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F. w. WHITLOCK ' 2,405,479 WATER TREATMENT DEVICE I Filed May 31, 1941 _ 3 Sheets-Sheet l Z26 43 j 45 % J 2 44 33 ° a0 0 Q J? 20 1 _ 15 \ . a? " , I / ' _ _1__: GK? 91F 106 av , 9.9 - was - . 59 3'37 @7693) 1804 (180 1%- 19% - J 331 325 imam‘ L ‘mm.’ $52M % ¢¢W 4 Aug- 6, 1946- F. w; WHITLOCK ‘2,405,479 WATER TREATMENT DEVICE Fil'ed May 31, 1941 ' 3 Sheets-Sheet _2 Aug. 6, 1946). F. w. WHITLOC‘K 2,405,479 WATER TREATMENT DEVICE TFiled May 31, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 .' NNN |$QN / , w“, Patented Aug. 6, 1946 altar: UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE 2,405,479 WATER TREATMENT DEVICE Fred W. Whitlock, Rockford, Ill., assignor to Automatic Pump & Softener Corporation, Rockford, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application May 31, 1941, Serial No. 396,055 31 Claims. 1 My invention relates to improvements in water treatment devices and control means therefor. One of the objects of my invention is to pro vide a water treatment device in which all phases of regeneration such as service, backwash, intro duction of regenerating ?uid and rinse are auto matically controlled in response to tests made upon the effluent of the softener, in particular, (01. 210—24) 2 vertical extension of Fig. 5, the views also show ing in diagrammatic form other structural fea tures of the device. Speci?cally my invention is shown as applied to and part of a water treatment apparatus hav ing a regenerating solution such as brine, and a regenerable material such as zeolite within a soi tening tank. It will be apparent from the dis closure of this invention that it has numerous termine when regeneration should be initiated, 10 other applications such as to water treatment de vices of various kinds and devices controlling the for turbidity during the backwash phase to de flow of liquid through valve operation wherein termine when washing should be terminated and electrical control means and other mechanisms for regenerating ?uid in the rinse to determine may be utilized to achieve automatic and im when the device should be returned to service. An object of my invention is the provision of 15 proved operation. The softener disclosed herein is adapted for fully automatic or semi-automatic a device connected with a liquid treatment ap operation. In the semi-automatic setting, the paratus that will measure the turbidity of the softener is caused to pass from one of its re liquid during some phase in its treatment and will generation steps to another by manually closing signal an operator or terminate the operation of this treatment phase upon the liquid reaching a 20 a switch at the termination of each step. As is clear from Figure 1, the embodiment of predetermined degree of clearness. my invention herein shown has a softening tank Another object of my invention is to provide having conduits connected therewith for the in a water softening device having a system of hy troduction of hard water, carrying away of treat draulic valves immediately controlled by a pilot and having an electrically controlled staging de 25 ed water to a service line, and draining of water vice for accurately indexing the pilot in response utilized in backwash, brine and rinse steps dur ing the regeneration cycle. The valves control to tests being made upon the e?iuent of the sof ling the ?ow through this system, with the ex tener. ception of certain motor valves, are hydraulically It is also an object of my invention to provide a nove1 control system for the steps in a liquid, 30 operated and are built substantially according to the teachings of U. S. Letters Patent issued to processing device, one transformation. of this gen Griswold, No. 2,193,720. The valve positions are eral object being a novel valve operating and con immediately controlled by a staging device hav trol means through which a plurality of valves ing a pilot from which tubes are connected to may be actuated to each one of a sequence of positions in response to tests being performed 35 the Valves. Water is used as the valve control ?uid, a valve diaphragm being moved from its upon the said liquid. open position by hydraulic force in the tube from A further object of my invention is to provide the pilot and being returned to its open position an automatically controlled water treatment de by release of this pressure and in response to vice requiring a periodic regeneration in which an electrical clean-up device acts as a secondary 40 pressure in the pipe in which the valve is dis posed. The staging device includes a continuous automatic control to take over operation of the ly running motor, and an electrically controlled device during the regeneration cycle whereby it selectively engageable means through which the is returned to' service, in the event of fault oc motor is engaged to drive the pilot through se curring in a primary control system which in cludes automatic testing means for controlling the ‘ , quence of pilot positions. steps of regeneration. A hardness testing device is located in the instrument panel to test periodically for a pre Other objects of my invention will appear from determined amount of hardness in the effluent he following disclosure, wherein— of the softener. A line supplying ?uid for test Figure 1 is a side elevation of tanks, valves, con 50 samples to the hardness tester is tapped into the duits and instrument board of the softener; softener conduits at a point ahead of the service Fig. 2 is a view of two elements of the pilot controlling the hydraulic valves; and ' and drain outlets. When the water going to the service line reaches Figs. 3, 4 and 5 taken together constitute a a predetermined degree of hardness, circuits and wiring diagram of the softener, Fig. 3 being a vertical extension of Fig. 4, and Fig. 4 being a 55 relays are actuated to indicate this condition to such tests are made to indicate hardness to de 2,405,479 3 the operator and, if the device is set for auto matic operation, to initiate the regenerating cycle and discontinue service. This is accomplished by causing the pilot to index 60° to the ?rst stage. At this time, circuits to the hardness tester are broken to retire it temporarily from operation. Here, the ?rst step in the regenerating cycle is the backwash phase which is well known to those , skilled in the water treatment art. The dura tion of this step is controlled by a turbidity test H that is indexed through a cycle of rotation. The plates 9 and I I are enclosed by a casing which acts as a support therefor, in accordance with the teachings of said patent to Griswold. This casing has a rear chamber through which hy draulic pressure is transmitted to openings I2, I3, Iéand 15 in plate II and thence to the openings in stationary plate 9 inregistration therewith, the source ?uid of hydraulic force in the rear 10 chamber being a tube it, having one end con ing device comprising, among other elements, an nected therewith, the other being connected with observation cell placed between a source of light and a light sensitive cell. Backwash ?uid from the inlet water at a point I? in a vertical pipe I8 connected to the top and bottom of the tank 5. Openings I9 and ZI and center opening 22 in the movable plate are interconnected by a passage the drain is passed continuously through this ob servation cell during this phase. When the till‘ bidity of the ?uid is reduced to a predetermined degree, the selectively engageable means on the stager is actuated to index the pilot through a way 29 in order that the two peripheral openings in the stationary plate 9 that are in registration therewith may be bled oif through. a drain tube further 60°, whereupon the backwash stage is 23 that connects at one end with the drain 8 and terminated and the brine stage is initiated. Brine 20 at the other with a center opening 2d of the sta is carried into the tank by an injector and its flow tionary plate 9. In an operative position then, is terminated by operation of a motor valve upon as, for example, that shown in Fig. 5, ?uid pres the introduction of a predetermined quantity sure will be applied to the openings in stationary thereof. The softener then proceeds, without plate 9 which are in registration with openings further valve movement, to the rinse step which 25 l2, I3, 84 and I5 of movable plate H, thereby continues until spent and excess brine are washed carrying hydraulic pressure through tubes 25, 26, clear of the tank. This point is determined by 2? and 28, respectively, that connect with open the hardness tester which, in the meantime, has ings 25a, 26a, 27a and 28a, respectively, in sta returned to operation. At the conclusion of the tionary plate 9. Pressure in these particular rinse step, the pilot has been indexed to complete 30 tubes causes the closing of valves 29, BI, 32 and 180", thereby causing the valves to return to the 33, the diaphragms of which are indicated by service position and complete a cycle of regen cross-hatching in Fig. 5 and are shown in the eration. I service position supplying water to the service A clean-up device is provided to take over in line ‘I while openings I9 and 2|, being connected the event of control or operational failure dur- . with tubes 34 and 35 at 340'. and 35a, will release ing the regeneration period. While the softener the pressure in these tubes and permit dia is set for fully automatic operation, it will, if in phragms, generally designated as numeral 36, in _ the backwash stage, be carried from the backwash stage to the next of the succeeding stages if fault develops to delay the normal termination of the backwash step and initiation of the brine step in response to the turbidity testing device. If the fault is such that the softener is not automatically returned to service after the expiration of a pre determined time, during which the softener would normally have completed regeneration, the clean up device will return the softener to service, sig nal the operator of thisrcondition, and lock out further automatic controls. Ta-n‘ks, valves and conduits‘ A softening tank 5 is of a conventional sort, being fully closed and containing a mineral such valves 3'! and 38 to move to the open service po sition in response to pressure of the liquid within the pipes in which they are located as taught in said patent to Griswold. The valves 29 and 38 are located in the pipe ill, the valve 29 near the bottom thereof, and the valve 38 near the top. The valves 3| and 32 are located on opposite sides of the drain pipe 8 in a vertical pipe 332 con nected to the pipe I8 above the valve 38 and below the valve 29. The valve 37 is located in the service pipe ‘I and the valve 33 is located in a branch pipe 44 from the hard water pipe 9 lead“ ing through an injector 43 and into the pipe it between the top of the tank 5 and the valve 38. These valves occupy the position shown in Fig. 5 during service operation of the softener. Dur ing backwash operation of the softener the valve 37 is closed, the valve 29 is open to direct water from the pipe 6 into the bottom of the softener, the valve 32 is open to permit water to flow from as zeolite, which requires periodic regeneration. 