liquid solution of the mixture of substances
If the particles are small compared to the di
is treated in a plurality of dialytic cells, so that
ameter of the pores of the diaphragm and if apart
the concentration in each single cell is multiplied.
from this the particles have a spherical form 25 In order to prevent a decrease of the yield in ac
and are not subjected to abnormal forces acting
cordance with the potency of the number of cells,
the latter are connected to one another in a spe
between them and the material of which the dia
phragm is made the velocity of penetration of the
cial manner and the solution is concentrated be
particles is approximately inversely proportional
tween two cells.
30
In order to facilitate the description of the
to the square root of the mass of the particles.
In addition to the segregation of particles set
arrangement of the cells, it will be necessary
up in an ordinary dialytic cell from the solution
?rst of all to give some names for the parts of
the dialytic cells used. A dialytic cell for con
dialysed into the solvent, a second movement of
masses takes place in the cell as a result of which
the solvent penetrates into the space containing
the solution, thereby raising the level of the liquid
surface in said space and lowering the liquid level
tinuous use is shown in Fig. 1. The cell I is di
. vided by the membrane 2 in the mixture chamber
3 and the dialysate chamber 4. The solution of
the mixture to be separated, the so-called mix
on the other side.
ture solution, enters the mixture chamber at 5
The phenomena described are utilised for the
and leaves it at 6 as the so-called residual solu
separation of substances for a long time since 40 tion. The residuum comprises the portions of the
if it is required to separate component parts, that
mixture which have not passed through the mem
‘ are colloid-soluble and cannot pass through the
brane. At 1 the pure solvent enters into the
diaphragm, from component parts that are sus
dialysate chamber. It takes up the dialysate
ceptible of molecular or ionic dissociation and
through the membrane. At 8 the dialysate solu
are readily dialysed. However, the dialysis for 45 tion leaves the dialysate chamber. The mixture
the separation of substances of low molecular
solution and the dialysate solution flow in coun
weight from each other could not be introduced
ter-current.
into practice with any amount of success. ‘This
While the mixture solution flows through the
has two different causes. In the ?rst place the
mixture chamber, its components pass partly
enriching effect of a single dialytic cell is very 50 through the membrane into the solvent, which is
introduced into the dialysate chamber. When
' small. If two different kinds of particles, having
the components possess different dialytic coe?i
masses M1 and M2 respectively and concentra
cients, a displacement of the relativequantities
tions C1 and C2, are subjected to dialytic action
occurs. The components which dialyse more
maximum enriching of the more readily dialys
able component part is first obtained on the sol 55 slowly are slightly enriched in the remainder, '
2,405,456
3
4
while the components which dialyse faster are
enriched in the dialysate. In the following “the
that is the dialysate, the component parts more
readily dialysable are enriched, Whereas the so
lution, which flows back from the mixture cham
ber of the ?rst dialytic cell 18 into the ?ask 9,
contains the more dif?cultly dialysable component
parts in slightly enriched state. This stream con
tains the not dialysed remainder. The fraction
enrichment of a component” means that due to
the dialysis the relative quantity of a component
of the mixture is displaced in favor of this com
ponent.
The apparatus is so constructed that a solution
of the mixture of substances from the ?rst di
alytic cell is passed through a series of such cells.
Each cell of the series splits up the mixture in
troducedvinto its mixture chamber in two frac
tions, one being the undialysed remainder which
contains the components with the lower dialytic
coe?icient slightly enriched and leaving the mix
ture chamber. The other fraction is the dialysate
which leaves the dialysate chamber and contains
having penetrated through the porous diaphragm
of the ?rst dialytic cell into the solvent is sub
jected to the following treatment:
Since the solvent flows continuously through
the dialysate chamber of the cell the dialysed
substances are conveyed conjointly with the
stream of solvent into the pump lid and thence
into the second evaporator Illa. This evaporator
separates ‘part of the solution in solvent and con—
the components with the higher dialytic coeffi
centrated solution. The former ?ows through the
collecting tube l5 previously mentioned into the
cient slightly enriched. The residual solution
reserve bottle it, whereas the latter passes into
?ows into the mixture chamber of one of the
neighboring cells, the dialysate solution into the 20 the mixture chamber of the second. dialytic
cell lBa.
mixture chamber of the other neighboring cell
In this cell the more readily dialysable com
after having been concentrated. Concentration
may be effected by evaporation, crystallization,
ponent part is again enriched, by partial pene
demixing or some other process which permits
tration of the dissolved substances into the di
alysate chamber, whereas the component part
to get a highly concentrated solution from a di
luted solution.