6 is the inlet line to the tank 5, ‘I is the service line and 8 is the drain line. The ?ow through the tank is controlled by a system of individual thertop of the softener through the pipe 332 hydraulic valves all of which are controlled by to drain pipe 8, and the valves 3!, 36 and 33 are a pilot, generally designated by the numeral I9. The pilot I0, which is a modi?cation of the pilot (ii) closed. During the brining step or the step in which brine is being taken into the softener and mechanism described in U. S. Patent 2,193,720, during the rinse step, the valves 33 and 3! are issued to Griswold, includes a stationary plate 9 and a movable plate I I. open and the valves 29, 32, 37. and 39 are closed. The pilot I0 is adapted to control six valves The bleeding oil of tubes 34 and 35 is permitted in a manner so that at any one time four of through the center opening 24 that connects with them will be closed and the other two open. The the passageway 29 and with the drain tube 23. inner faces of the stationary plate ,9 and the As movable plate I I is caused to index through its movable plate H each has six openings spaced angular stages, in this case being equivalent to about the periphery at 60° intervals and at equal a rotation of 60°, the four valves having tubes radial distances from the center so that upon a 70 connected with openings I2, I3, Id and I5 are 60° rotation of the movable plate II, a di?’erent closed at each stage through pressure applied series of openings in the plates 9 and I I will be in therein as described in said Griswold patent, registration with one another. whereas the two valves having tubes connected Figs‘. 2 and 5 show two members of the pilot with openings I9 and 2| will be permitted to open III, the stationary plate 9 and the movable plate in response to line pressure within the pipes in 2,405,479 5 are initiated by the closing of a circuit through the operation of a thermal timer 62. The thermal timer 62 as well as the other thermal timers pres ently to be described may be of any well known type commonly obtainable on the market. These timers are obtainable to operate in different time ranges, the time interval being determined by which they are located. The operation of the hy draulic valves controlled by pilot I9 is so corre lated with a motor valve 39 controlling the in troduction of regenerating solution such as brine that the well known regenerating steps of back wash, brine, rinse, and return to service are ef fected by three 60° movements of the movable plate II. Therefore, after each 180° movement of the movable plate II, a regeneration cycle is the adjustment of the contacts, by the nature of the bimetal employed, the size and nature of the completed. 10 block, and the heating rate of the coil. While the structure of the timer forms no part of the Brine is carried from a brine tank 4! through present invention, in this instance it comprises a pipe 42 on which is located the valve 39' to an injector 43 that is positioned in a pipe dis a block of metal 52a carrying an electrical heat posed between the pipe 414 and a four-way pipe ing coil 'H for heating the block and a bimetallic ?tting 55 in the vertical pipe I B. When hydraulic blade 12 secured to the block and” movable in response to change in temperature of the block to close or open a contact. Referring to Figs. 4 and 5,,the circuit to the timer 52 is from trans valve 33 and motor valve 39 are open, water from inlet 6 ?ows through pipe 44 through the in jector 43, thence through vertical pipe l8 to the top of the tank 5, causing brine to be sucked former 50, power lead‘ 63, contact 64 of relay A, from the brine tank Al and merged with the water 20 lead 65, contact 66 of relay D, lead 61, contact at the injector to pass to the top of the softener 68 of relay C, lead 69, heater ‘H, to ground. tank 5 in a combined ?ow. This'soluticn is car Relay A, as are relays B, C, D and E, is com ried down through the zeolite bed to regenerate monly known as the latch-in type, such as shown the same, then out to drain. The brine level is in U. S. Letters Patent 2,114,862 to Karl H. Som properly maintained in the brine tank Iii by an 25 mermeyer, a suitable form being sold by G. M. automatic control on a pump 46 connected with Laboratories, of Chicago, Illinois, under the name a brine storage tank 51 through which the brine “Type L_ Twin Latch Relay.” The relays each tank 41 is re?lled after the softener is returned have arms X and Y which shift from one posi to service. Pipe line 50 connects the storage tank tion to another in response to energization of 41 to the brine tank 4!. 30 one of the electromagnets, the, arms having in As shown by Fig. 5, this water treatment device terlocking ends X, and Y, which interlock to is adapted for use with a well storage system. hold the arms in any one position, though both By this arrangement, all water entering the electromagnets are deenergized, until the other inlet line 5 is pumped through the electrically electro-magnet is momentarily energized. operated pump 48. All the treated water is then ‘ the relay arms may occupy either the position carried to the storage tank 49 through the serv ice line ‘I. When the Water level in the tank 59 shown by relay E of Fig. 4 with the end Y1 above falls to a predetermined level, a pressure switch 5! will complete a circuit to the pump motor 52 to refill the tank 49 with softened water. This.’ circuit is through the line 53, lead 5"“a, switch 5!, motor 52, lead 55 and line 55. The hardness tester The hardness tester which performs the test ing operation is constructed substantially inac cordance with the principles shown in U. S. Let ters Patent 2,254,782, issued September 2, 1941, Thus the end X1 or the position of relay A of Fig. 4 with the end X1 above the end Y1. The positions of the relays shown in Fig. 4 corresponding to the positions occupied thereby while the service water is running soft I have called the normal positions of the relays. The arms X and Y are pivoted at V and W and pivotally support depending stems V1 and W1 upon which bridging contacts 45 are carried in the usual manner. Thus, if at any time the power circuit is interrupted, the setting of the controls in this Water treatment to A. L. Riche, and is located in the instrument device will not be interfered with; consequently, ' it will resume at the point left 01f when the power panel 51. As shown by Figs. 1 and 3, water is 50 is restored. The circuit completed by heating of . supplied to an observation cell 58 through a pipe 59 that is tapped into the bottom portion of the vertical pipe N3 of the softener. In this instance the tester includes a glass test cell H8 having a photo-electric cell I84 disposed on one side of - the test cell and a lamp 9S disposed on the oppo site side to project light through the test cell onto the photo-electric cell 154. Disposed within the test cell is a wiper HT having blades Illa bearing against the inner surface of the test cell in order to remove sediment, the wiper being blade ‘82 of the thermal timer 62 is through power lead 13', contact point ‘M, blade ‘I2, line 13a, con tact '35, to electromagnet 16, to ground, thereby energizing electromagnet 16 of relay C to cause this relay to shift to the abnormal position with the end of arm X below that of arm Y. The movement of the arm Y opens contact ‘55 to again deenergize the electromagnet ‘i6 leaving in such relation to the remainder of the device that it is out of the path of light between the the relay in the abnormal position as explained above. This shift breaks the circuit to the ther mal timer 52 at contact 68, completes a circuit to “test” lamp ‘ll through lead 61, contact 68 and lead 78. Contact 19 of relay C completes a cir cuit from power lead ‘is to lead 5| and lead 86 which goes to the hardness tester motor 82 and lamp and the photo-electric cell when the lamp to ground, thereby actuating the motor. is energized for a test. When the hardness test is initiated, a sample of water will flow from the contact “32 of relay C is closed to precondition a circuit to the electromagnet N33 to return the relay C to its normal position upon closing of switch 98 by way of circuit including switch 96, lead 89, contacts I02 and magnet I03 to ground. A cam shaft 82a carrying cams 83, 81 and 95 is driven by the motor 82 as described in said Riche patent. As motor 82 begins to rotate, cam 83 driven from a shaft 82a. of a motor 32 as described in said Riche patent, the wiper being disposed vertical pipe 13 through the pipe 59 to the obser vation cell 58, the displaced water ?owing out to ~ the drain line 8 through a pipe 5% this ?ow of water being controlled by means presently to be described. The periodic testing cycles of the hardness tester, in this instance at ten minute intervals, The provides a means for sustaining the motor cir 2,405,479 7 8 cuit during its one revolution movement, the lobe thereof permitting lever 85a, which is spring pressed toward the cam, to move contacts 85 into closed position thereby completing a circuit through the power lead 63, power lead 84, con tacts 85 to lead 86 and thence through motor 82 to ground. The motor 82 may be started either by manually closing a switch @222 or by the clos ing of contact ‘Id of thermal timer 62. Further to a coil Hi8 of a movable coil, chopper bar, gal movement of the motor 82 causes cam 81 to complete a circuit from power lead 84 through contact 88 on a lever 8861. spring pressed against the cam to both a normally closed magnetic valve 85 and the solenoid 9! oi" a reagent pump am, through leads 92 and 93, respectively. En ergizing the circuit to valve 89 causes it to open and remain open while the circuit is energized as determined by the length of the lobe on cam 8‘! to displace the water of the previous test in the cell 58 and ?ll it with a fresh sample of the water ~ going to the outlet '1 of the valve being self closing to terminate flow through the cell 58. Energizing the circuit to solenoid 9! energizes the solenoid and upon deenergization, by opening of the circuit, a measured quantity of reagent, such as soap, is injected by a diaphragm pump SIa as vanometer III) of conventional design such as that sold by G. M. Laboratories of Chicago, Illi nois, under the designation No. 11886 galvanom eter, and of the general type shown in U. S. Letters Patent 2,11%,853 to Archie J. McMaster through external critical damping resistance Iii'la, shown in Fig. 4. The coil I68 carries a needle I69 movable therewith in accordance with the usual practice. The resistance I In is adjusted so that when the water is soft and no obscuration occurs in the test cell, the output or the photo electric cell IM will energize the coil I88 of the galvanometer rotating the coil to cause needle I09 to shift to the soft position above a contact bar H5 while, if the water tests hard, the output of cell I64 is insu?icient to rotate the coil I08 through a full swing and the needle I09 will re main at or near its point of rest above the “hard” contact bar IIIi. Through a cam III on the shaft of motor IOI and sustaining contacts H2 and H3, a circuit through power lead 84 to timing motor IE] will be completed shortly after the motor starts so that this motor will always complete one 360° cycle of operation. A cam IIIa carried on the described in said Riche patent into the observa motor shaft and acting on a lever I Illa of chopper tion cell 58 through pipe 9t. In this instance bar H4 causes chopper bar IM to oscillate about approximately 90 seconds, is allowed for the re pivots I IIlb within a narrow arc to permit needle action of the reagent with the sample before the 30 I69 to be clamped in a closed position between lobe of cam 95 closes switch contacts 95 to the chopper bar I I4 and either the “soft” contact energize lamp 98 and pass light through the bar H5 or the “hard” contact bar H6, when the sample in the observation cell. This reaction is flat spot on cam Illa. engages the lever IIIIa de such that if the water is hard, varying degrees of pending on the result of the test. At this stage obscuration will be apparent in the sample pro 35 of the operations, so long as the needle shifts as portional to the degree of hardness, while it the above described to a point above the contact bar water is soft, the sample will remain clear. Dur I15, no action occurs when the chopper bar moves ing this interval the thermo timer 52 has cooled to a closed position. sui?ciently to open contact ‘I4. Thus, further If the test sample of water within the cell 58 movement of motor 82 causes the lobe of cam 95 40 reaches a predetermined degree of hardness, such as above described to engage the support lever as one-half grain per gallon, the reduced amount Sta which is biased to open position, closing of light from the bulb 98 falling upon the photo cont-act 96 to complete a circuit from power lead electric cell I94 will cause needle I59 of the gal~ 84, contact 96, lead 91 to light bulb 98 disposed vanometer to remain in the “hard” position above on one side of the cell in a position to project the contact bar H6. Thus, when clock motor light therethrough. At the closing of contact 95, IGI reaches the clamping phase in its revolution, another circuit is simultaneously energized to the chopper bar I III will clamp the needle against initiate a timing motor preferably a synchronous the bar IIE closing a circuit from power lead 85, motor I?l that operates chopper bar I Id of a gal through chopper bar H4, needle I09, contact bar vanometer presently to be described, as shown in 50 I It all of which are of electrically conductive ma Fig. 4. This circuit is from contact at of the terial, lead IIS, relay contact I2I, and electro hardness tester to lead 89 to the timing motor magnet I22 of relay A, drawing the arm X down IcI and thence to ground. In addition to the causing the latter to shift to the abnormal posi initiation of the motor we the completion of this tion. The shifting of relay A opens contacts circuit energizes lamp mm to indicate the con I2Ia, Ella, Eda, and I251"; and closes relay con dition of the circuit. A further circuit is also tacts 2‘IIb, 6417, I251), I13a, and I?Ia to complete set up through conductor 99, to contact I02 of and break a number of circuits in the process of relay C, to an electromagnet I I33 of relay C to initiating regeneration. These circuits will be ground, in order to cause the end of arm Y of taken up in due time. the relay to be drawn downward past the end of Staging device for control of pilot arm X, resetting relay C to its normal position as shown in Fig. 4, from abnormal position with The circuit to “hard” lamp I23, which indicates the arm Y uppermost, thereby reenergizing ther hardness in the water, is completed through mal timer 62 to time the period between tests. power lead I24, contacts I25 and I251) of relay A If the water is soft, light rays from bulb 98 65 and lead I26. Also completed is a circuit, pres will be relatively unobstructed in their passage ently to be described, to a stager that actuates through the observation cell 58 and will fall with the movable plate II of the pilot II). As shown relatively great intensity upon a photoelectric cell in Fig. 5, this stager has a continuously running IM positioned on the opposite side of the cell 53. motor I21 whose circuit is power lead 63 and lead A suitable form of photoelectric cell is that made I28. The motor I 21 rotates at a relatively high by G. M. Laboratories and sold under the name speed and actuates reduction gearing in gear box “Type F—3",” which is a selenium cell of the I29, causing a bevel gear I3I to rotate at a'slower self-generating type. Energy from this photo rate. In axial alignment with the axis of gear electric cell IIM is carried through the leads I05 I 3| is the drive shaft I32 which is ?xed to the and I 06, as shown in Fig. 3, to a resistance [61, center of movable plate II of the pilot I0. Selec 2,405,479 10 9 Y. tively engageable means for engaging bevel gear I3I with a complementary bevel gear I33 on the shaft I32 includes a gear I34 which is adapted to engage and disengage from the gears I3I and I33 as it is moved inwardly and outwardly there from in response to the energization and de energization, respectively, of a selectively engage able means operating magnet I35, the gear I34 dropping out of mesh under its own‘ weight and the weight of the magnet armature. This system of engagement for driving the shaft I32 has been found to index accurately the pilot II], without objections such as overrun or variable move ment, so that the hydraulic valves controlling the flow through the softener are eificiently and accurately operated in the proper sequence. Shaft I32 of the stager has three cams I36, I5I and I55 mounted thereon, each of which has a pair of knobs disposed at 180° intervals so that rotation of the shaft through 180° completes the cam cycle for one regeneration, the shaft rotat ing through one-half turn at each regeneration. The shaft I32 also has a cam I41 amxed thereon button I42 to ground to start regeneration. Un der these conditions, indicator bulb I43 of low amperage will be energized along with “hard” lamp I23 when relay A is shifted, thus informing the operator that the softener is set up for the initial or backwash stage of regeneration and all that need be done is the completing of a circuit manually, through push button I42 to shunt out the lamp I43 and cause sufficient current to flow to ground to energize the magnet. A relay I44 is simultaneously energized with the circuit through push button I42 or switch I4I to close contacts I44a thereby establishing a new ground for the circuit by way of conductor I36 to sustain a cir cuit through a ground I45 upon release of the push button I42 until the stager has indexed the pilot I6 through one stage of movement. Either fully automatic operation or semi-automatic op eration of the softener, then, is obtained by either 20 closing or opening, respectively, knife switch I4I. Upon initial movement of the cam I36, either as a direct result of the shifting of relay A or as a result of the closing of switch I42, the circuit having six depressions I49 therein separated by cam lobes, the depressions being arranged at 60° to magnet I35 is sustained by closing of contact I46 by cam I41, the circuit being broken upon the completion of 60° movement by opening of con intervals around the cam. The cams I36, I5I and I55 are so arranged on the shaft that lobes tacts I46 carried on lever I46a biased to closed position and. controlled by the lobes on a master of the cams will close the switches I31, I52 and cam I41, the completed circuit being through I56 successively upon 60° rotations of the shaft and will allow these switches to open prior to 30 power lead 63, lead I48, contacts I46, to lead I38, magnet I35 and lead I39. Prior to opening of completion of 60° rotation of the cams. The contacts I46 contacts I52 are closed by cam I5I. cam I41 is ?xed to the shaft in a position such as Depressions I46 of cam I41 are spaced so that to close switch I46 after the shaft starts rotation the circuit to magnet I35 is