The method can be carried into effect in ap
not dialysed ?ows back into the ?rst dialytic cell
18. The diluted dialysed product leaving the di
alysate chamber of the second dialytic cell l8a
passes through the pump I lb into the third evap
orator Mb in which it is again concentrated prior
to arriving in the third dialytic cell lab. In the
latter the third fractionating of the dissolved sub
stance takes place. The remaining parts of the
paratus of widely varying constructions.
Fig. l is a vertical sectional view of a dialytic
cell.
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the sys
tem of the apparatus employed in the dialytic
separation.
apparatus operate in like manner as those pre
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view of one of the
evaporators.
viously discussed. Each evaporator divides the
diluted dialysed product into a solvent portion
and a concentrate portion. Each dialytic cell sep
arates the dissolved mixture into two fractions.
One of these fractions, which is relatively richer
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of a modi
?ed arrangement of the system for dialytic sep
aration.
The various substances to be separated from
each other are contained in a ?ask 9. The solu
40 in substances more readily dialysable is conveyed
tion to be subjected to dialytic action ?ows
through a siphon I0 into a pump H, the velocity
of ?ow being‘regulated by means of a cock valve
12 and continually measured in a measuring in
strument IS. The pump ll supplies the solution .
to a ?rst evaporator M by which the solution is
toward a receiving vessel l9 and the other por
tion including relatively more di?icultly dialys
able substances is displaced toward the ?ask 9
containing the starting solution.
The "solvent
chamber of the last dialytic cell lBn is connected
with the receivingvessel IS, a terminal evaporator
l4n+l acting to concentrate the respective por
tion of dialysed product prior to its arrivel at the
separated in two streams, namely a stream of
pure solvent and another of concentrated solu
receiving vessel I9. The solvent ?owing through
tion. The construction of the evaporators
|4-—|4n+1 is shown in Fig. 3 in a more detailed 50 the chambers of the various dialytic cells is sup
plied by the reserve bottle l6 for being distributed
manner.
by means of a manifold 28. The velocity of flow
The solution to be concentrated is introduced
can be regulated in the various solvent chambers
at 22 and distributed by means of the funnel 23
in such a manner onto the surface of the heating
by means of cock valves I2, 12a . . . i21¢+1 and
tube 24 which is covered with a glass-tissue, that .
the solution covers its surface with a thin uni
measured by means of measuring instruments l3,
I311 .
. .
|3n+1.
In the arrangement of the apparatus described
the most readily dialysable products as obtained
from the mixture are gathered in the receiving
the solution is evaporated and condensed on the
surface 25 cooled with water. The condensate is 60 vessel 19, whereas the more di?icultly dialysable
products remain in the ?ask 9.
g
introduced in the collecting tube l5 (Fig. 2) at 27
The same apparatus can also be used for sep
and flows then into a storage bottle l6 (Fig. 2).
arating out of a mixture the most slowly dialysa
The concentrated solution drops from the
ble components while the more readily dialysable
closed pointed end of the heating tube 28 into
components remain in the ?ask with the starting
the pipe I‘! (Fig. 2) connecting the mixture cham
solution. The procedure for obtaining this re
bers of the cells [8a and I8 and ?ows into the
form layer when flowing downward-s along the
surface of the tube. By the electric heating 25
mixture chamber 35.
~
In that chamber l8 fractionating of the dis
solved mixture takes place for the ?rst time.
While the solution to be subjected to dialytic ac- '
tion ?ows in a continuous stream through the
mixture chamber it segregates out some part of
the components dissolved therein into the solvent
sult is as follows:
The solution containing the mixture to be
separated is introduced into the receiving vessel
19. The dialytic cells and the ?asks are ?lled
with pure solvent when the separation begins.