broken upon the and hold this switch closed and keeps magnet I35 energized until the shaft has rotated a full 60° 35 completion of any 60° movement of drive shaft I32. The next cam I5I of the stager cams “sets and to deenergize the magnet when the 60° rota up” the stager for movement of the hydraulic tion has been completed. It will be observed that valve to positions which control the brine and upon the completion of each 60° rotation of the rinse stages of the softening, that is, upon com shaft, one of the switches I31‘, I52, and I56 is closed to precondition a circuit to the magnet 40 pletion of the ?rst 60° of rotation of drive shaft I32, contacts I52 carried on a spring pressed I35. This switch mechanism it will be observed, is a simple program switch such as is well known lever I52a are closed by the cam I5 I. Thus, when the backwash stage is completed, as determined in the art. by a test made by a turbidity tester which will In Fig. 5 the cams are shown in a position of rest between regeneration cycles. In this posi- ‘ be hereinafter described, a circuit will be com pleted to magnet I35 through the shift of a relay tion cam I36 “sets up” the stager to move the B to an abnormal position opposed to that of valves to the backwash position, one lobe of the cam engaging a switch lever I31a normally biased Fig. 4, this circuit being through power lead 63, to open position, to close contact I31 to precon contacts I53 and I53a of relay B, lead I54, stager dition a circuit to the magnet I35 whereby upon contacts I52, lead I38, magnet I35 and lead I36. the shift of relay A to the abnormal position in This causes a second 60° movement of the drive response to energization of magnet I22 as here~ shaft I32 so that the hydraulic valves are moved tofore described, circuit will be completed to the by the pilot I6 to the brine and rinse position, magnet I35, this circuit running from power lead whereupon brine is introduced into the tank 5 through the pipe 42 by action of the injector 43 I24, contacts I25 and I25b of relay A, leadI26, contacts I31, lead I33, magnet I35, and thence and opening of motor valve 39, the rinse step to ground by way of a switch I4I or a lamp I43 being entered upon, without further movement as will presently more fully appear. This move of the hydraulic valves, after the introduction of ment of relay A also opens the circuit of "soft” a predetermined quantity of brine. Upon initial lamp 33I at contact I25 and completes circuit to rotation of the cams, cam ‘I41 again closes switch hard lamp I23 by way of power lead I24, contact I46 and holds the circuit until the shaft has‘ Where complete automatic operation is desired, rotated another 66° and closed contacts I56. At the completion of this second 60° movement knife switch MI is closed so that upon the shift or a total of 120° of movement of drive shaft I32, I25 and conductor I26.v ' one lobe of ?nal cam I55 of the stager “sets.up" of relay A, as above-mentioned, the stager will be automatically initiated. Where semi-auto a circuit to magnet I35 through closing of con matic operation is desired switch MI is left open tacts I56 by urging spring pressed lever I56a in and when relay A is shifted to the abnormal a direction to close the contacts I56. The dura position, current ?ows to ground from magnet 70 tion of the rinse is determined by tests made by I35 by way of lamp I43, illuminating this lamp the hardness tester which has returned to opera~ as well as “hard” lamp I23, the lamp I43 pre tion an interval, in this instance 25 minutes, after venting the ?ow of sufficient current to operate the appearance of high brine at an electrode I51 positioned in the lower end of vertical pipe I6 the magnet I35. Thereupon the circuit to clutch magnet I35 is manually completed through push 75 of the softening tank 5. This electrode may suit 2,465,479 11 12 ably be a conventional engine spark plug screwed for turbidity ‘is delayed until the backwash has into the pipe with the central electrode thereof continued to the point when hard water in the tank 5 has passed to drain and turbid backwash connected to a contact-or 233 of relay E as will presently ‘be described. When the rinse is free from excess or spent brine and the eiiiuent of the softener is soft, the photoelectric cell IM of the hardness tester will cause needle ‘£99 of the galvanometer to shift to a point immediately above “soft” contact bar II5 to complete a cir water is ?owing through the cell I55. Upon the expiration of this predetermined time interval, in this instance approximately 10 minutes, blade I ‘I8 of the timer I12 completes a circuit from ground contact I79, blade I18, lead I82, motor I83, lead I84, contacts I85 and “25d of relay B, cult from power lead 84, chopper bar I I5, contact vbar H5, lead E59, lead I59, contacts l6! and I6Ia, lead I92, to electromagnet I53 to ground to power line 63. whereupon arm Y is drawn down and arm X raises under the action 'of gravity on the stem V1 and relay A reset in its norl lal position as similar to galvanometer HO and also to energize a “turbid” lamp I88 having a circuit through shown in Fig. ll. This shift 'of relay A completes the circuit previously set by the contact I55 of the stager, the circuit being power lead 63, lead I25, contacts 525 and £250. of relay A, lead I54, I98, lead I9I, contacts I92 and I92a of relay B and power lead 63. A resistance £93, an exter The energization of this cir cuit causes a timing motor I83 to actuate a chop per bar I86 of a chopper bar g'alvanometer I8? ground contact I19, the blade I78, lead I39, lamp nal critical damping resistance Hits, and coil I94 of the galvanometer I31 are so adjusted with stager contact I55, lead I38, magnet i355, lead 20 respect to the energy in the leads I95 and I95 This causes the stager to move a further of the photoelectric cell III that a needle I91 60° to complete a cycle of operation of 180° bring ing the ‘cams and switches back to the position electrically isolated bar I98 so long as the water I39, operated by the coil will be positioned above the shown in Fig. 5, whereupon the hydraulic valves ?owing through cell IE6 is turbid and will shift to controlled by pilot It are returned to the service 25 the opposite side, above a contact bar l99 upon position and the regeneration cycle is completed. the water becoming clear. Indication of move ment of motor I83 and hence of the turbidity test Turbidity tester and the backwash phase is given by lamp ISSa. The sustaining circuit for The turbidity tester, like the hardness tester, the motor I83 is through contacts Ni and 202 is located in the instrument panel 51. Its func 30 closed by a cam I837) on the shaft of motor ‘I83 tion is to determine the duration of the backwash enabling it to make a complete revolution before phase of softening, in order that the‘soitener may stopping. The sustaining circuit then will be be advanced to the brine step at the proper time. through power lead 63, sustaining contactZ?I, In the backwash phase, raw water is entering the sustaining contact 202, motor I83, lead I82, blade inlet 6, proceeding downwardly through the ver 35 I78, to ground contact I'i9. tical pipe it into the bottom of the tank 5, up When the backwash has progressed. to the through the mineral bed within the tank 5, and extent that the water ?owing through the cell thence out through the drain 8. A small por I66 is clear beyond a preselected turbidity suffi tion of the drain water is carried through a ‘pipe cient light from lamp I59 will fall on light sensi I55 to a generally elongated observation c'ell I35 40 tive cell I'iI to cause its output to be sufficient to and thence returned to drain through a pipe (ii. energize galvanometer coil I94 and the needle The flow is so regulated that water will flow con I97 of galvanometer I81 to shift to a point over tinuously through the cell meet a predetermined bar I99 as described in connection with galva rate so long as there is water flowing through the drain line 8. In order that an air space will not form in the toprof the cell Iii-‘3, one end of a pipe IS‘I is positioned in the top portion of the cell nometer I ID to complete a circuit from power lead 63, chopper bar I96, needle I91, contact bar I99, lead 203, contacts 204 and 205a of relay B, con tact 205, to electromagnet 295, to ground. This to carry off any air to the drain pipe SI. Win causes relay B to shift to an abnormal position dows I68 are located on opposite ends of the cell with arm Y above arm X causing the circuit to ass, a bulb I59 being ‘positioned before one of 50 the heater of timer I72 and to bulb I99 to be the windows and a photoelectric cell Ill of the broken at contacts I76 and H611, opening contacts same type as the photoelectric cell I64 before the I92a, I'Iiib, I85a, and zero of relay B and closing other so that the light absorption characteristic contacts I921), "6a, I‘Ida and I5iia. A circuit of the ?uid within the cell I55 may be measured to the stager is thus energized to index the pilot by the photoelectric cell I1 I. When relay A shifts to the abnormal position in response to presence of hardness in the water being tested by the hardness tester, the controls of the turbidity tester are initiated. One of the I5 to the next phase of regeneration, namely, the brine introduction phase. The circuit thus completed to the stager is through power lead 63, contacts I53 and I531; of relay B, lead I54, contact I52 of the stager, lead I38, magnet I35, circuits completed by the shifting of relay A is to 60 and lead I39 to ground. the heater in a thermal timer I12 similar in struc Another circuit en ergized at the shift of relay B is that to a “clear” ture to timer 62, as'shown in Fig. 4, through lamp 259 through power lead 63, contacts I92 power lead 53, lead I28, contacts I13 and I730. of and I92b of relay B, lead ZID, “clear” lamp 290, relay A, lead I74, lead I'I5, contacts I18 and I'l?b lead 229, contacts 230 of relay E to ground. of relay B, lead I‘l'I, to the heater of timer I12, The brine and rinse phases of regeneration to ground. At the same time, a circuit to‘the bulb I69 is energized. This circuit taps into the When-the stager has moved the pilot II] from circuit of the heater or timer H2 at the'contacts the backwash position to the position for intro I'll)‘ and H612 ofrelay B, and thereafter consists of lead I89 which goes to the bulb I69 and thence 70 ducing brine, water flows ‘through the inlet line upwardly past valve 33 through a pipe 46 through to ground through lead ‘IBI. A counter I8Ila of the injector 43 through the top portion of vertical conventional type may be. provided in this circuit pipe‘ I8 downthrough the tank 5 and out through to be indexed upon each energization of light the lower portionof verticalpipe It to the drain bulb I69 to record the number of regeneration cycles eifected by the softening device. The test 75 line 8. Through the shift of relay B in response 2,405,479? . 13 14" thence into lead 8| through lead 96 to the hard ness tester motor 82. The hardness tester begins operation according to the manner previously de scribed to test for the presence of brine inthe rinse water. Indication of the hardness tester’s return to operation is given by energization of a “brine test” lamp 259 whose circuit is completed simultaneously with the closing of blade 252 of the thermal timer 248, the circuit being from lead 259, through contact 26| of relay 253, through lead 262 to “brine test” lamp 259, to ground. At to the water testing clear in the turbidity tester as just described, a circuit is completed whereby the motor valve 36 in the brine line 42 is opened. This circuit begins near relay A of Fig. 4 from the power line 63 to the lead I24 to contacts I13 and H311 of relay A, lead I14, lead I15 to contacts I16 and |16a of relay B, and lead 263 to a step~up transformer 233 in Fig. 5. Relay 2| I, shown in Fig. 5, is thereupon energized, its circuit being from transformer 269 through lead 2 I2 to lead 2 I 3 to electrode 2I4 located in the brine tank M, the brine 2I5 within this tank serving to ground the same time, a circuit to relay 246, as shown in Fig. 4, is completed through lead 2533, relay con tact 26! of relay 253, lead 263, relay 246, lead 264, electrode 2I4 and thereby complete the circuit. Upon energization of this circuit, relay 2“ shifts to complete a circuit to valve 33 through lead 15 to ground. The shifting of relay 246 breaks the circuit to thermal timer 248 at relay contact 245, 2|6, relay contact 2I1, and lead 2I8 through the motorized valve to ground, whereby valve 39 is opened permitting brine to be sucked from the tank 4| by the injector 43 into the softening and sustains a circuit to relay 253 through a lead 265, a contact 266 of relay 246, and lead 256 causing the tester to operate continuously and tank 5. The circuit to relay 2|I is sustained 20 conduct continuous tests. The hardness tester conducts continuous tests during this interval through contact 2I9 of re during the rinse phase after the timer 248 closes, lay 2H, lead 22!, and electrode 222 which is the test samples being taken at intervals of ap grounded to the tank 4Lin the presence of the proximately 120 seconds. Continuous testing is brine 2I5. When the brine level reaches a point effected through the maintenance of the circuit below the electrode 222, the ground circuit to motor 62 of the hardness tester by the energi through both electrodes 2|4 and 222 will ,be zation of relay 246 at the actuation of series relay 253, whereby the circuit to series relay 253 and broken, causing relay 2| I to shift so that a circuit will be completed to close motor valve 33 through lead 2I6, contact 2I1, lead 223, to ground. The consequently motor 82 is sustained, this circuit ?ow through the inlet 6, through the injector 43, of relay 246, lead 258, series relay 253, leads 6| and 86 to motor 82. It is clear, then, that the circuit softener is automatically then in the rinse posi 30 being from power lead 63, lead I24, contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, leads 23I, 22 9, 265, contact 266' tion, inasmuch as fresh water is continuing to where it ceases to take on brine‘, down through to motor 32 will be maintained until relay A re turns to the normal position to break the circuit thence to drain line 6. ' at contacts 64 and 641). When the e?luent is free In the meantime, when brine ?rst enters the of brine and there is less than approximately one top of tank 5, a circuit is completed to a “brine half grain per gallon of hardness, the needle I66 in” signal through electrode 224 in the top of of the galvanometer shifts to a position above the vertical pipe I6, this circuit running from ground, through electrode 224, through lead 225, through 40 contact bar I I5 to reset relay A in the normal p0 sition, this circuit being through power lead 64, the “brine in” lamp 226, lead 221, lead 228, lead chopper bar II4, needle I99, contact bar I I5, lead 229, lead 23I, contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead I24 and power lead 63. I53, lead I59, contacts I6I and |6Ia of relay A, the tank 5, out the bottom of the tank, and ‘ At the presence of brine leaving tank 5 at an electrode I51 near the lower end of pipe ‘I8, this being the spent brine displaced through the in troduction of brine, a circuit is completed through 45 lead I62, electromagnet I63, to ground. Simul~ taneously with the return to thenormal position of relay A, the relay B and relay E are caused to return to the normal position. Relay B is actu the ground of tank 5, electrode I51, lead 232, ated by a circuit completed by the shift of relay A contact 233 of relay. E, lead 234, electromagnet through power lead 63, lead I24, contacts 21! and 235, lead 236, lead 238, lead 228, lead 229, lead 23I, 60 21Ia of relay A, lead 212, lead 213, contacts 214 contacts 64 of relay A, lead I24, and power lead and 214a of relay B, lead 215, to electromagnet 63. This causes relay E to shift to the abnormal 216 to ground which acts to return the relay to position opening contacts 236 and 233 and closing its original position of Fig. 4. Relay E is reset . contacts 239 and 218, causing “brine drain” lamp through a circuit tapping into the above-men 231 to light by completion of circuit running from 55 tioned lead 212, to lead 211, to contact 213 of relay contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23I, lead 229,, E, lead 219, electromagnet 29! to ground. As has lead 228, lead 238, contact 239 of relay E, lead 24!, lead 242 of “brine drain” lamp 231, lead 243, lead 244, contact 245 of relay 246, and lead 241 to ground. contemporaneously with the energiza tion of this signal lamp circuit, a circuit to a heater in a thermal timer 243 similar to timer 62 already been brought out, the resetting of relay A initiates the pilot I9 through its last 60° period of rotation whereby the hydraulic valves are re 60 turned to the service position. Brine re?ll operation and pump controls is energized, this circuit being made through the As has been pointed out, the brine tank 4| is contact 239 of relay E, lead 249, timer 248, lead 25I, which junctions with lead 244 of the “brine 65 re?lled through the operation of the pump 46 which draws brine from the brine storage tank 41 drain” lamp 231, and thence to ground through to the brine tank 4| through the pipe 59. In or relay 246. At the lapse of a suitable time, for der that only a predetermined quantity of brine example, approximately 25 minutes, blade 252 of will be introducedinto the softening tank 5, the the thermal timer 243 completes a circuit through a series relay 253 and thence on to the hardness 70 pump 46 is held inoperative while the softener is in the process of regeneration. tester motor 62 to re-initiate its operation. The When the softener is not regenerating, then, circuit thus completed is through power lead 63, the circuit to motor 282 which controls the pump lead I24, contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23I, lead 229, lead 228, lead 254, contact 255, blade 252, I. . 46 is controlled by the brine level in brine tank lead 256, lead 251, lead 258, series relay, 253 and 75 4| with respect to electrodes 293'and 264 within 15' M05479 16 lever having resiliency and is positioned to bear this tank. When the level in the tank 4| is even with electrode 283, a circuit is completed from a against the cam 366 as a result of which it fol transformer 285, lead 286, relay 281, lead 288, lows the curvature of cam 368. The cam 368 is electrode 283, to ground of tank 4| through the brine 2 I5. When the brine level falls below elec shaped so that when the lobe thereof, which is the protruding part of the peripheral surface thereof, is disposed away from the lever 361a, the trode 283, the circuit to relay ‘281 is sustained through electrode 284, lead 289 and contact 26I of relay 281. However, the circuit to relay 281 is broken when the brine level goes below electrode 284, thereby causing relay 281 to shift and to en ergize the circuit to motor 282 of the brine pump, end of this lever will engage lower contact 361 permitting current to flow between the lever and the contact. The lever 361a and contacts 361 shown in the drawings constitute simply a dia grammatic showing of any conventional and well known double-throw switch adapted for cam op eration. After the expiration of approximately this circuit being from line 56, lead 292, contact 293 of relay 281, lead 294, motor 262, lead 295, and line 53. The relay 281 will again be energized upon the brine level reaching the electrode 283, whereby the relay circuit is again completed and 36 minutes, or other suitable period, and after the softener has been placed in the backwash phase, the lobe of cam 3II closes contact 3I2 to complete a circuit from power lead 63, lead I24, contacts21 I and21 lb of relay A, lead 3 I3, lead 3 I4, the circuit to motor 282 is broken at the contact 293 of relay 281. As has already been described, the relay A shifts to the abnormal position when the hard- . ness tester indicates hardness in thewater, there by either throwing the softener into regenera tion if set for automatic operation, or setting the softener up for initiation of regeneration by the actuation of the push button I42 shown