The cockvalve 2| is opened so widely that the
?owing through the dialysate chamber of cell l8
solution of the mixture ?ows off at the same rate
as it arrives from the evaporator llln+1. The
across the porous diaphragm.
volume of the liquid in the receiving vessel re
In this fraction, \
2,405,456
5
6
mains thus constant. The solution of the mix
ture passes then through all mixture chambers
each after another, whereby nearly the whole
mixture, with the exception of a little part of
the components being slowly dialysable, pass the
diaphragms. The remainder of the solution of
the mixture chamber 35 enters into ?ask 9
where it drives out the solvent escaping through
‘stances, for dissociating isotopes, for the obtain
ment of rare earths, for the separation of or
ganic active substances such as hormones, vita
mines, etc.
a
If temperature sensitive components are pres
ent which cannot stand the heat set up in the
evaporators the method can be carried into effect
under vacuum pressure by vacuumizing at the
same time the ?ask, the liquid level control de
‘the siphon l0. The concentration of the com
ponents to be considered increases in the ?ask 10 vice, the evaporators, the receiving vessel, the
9 till through siphon [0 the same amount of sub
reserve liquid tank and other appropriate parts
stance escapes as is introduced from the mixture
in dependence upon requirements of various con
chamber. From time to time the ?ask must be
structions of apparatus used.
discharged and re?lled with fresh solvent. In
Mixtures that are sensitive to the ‘in?uence of‘
contrary to the process where the component 15 oxygen and other substances that may be present
which dialyses most readily shall be separated
in the atmosphere can also be dissociated by the
from the mixture, in this case it is intended to let
method according to the invention by resorting
as much dialysate as possible pass through the
to an inert gas which is introduced into the ap
diaphragms. This can be realized either by ex
paratus at appropriate points at normal or re
tended surfaces of the diaphragm or by small 20 duced pressure.
‘
velocities of the ?ow in the mixture chambers.
EXAMPLE 1
The amounts of substance yielded by the ap
Arrangement for the separation of the most
paratus as well as the enriching e?ect are de- ,
readily dialysable substance.
'
'
‘
pendent upon the velocities of ?ow on both sides
of the diaphragm to a very great extent. It is 25 Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
‘
cm.2__7 350
possible to obtain a large amount of substance
Number of dialytic cells _______________ __
- 51
of moderate purity or a small amount of sub
Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __ccm./min__ 0.50;
stance of a high degree of purity.
‘
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __ccm./min_>_ 0.45
The amounts arriving in the receiving vessel
in the unit of time are proportional to the de 30 Kind ' and proportionate amount of the sub
gree of concentration in the ?ask, so that solu
stances in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and
tions of a degree of, concentration as high as
sodium sulphate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. NazSO‘l
possible are dialysable with particular advantage.
(free from water).
Advantageously, the depth of the chambers is
-
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
made very small. By this means the volume of 35
7.115 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100 com.
solution present in the dialyser is kept down. A
solution in the ?ask.
distance of 0.1 cm. between the back wall of the
5.163 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 com.
chamber and the porous diaphragm has proved
solution in the ?ask.
to be satisfactory.
In this case each com. of
solution is spread over 10 cm.2 of porous dia
phragm surface.
'
It is also possible to combine several individual
apparatus in order to collect the slowly dialysa
ble component parts and the more readily di
40
Enriching e?ect
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
number of grams sodium sulphate=uga=k88l
5:163
EXAMPLE 2
alysable component parts at the same time but
in di?erent recipients. Fig. 4 shows, in a dia
grammatic manner how two apparatus may be
readily dialysable substance.
combined for this purpose.
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
The ?ask 29 con
' Arrangement for the separation oi‘ the most
cm.2__ 350
tains the starting mixture for both apparatus. It
5
is ?tted with all connections as shown for ?ask 50 Number of dialytic cells_________________ __
Rate of ?ow of solvent_______ __ccm./min.__ 0.50
9 (Fig. 2) and ?ask [9 (Fig. 2). In Fig. 4 the
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __ccm./min.__ 0.75
combination of the cells and evaporators accord
ing to Fig. 2 which collects the more readily di
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
2 is a combination of cells and evaporators ac- 55
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. Na2SO4 (free from
cording to Fig. 2 which collects the more slowly
water).
dialysable component parts in its recipient 33.
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
34 are the evaporators |En+1 according to Fig. 2
6.662 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
which are arranged above the ?ask 19 of Fig. 2.
com. solution in the ?ask, 2.532 gr. sodium
The mixture introduced into the ?ask 29 can 60
sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 com. solution in
be entirely separated in its fractions in the re
the ?ask.
cipients 3| and 33. If the ?ask 29 is fed con
tinuously with fresh mixture, it is possible to draw
Enriching e?ect
off from the recipients 31 and 33 continuously two
Number
of
grams
sodium chloride divided by ‘the
65
enriched fractions.
alysable parts in its recipient 3i is numbered 30._
The scope of applicability of the method is very
great. Any mixture of inorganic or organic na
ture or combination mixtures of such substances
number of grams/sodium sulphate=§L2
2.532
EXAMPLE 3
Arrangement for the separation of the most
with two or more component parts can be dis
'
sociated as long as an appropriate solvent for 70 readily dialysable substance.
the mixture is available and the dialysing coe?i—
Diaphragm surface in each dialytio cell
cients of the component parts in the solvent
~
cm?" 350
di?er from each other. The method can be ap
Number of dialytic cells _____________ __-____5
plied, by way of example, for enriching com
' Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __'_ccm./min.__ 0.50
pounds containing radium or radioactive sub-' 75 Rate of ?ow of solution______"com/min.“ 1.10
2,405,456
7
8
Kind and proportionate amount or the substances
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
'
19.670 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask, 10.999 gr. so
dium sulphate ‘per 1 gr. in 100 com. solu
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl,‘ 1 gr. Nazsoi (free from
water).
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
1.950 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask, 0.486 gr. sodium
sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 ccm. solution in
the ?ask.
10
tion in the ?ask.
Enriching effect
Number of grams sodium chloride dixiidgczloby the
.
_
Enriching e?ect
_
EXAMPLE '7
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
number of grams sodium sulphate=(l)'—igg=4?1.
EXAMPLE 4
Arrangement for the separation of the most
readily dialysable substance.
15
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
cm?" 350
Arrangement for the separation of the most
readily dialysablesubstance.
Number of dialytic cells _________________ _._
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
‘
cm.z__
Number of dialytic cells _________________ __
350
’ 5
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances 25
in the. ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl,‘ 1 gr. NazSO4 (free from
water).
5
Rate of flow of solvent _______ __ccm./min__ 1.50
20 Rate of ?ow of solution _______ __ccm./min_.. 1.25
Rate of flow of solvent_______ __ccm./min.__ 0.50
Rate of ?ow of solution_______ccm./min._- 1.15
.
Yield in the receiving vessel per day :7
9.
number of grams sodium sulphate—m—1.7.9.
.
1.49.8 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100 30
com. solution in the. ?ask, 0.282 gr. sodium.
sulphate per 1 gr.. in 100 com solution in the
?ask.
Enriching e?ect
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the 35
number of grams sodium sulphate=(1);;g—2 =5.31 .
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. NazSO4 (‘free from
water).
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
10.434 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask,
1.299 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask.
Enriching e?ect
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
number of grams sodium sulphate=-l%i;i=8.03
EXAMPLE 8
Arrangement for the separation of the most
EXAMPLE 5
readily dialysable substance.
Arrangement for the separation of the most 40
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
readily dialysable substance.
01112.. 350
.Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
Number of dialytic cells _________________ __
5
cm.2__ 350
Number of dialytic cells _________________ __
5
Rate of flow of solvent_______ __ccm./min.__ 0.50
Rate of ?ow of solution-_______ccm./min.__ 1.45
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances .
Rate of ?ow of solvent-____.____ccm./min_.. 1.50
Rate of ?ow of solution---_____ccm./min__ 1.50
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. NazSOa (free from
water).
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. Na2SO4 (free from 50
water).
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
9.832 gr. sodium chloride per 1 com. solution
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
in the ?ask,
0.202 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
0.776 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 com. solu
com. solution in the ?ask, 0.0059 gr. sodium
tion in the ?ask.
sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 com. solution in ".55
the ?ask.