in Fig. 5, if set for semi-automatic operation. At this shift ing of relay A, a circuit is completed to a relay 296, this circuit running from power lead 63, lead I24, contacts I13 and I13‘a of relay A, lead I 14, lead 291, relay 296 to ground. The energization of relay 296 completes two circuits, one of which is from transformer 285 through lead 298, re 3U lay contact 299 of relay 296, lead 36I, lead 288, relay 261, and lead 286. This sustains the en ergization of relay 261 to prevent the actuation t. of motor 282 of the brine pump 46 irrespective of the brine level in the brine tank 41, thus pre venting re?lling of the brine tank 4| during the regeneration period. Relay 296 also provides a contact 3I2, lead 3I5, lead 263, contacts 264 and 264a of relay B, lead 265, electromagnet 266 to ground, whereupon relay B is shifted to the ab normal position. It will be recalled that relay B is normally shifted to the abnormal position through the action of the turbidity tester which actuates relay B through a circuit completed by galvanometer I81 when the backwash through the turbidity tester tests clear. Thus, if the back wash period exceeds a preselected period with out actuating relay B, relay B is automatically shifted through movement of cam 3II by motor 365, after which the previously described steps of regeneration are continued, the softener being eventually returned to‘ the service position in a regenerated condition. In the event that fault occurs at some point in the regeneration period so that the softener has not returned to service after the expiration of approximately one hour or other suitable period as determined by the speed of motor 365, cam 3 I6 shunt circuit around pressure switch .5! of the 40 of motor 365 completes a circuit through con pump 48, so that pump 48 is continuously oper tact 311, this circuit being through power lead ated to provide water in the inlet line 6 during 53, lead I24, contacts 2H and 21Ib of relay A, the regeneration period, irrespective of the water level in the tank 49 which otherwise controls pres lead 3I3, contact 3I1, lead 3I8, contact 3I9 of relay D, electromagnet 32I, to ground. This sure switch 5I. causes relay D to shift to the abnormal position opposed to that of Fig. 4 whereby relay A is re turned to the normal position through a circuit consisting of power lead 63, lead 322, contacts 323 The circuit thus completed is ~ from line 53, lead 54, lead 362, contact 363 of relay 296, lead 364, motor 52 lead, 55 and line 56. Device for notifying of a fault If a fault develops in any of the control steps of regeneration, a clean-up device takes over the control of the regeneration whereby the softener is eventually returned to the service position, the operator is signaled as to the existence of the fault, and further automatic operation of the re and 323m of relay D, lead 324, contacts I6I and I6Ia of relay A, lead I62, electromagnet I63, to ground. A circuit is also completed to a “fault” lamp 325, through lead 322, contacts 326 and 32811 of relay D, lead 329, “fault” lamp 325, to ground. Resetting of relay A to the normal position acts to return the softener to the service position through the circuits thus energized. It will be remem bered that if relays B and E are set in the ab remedies the trouble. normal position, they are returned to the normal As shown in Fig. 4, this device includes a motor position upon the resetting of relay A to the nor 365, having a half revolution per hour rate of ro 60 mal position. A circuit that is broken by the tation, cams 368, 3I I, and 3 I 6,, switch levers 361a, shift of relay D in response to timed movement 3I1a and 3I2a riding the cams, and contacts 361, of motor 365, is a circuit to the heater H of ther 3I1 and >3I2 opened and closed by operation of mal timer .62 which controls the frequency of the the cams against the levers operated thereby, hardness tests while the softener is in the service and a relay D. Upon the shift of relay A to the 65 position. This circuit is broken by contact 66 of generation cycle is prevented until an operator abnormal position at the start of regeneration, relay D. Thus, when relay D is actuated, the the motor 365 is energized through power lead 63, operator is advised of the fault through the ener lead I24, contact 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23!, gization of “fault” lamp 325, the hardness tester lead 366, contact 361, and motor 365 to ground. is prevented from making further tests, and the Upon initiation, the circuit to motor 365 is .sus 70 softener controls are locked out to prevent fur tained by the lobe of cam 368, permitting contact ther automatic control. In order to restore the lever 361a to engage lower contact 361 to com softener to automatic control, the operator must plete a sustaining circuit through lead 369, where actuate a push button 328 to complete a circuit by the motor is always returned to its original through electromagnet 323 of relay D, whereby starting position. The lever 361a is a metallic 75 the relay D is reset to the normal position. 2,405,479 . Operation When pump 48 is inactive, no water is ?owing through the softener and the power lead 63, that terminates in transformer 69, is dead. The power lead 63 is connected with a source of power only when transformer 68 is energized either through a circuit completed by the closing of pressure switch 51 from line 53, lead 54, switch 5i, lead 18v ~ In the backwash stage, valves 29 and 32 are open and the remaining valves are closed, caus ing the flow to be through inlet 6, down through vertical pipe I8, up through the softening tank 5, down through a pipe 332, past the valve 32, to the drain line 8. A portion of the drain ef ?uent is then passing through drain line I65 through observation cell 188 of the turbidity tester. 338, transformer 60, to line 56, or through a sus 10 At the start of regeneration, one of the cir taining circuit to motor 52 through a shunt cuits completed by the shift of relay A is the cir around pressure switch 5I consisting of the lead cuit to the heater of thermal timer I12 along 302, contact 363 and lead 394. This shunt cir with a circuit to bulb I89 of the turbidity tester cult is completed by the closing of relay 296 in through lead I88, contact I16, lead I15, lead I14, response to the energization of lead 29'l‘upon contact I13 of relay A, lead I24, and power lead the shift of relay A at the start of regeneration, 83. When the apparatus is located where there the relay 296 being provided to prevent the pump may be wide temperature variations, the thermal 5| from being shut off while a test or regenera timers I12 and 248 may be replaced by clock tion operationis in progress s0 as to prevent in timers of. conventional form. After the expira terruption of the tester or the regeneration cycle 20 tion of a suitable time corresponding to that re after it has once been started. It will be obvious quired for clear Water to be passed from the head that since regeneration is started in response to space of the softener tank and turbid water to be a test’ of the water ?owing in the system, re discharged, blade I18 of timer I 12 completes a generation will not be initiated or tests made ex circuit energizing motor I83 that actuates the cept when the pump 48 is in operation. It is . chopper bar I86 of galvanometer I81 and also clear, then, that the power lead 63, which sup energizes the “turbid” lamp I88. When the ef plies the energy for all controls but the brine re fluent passing through cell I66 of the turbidity ?ll control, is dead unless pump motor 52 is op tester reaches a predetermined degree of clear erating. During the service position, when the softener ,. is in operation, pump 48 is operating through completion of the circuit to motor 52 by the clos ing of pressure switch 5i in response to the low ering of the water level in storage tank 49. At this time water is ?owing through inlet line 6,‘ I up through vertical pipe I8 to the top of tank 5, down through tank 5, up through the lower portion of vertical pipe I8, and out through the service line 1 into storage tank 45. The hard ness tester completes a series of test cycles at periodic intervals as the circuit of thermal timer 62 is broken and made by the movement of blade ness, needle I91 of galvanometer I81 completes a circuit through power lead 33, chopper bar I86, needle I91, contact bar I89, lead 283, contact 204 of relay B, lead 285, electromagnet 286 to ground, causing the shift of relay B to the abnormal po sition and causing the completion of a circuit to “clear” lamp 288. If the softener is in its auto matic setting, a circuit completed by the shift of relay B is the circuit to the stager through lead 154, whereby, through the closing of con tact I52, the stager is caused to rotate the pilot I In a further angle of 60° to place the softener in the brine phase. If the softener is in its semi automatic setting, push button I42 must be ac 12, Each closing of blade 12 operates to shift tuated to initiate this movement of the pilot I 0. relay C‘to initiate movement of motor 82 of the During the brine phase, the hydraulic valves hardness tester to begin the test cycle and to 33 and 35 are open, the remaining hydraulic break the circuit to heater ‘H of the thermal valves being closed, causing flow through inlet timer 62. Toward the conclusion of the test line 8, past valve 33, through pipe 44, past the cycle, cam 95 of the motor 82, completes a cir injector 43, in and down through the tank 5, out cuit to reset relayC and to energize a circuit to through the lower portion of vertical pipe I8, past bulb 98 in order that photoelectric cell I04 may 50 valve Si in pipe 332, and out through the drain measure the light absorption characteristic of the line 8. contemporaneously with the shifting of segregated sample within the observation cell 58. relay B, a circuit through lead 268 is energized So long as the effluent tests soft, galvanometer to move the motor valve 39 to open position. This needle I99 swings to the “soft” side so that relay permits the injector 43 to draw brine from the A remains in the