’ Enriching e?ect
Enriching e?‘ect
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
0.202 _
number of grams sodium sulphate=
.
.
noose-3424"
EXAMPLE 6
_ 9.832 _
number of grams sodium sulphate—m—12.7.
EXAMPLE 9
Arrangement for the separation of the most
Arrangement for the separation of the most
readily dialysable substance.
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
readily dialysable substance.
cm2__
350
.
cm.2__ 350
Number of dialytic cells_____- _____________ __
5
Number of dialytic cells _________________ _._
5
Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __ccm./min.__ 1.50
Rate of flow of solution ______ __ccm./min.__ 0.50
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr.‘ NazSOi (free from
water).
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
v
Rate of flow of solvent _______ __ccm./min__ 1.50
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __-ccm./min__ 2.05
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. NazSOr (free from
water).
2,405,456
10
- 9
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
Enriching e?ect
2.708 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100 com.
solution in the ?ask,
’
Number of grams of sodium sulphate divided by the
‘
0.062 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 com.
number of grams of sodium chloride=:%8)=20.8.
solution in the ?ask.
EXAMPLE 13'
Enriching e?‘ect
Arrangement for the separation of the most
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
number of grams sodium sulphate=%g—g§=48.7.
EXAMPLE 10
dif?cultly dialysable substance.
10 Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
,.
cm.2.._ 1575
10
Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __ccm./min._._ 1.25
Rate of ?ow of solution_____ __ccm./min.__ 2.00
readily dialysable substance.
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
-
.
Number of dialytic cells ________________ __
Arrangement for the separation of the most
0mg-..
350
Number of dialytic cells _________________ __
5
15 Kind and proportionate amounts of the sub
stances in the ?ask: Sodium sulphate and so
dium chloride; per 1 gr. Na2SO4 (free from
Rate of ?ow of solvent _______ __ccm./min__ 1.50
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __ccm./min__ 2.65
Y water), 1 gr. NaCl.
Kind and proportionate amount of the substances
in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodium sul
phate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr..Na2SO4 (free from
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
2.732 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100 com.
solution in the ?ask,
0.706 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100 com.
Water) .
solution in the ?ask.
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
0.487 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
Enriching e?ect
com. solution in the ?ask,
0.0077 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask.
Enriching effect
Number of grams of sodium sulphate divided by the
.
30
Number of grams sodium chloride divided by the
number of grams sodium sulphate=
EXAMPLE 11
5
32
0.706=8.87.
EXAMPLE 14
Arrangement for the separation of the most
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
I
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
cm?“ 700
Number of dialytic cells _________________ __
2.
di?icultly dialysable substance.
Arrangement for the separation of the most
readily dialysable substance.
Rate of ?ow of solvent _______ __ccm./min__ 1.50
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __ccm./min__ 1.65
.
number of grams of sodium chlor1de= ———
cm.2__
1575
Number of dialytic cells ________________ __
.
,
.
10
Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __ccm./min.__ 1.25
Rate of flow of solution_____ __ccm./min.__ 3.05
40 Kind and proportionate amounts of the sub
stances in the ?ask: Sodium sulphate and so
dium chloride; per 1 gr, NazSOr (free from
water), 1 gr. NaCl.
Kind and proportionate amounts of the sub
stances in the ?ask: Sodium chloride and sodi
um sulphate; per 1 gr. NaCl, 1 gr. NazSO4 (free 45 Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
16.765 gr, sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100
from water).
com. solution in the ?ask,
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
14.947 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
10.304 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
com. solution in the ?ask.
com. solution in the ?ask,’
2.844 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100
Enriching effect
com. solution in the ?ask.
Number of grams of sodium sulphate divided by the
Enriching effect
Number of grams sodium chloride diillgdggziby the
number of grams sodium su1phate= 2 8
number of grams of sodium chloride=__16'765=
55
1 12
I claim:
14.947
.
.
1. The method of dialytically separating a mix
ture of substances, the ?rst of Which has a higher
Arrangement for the separation of the most
coe?lcient of dialysis than the second, comprising
di?icultly dialysable substance.