normal position. At that time, brine tank 4i until the brine level in the brine an indicator “soft” bulb 33I is lighted through a tank ill reaches a point below the electrode 222, circuit consisting of power lead 53, lead I24, con whereupon ‘the motor valve 39 is closed. At the tact I25 of relay A, and lead I 64, advising the presence of brine around an electrode 224 at operator of the result of the tests. the top of vertical pipe I8, a circuit is completed If the Water tests hard, galvanometer needle 60 by conductivity causing the energization of I09 remains on the “hard” side to cause relay “brine in” lamp 226. When the brine has passed A to shift to the abnormal position. This lights down , through the tank and spent brine has “hard” lamp I28 and “sets up” the stager for its reached the electrode I51 in the bottom of ver ?rst 60° movement of the pilot I9. If the knife tical pipe IS, a circuit through lead 232 is com switch I4I of the stager is open as in the semi 65 pleted, causing the shift of relay E. At the same automatic setting, the operator merely presses time, the heater of thermal timer 248 along with the push button I42 to complete a circuit from the “brine drain” lamp 231 is energized. ground through push button I42, lead I39, clutch Upon the closing of motor valve 39, it will be magnet I35, lead I38, contact I31, lead I26, con apparent that the softener enters the rinse stage tact I25, lead I24, and power lead 63. This 70 without movement of the pilot I8, the fresh water causes the stagger to move the pilot I9 through continuing to ?ow past the injector through the an angle of 60° to the backwash position, this same ?ow route as the brine flow route. After movement being controlled, after initiation, by the expiration of approximately 25 minutes, the the master cam of the stager which makes and thermalv timer 248 completes a circuit through its breaks a sustaining circuit through contact I46. 75 contact 252, through series relay 253 and lead 2,405,479 19 20 8!, whereby the hardness tester motor is initiated means to the aforesaid position to effect a con to begin an uninterrupted series of test cycles. At tinuing test of the turbidity of the drain water, the same time, a circuit to “brine test” lamp 259~is andmeans operated‘by said testing meaus'when energized. When the rinse water passing through a predetermined turbidity is reached in the ef observation cell i ll of the hardness tester is free ?uent of the treatment device for moving said of spent and/or excess brine and is soft, a circuit valve means to another position. is completed by the galvanometer needle [09, 3. The combination in a water treatment de whereby relay A is caused to return to the normal vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for position. When the softener is in the automatic treating the water, conduits connected with the setting, this return completes a circuit previously 10 said tank for introducing water to be treated “set up” by cam I55 of the stager, causing the therein, carrying treated water therefrom and stager to move the pilot a further 60°, whereupon for drain, valve means controlling the ?ow the hydraulic valves are returned to the service through said tank, movable to a position where position, as shown in Fig. 5. If the softener is in by the ?ow through the service line may be cut the semi-automatic setting, the actuation of push off, the drain line opened and water backwashed button I 42 accomplishes this same movement. As through the said tank to drain, light sensitive previously pointed out, the return of relay A to testing means to test turbidity of the drain wa the normal position completes circuits, causing ter, said meansincluding an observation cell hav relay B and relay E to return to the normal posi ing opposed windows through which the sample tion. In addition, the heater ‘H of the thermal of water continuously passes in the presence of timer 52, which controls the test intervals of the ef?uent in the drain, a source of light and alight hardness tester, is again energized. Thus, the sensitive cell, said source of light and said cell hardness tester returns to its periodic testing being placed on opposite sides of the said obser function and all the circuits are again set up for vation cell, means operated upon movement of another regeneration cycle. said valve means to said position for starting I claim: said testing means, and means responsive to the 1. The combination in a water softener of a said testing means for moving said valve means softener tank, a source of regenerating solution, to another position to terminate the said back conduits connected with said tank for introducing wash in the absence of a predetermined turbidity raw water to be treated therein, introducing re 30 in the effluent of the said treatment device and generating solution, carrying away treated water for terminating the operation of said testing and a drain conduit, valve means for controlling means. the flow through said tank movable successively 4. The combination in a water treatment de vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for rinse positions, testing means including a cell 35 treating the water, conduits connected with the said tank for introducing water to be treated connected with the tank for testing the ef?uent therein, carrying treated water therefrom and of the tank for hardness during the service posi- , for drain, valve means controlling the flow tion and for regenerating solution during the through said tank movable to a position for ter rinse position, turbidity testing means including a cell connected to receive liquid from the tank 40 minating ?ow of treated water and starting flow to drain, light sensitive testing means to test tur for testing e?iuent going to the drain for turbid bidity of the drain water, an observation cell hav ity while said valve means occupies the backwash ing windows in its opposite ends, means for pass position, valve actuating means for moving said ing drain water from the conduit to drain through valve means through said positions in succession, . between service, backwash, regenerating, and control means for said valve actuating means in cluding a plurality of circuits and switches for operatively connecting the actuating means with said testing means to move the valve means from backwash to regenerating position when the tur bidity testing means indicates less than a prede termined turbidity in the drain effluent and from the rinse position to service position when said said observation cell, a source of light and a light sensitive cell, said source of light and said cell being placed to measure the light absorption characteristic of the ?uid flowing through the said observation cell, timing means started upon movement of said valve means to said position to delay action of said testing means for a preselect ed time required for turbidity to appear in the drain, means operated by said timing means for ?rst testing means indicates the absence of re energizing said source of light upon the lapse of generating solution in the drain e?luent of said 55 the predetermined time, and electrical means re tank. sponsive to the said testing means for signaling 2. The combination in a water treatment de the operator when the turbidity in the effluent vice of a treatment tank, a mineral therein for of the said treatment device reaches a predeter treating the water, raw water conduits connected mined minimum. with said tank for introducing water to be treat 60 5. The combination in a water treatment de ed into either of the opposite ends thereof, a vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for service conduit connected to one end of said tank treating the water, conduits connected with the for carrying treated water therefrom, a conduit said tank for introducing water to be treated connected to the opposite end of said tank from therein, carrying treated water therefrom and a said service conduit for carrying waste water to ' drain conduit, valve means controlling the flow drain, valve means controlling the flow through * through said tank, light sensitive testing means said tank movable to a position to terminate the to test turbidity of the drain water, said means ?ow through the service conduit and one of said including an observation cell having windows in raw water conduits to pass water in a reverse its opposite ends, means for passing drain wa direction through the treatment tank to back 70 ter from the drain conduit'to waste through said wash the treatment tank, light sensitive means observation cell, a source of light, a light sensi connected to said tank to receive backwash wa tive cell, said source of light and light sensitive ter therefrom, means connecting the valve means cell being located to measure the light absorp and the light sensitive means for energizing said tion characteristic of the ?uid ?owing through light sensitive means upon movement of said valve the observation cell, a galvanometer responsive 2,405,479. 21 to'the said light sensitive cell, a circuit, and‘ switch means electrically connected with the said galvanometer for energizing said circuit, means actuated by the last-mentioned circuit when the light absorption characteristic drops below a pre selected point as indicated by the output of said light sensitive cell for actuating said valve means 22 - vice of a tank, valve means for controlling the ?ow through said tank movable between service, backwash, and rinse positions, light sensitive means for testing the e?luent of the treatment device for turbidity during the backwash step, said means comprising a source of light, light sen sitive means, an observation cell having oppositely disposed transparent windows and placed between to e?ect a change of flow through the said treat the said source of light and light sensitive means, ment tank in the absence of a predetermined tur bidity in the effluent of the said treatment device. 