60 conducting from an initial body of solution of the
mixture a flow of the solution, evaporating the
Diaphragm surface in each dialytic cell
?ow of solution into a ?rst relatively concen
cm?" 1575
EXAMPLE 12
Number of dialytic cells ________________ __
10
trated solution and puri?ed solvent, ?owing said
?rst concentrated solution across one face of a
Rate of ?ow of solvent ______ __ccm./min.__ 1.25
Rate of ?ow of solution ______ __ccm./min.__ 1.65 65 ?rst dialytic diaphragm while at the same time
Kind and proportionate amounts of the sub
stances in the ?ask: Sodium sulphate and so
?owing puri?ed solvent across the other face of
, said ?rst diaphragm, whereby a relatively greater
amount of the ?rst substance of the mixture
dium chloride; per 1 gr. NazSOr (free from
passes through the ?rst diaphragm to the puri?ed
water), 1 gr. NaCl.
70 solvent and the solution passing the ?rst side of
said ?rst diaphragm retains a relatively greater
Yield in the receiving vessel per day:
0.790 gr. sodium sulphate per 1 gr. in 100
amount of the second substance, evaporating the
solvent containing the relatively greater amount
ccm. solution in the ?ask,
0.038 gr. sodium chloride per 1 gr. in 100
of the ?rst substance into puri?ed solvent and a
75 second relatively concentrated solution contain
com. solution in the ?ask.
12,405,456
11
~
ing a higher proportion of the ?rst substance than
the initial solution and the ?rst relatively con
centrated solution, ?owing the said second rela
tively concentrated solution across one face of a
second dialytic diaphragm while at the same time
?owing puri?ed solution across the other face of
said second diaphragm, evaporating the solvent
from said second'diaphragm into puri?ed sol
vent and a third relatively concentrated solution
containing a higher proportion of the ?rst sub
stance than either the initial solution or the ?rst
or second relatively concentrated solutions, ?ow
ing the puri?ed solvent from the last-mentioned
evaporation into contact with the said other side
of one of the, diaphragms, collecting the third 15
.
12
a dialytic diaphragm therein dividing the cells
into solution sides and solvent sides, a series of
evaporation separators for separating, a solution
into relatively concentrated, solution and puri?ed
solvent, conduction means for conducting solution
from the supply vessel to the ?rst evaporation
separator of said series, means for conducting a
?rst relatively concentrated solution from the
?rst separator of said series to the solution side
of the diaphragm of the ?rst cell, means for con
ducting puri?ed. solvent from. said ?rst separator
to the solvent side of the diaphragm ‘of the ?rst
cell, means for conducting solvent containing a
relatively higher proportion of the ?rst substance
from the solvent side of the ?rst cell to an evap
oration separator for separating the solvent into
puri?ed solvent and-a second relatively concen
trated solution of relatively higher content of the
?rst substance, conduction means for carrying
second substance from the second dialytic dia 20 said second relatively concentrated solution to
the solution side of the diaphragm of the second
phragm to the ?rst side of the ?rst diaphragm,
dialytic cell, means for conducting puri?ed sol
and returning the relatively concentrated solu
relatively concentrated solution containing the
higher proportion of the ?rst substance, return
ing the relatively concentrated solution of sub
stance containing the higher proportion of the
tion containing the higher proportion of the sec
vent across the solvent side of the diaphragm of
the second cell, means for conducting solution
ond substance from the ?rst dialytic diaphragm
to the initial body of solution, whereby said ini 25 from the solution side of the second cell to the
solution side of the ?rst cell, means conducting
tial body of solution becomes progressivelyr richer
solvent'from the second cell to a third evapora
in the second substance.
tion separator for separating the solvent into
2. In apparatus for separating a mixture of a
puri?ed solvent and a third relatively concen
?rst and'second substance in solution, the ?rst
substance having a higher‘ coe?icient of dialysis 30 trated solution of a higher proportion of the ?rst
substance, means for collecting the third con
centrated solution, and means for returning the
puri?ed solvent from the third separator to the
solvent side of a dialytic cell diaphragm.
taining a relatively higher proportion of the ?rst
RUDOLF SIGNER.
substan'ce,a series of dialytic cells each having 35
than the second substance, a supply vessel for
containing an initial body of the solution, an
end product vessel for receiving a solution con
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