10 conduitsconnecting the said observation cell with the effluent of the softener, and a drain line from 6. The combination in a water treatment de the said observation cell for the carrying o? of vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for treating the water, conduits connected with the said tank for introducing water to be treated therein, carrying treated water therefrom and a drain conduit, valve means controlling the flow through said tank, light sensitive testing means to test turbidity of the drain water, said means including an observation cell having windows in all water passing through the said observation cell, means operated by movement of said valve means to the backwash position for energizing said testing means to effect a test, and electrical in dicating means responsive to the light sensitive means for indicating the presence and absence of a predetermined turbidity in the water pass its opposite ends, means for passing drain water 20 ing through the observation cell. 10. The combination in a water treatment de from the drain conduit to waste through said ob servation cell, a source of light, a light sensitive * vice of a tank, valve means for controlling the flow through said tank movable between service, cell, said source of light and light sensitive cell backwash, and rinse positions, light sensitive being located at opposite ends of the said observa tion cell, a galvanometer responsive to the said 25 means for testing the effluent of the treatment device for turbidity during the backwash step, light sensitive cell, and switch means including a said means comprising a source of light, light circuit coupled with the said galvanometer, said galvanometer energizing the circuit at a prese sensitive means, an observation cell having oppo sitely disposed transparent windows and placed lected output of said light sensitive cell corre sponding to a predetermined ‘turbidity in the ef 30 between the said source of light and light sensi tive means, conduits connecting the said obser fluent of the said treatment device, and means vation cell with the e?luent of the softener, and a actuated by the said switch means for controlling drain line from the said observation cell for the 'the said valve means to effect a change in the continuous carrying oil? of water passing through flow through the said tank. the said observation cell, means for operating said '7. A device as described in claim 6, which in valve means and means energized by said light cludes a timing device energized upon movement of said valve means to a preselected position, and sensitive means responsive to the presence of a means controlled by said timing device for start ing said testing means to delay the making of the test of the said light sensitive testing means until turbid water has reached the said obser vation cell. 8. The combination in a water treatment de preselected minimum turbidity in the water ?ow ing through the said observation cell for actuat ing the said operating means to operate said valve through said tank movable between service, back wash, and rinse positions, means connected to through a series of regenerating steps, said stager means from the backwash position to the re generating position. 11. The combination in a water treatment de vice of a tank, hydraulically operated valve means vice of a treatment tank having a regenerating material therein and a source of regenerating so 45 for controlling the ?ow through said tank, and a stager for actuating the said valve means lution, valve means for controlling the flow comprising a pilot, a drive shaft on said pilot, a continuously running motor, and selectively en one end of said tank for testing the e?iuent of the treatment device for exhaustion of the re 50 gageable means between said drive shaft and con generating material during the service position tinuously running motor, means for engaging and disengaging said selectively engageable means, and for regenerating solution during the rinse position, turbidity testing means connected to means connected to said shaft and to said en gaging and disengaging means for disengaging the opposite end of said tank for testing the ef ?uent of the softener for turbidity during the 55 said selectively engageable means at predeter backwash position, driving means for operating mined angular positions of said shaft, means for re-engaging said selectively engageable means at said valve means between said positions in the said predetermined angular positions to drive said order enumerated, means connecting the ?rst drive shaft through a series of successive prede mentioned testing means and said driving means when the valve means are in the service position 60 termined periods of rotation for intermittently in dexing the said pilot from one position to the to move said valve means out of said position succeeding position in its cycle and fluid con when said effluent indicates a predetermined hard ness, means for connecting the turbidity testing duits connecting said pilot with said hydraulical ly operated valve means for operating said valve means and the driving means in the backwash position of the valve means to move the valve 65 means upon movement of said pilot between its means out of the backwash position upon the oc currence of a test by the turbidity testing means positions. 12. The combination in a water treatment de indicating a preselected minimum turbidity, and vice, of a tank, hydraulically operated valve means means for connecting the driving means and the I for controlling the flow through said tank, and ?rst mentioned testing means in the rinse posi 70 a stager for actuating ' the said valve means through a series of regenerating steps, said stager tion of the valve means to move the valve means out of the rinse position upon the occurrence of comprising a rotatable pilot, a drive shaft on the a test indicating a preselected minimum brine said pilot, a continuously running motor, and content. selectively engageable means-between the said 9. The combination in a water treatment de 75 drive shaft and continuously running motor mov 23 2,405,479 24 able between engaged and disengaged positions, the circuit‘means is energized, a plurality of- pairs electrically operated means for moving said se lectively engageable means to one of said posi tions, circuit means including said electrical of contacts in said circuit ‘means, cam means on means and at least one switch, and cam means on the said drive shaft for operating said switch to control said electrical means to disengage the selectively engageable means upon the rotation of the said drive shaft through a predetermined period of rotation, switch means in said circuit 10 said shaft arranged for successively operating pairs of contacts for closing said circuit means at the operated contacts during rotation of said shaft, master cam means on said shaft cooper ating with one pair of contacts and constructed to close and open said one pair of contacts peri odically during rotation of the shaft for sustain ing and breaking the circuit for periodic rotation for controlling said electrical means to move said of the shaft, a ?rst testing means including a cell selectively engageable means to said engaged po sition to index» said pilot through a series of pre determined periods of rotation, and ?uid conduits connected with the tank for testing the e?luent of the tank for hardness during service position and for regenerating solution during rinse posi tion, turbidity testing means including a cell con nected with the tank to receive liquid from the tank for testing eilluent going to the drain for turbidity while said hydraulic valves occupy the backwash position, and switch means responsive to the hardness testing means and the turbidity connecting said pilot andsaid hydraulically op erated valve means for operating said valve means upon movement of said pilot‘between its posi tions. 13. The combination in a water treatment de vice of a treatment tank having a water treating material, a source of regenerating solution, con duits connected with the tank for providing a ?ow of water and regenerating solution through the tank and for carrying away treated water and a drain conduit, valve means including hydraulical 1y operated valves for controlling the ?ow through said tank, a pilot for controlling said hydrauli cally operated valves, pilot actuating means for testing means for energizing said circuit means and operating the selectively engageable means for successively actuating the pilot. 15.,In a water treatment device, the combina tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat ing solution, conduits connected with said tank for introducing raw water to be treated therein introducing regenerating solution and carrying moving the pilot to index the same progressively away treated Water and a drain conduit, valve through successive positions to move the valves 30 means for controlling the flow through the tank through a regeneration cycle,rsaid pilot actuating movable successively between service, backwash, means including a drive shaft connected with the regeneration, and rinse positions, circuit means, pilot, a continuously running motor, selectively eiectrically operated means in said circuit for engageable means for connecting the motor with actuating the valve means, a ?rst testing means and disconnecting it from the drive shaft, an elec 35 including a cell connected with the tank for test tric circuit, electrically operated means in said ing the eiiiuent of the tank for hardness during circuit for actuating the selectively engageable the service position and for regeneration solution means when the circuit is energized, cam means during the rinse position, turbidity testing means actuated by the drive shaft, contacts in sm'd eir~ including a cell connected to the tank to receive cuit operated by said cam means for sustaining 40 liquid from the tank for testing effluent going to and breaking the circuit for controlling periodic the drain for turbidity while the valve means oc operation of the shaft, a ?rst testing means in cupies backwash position, means responsive to cluding a cell connected with the tank for testing said ?rst testing means for energizing the valve the eiiluent of the tank for hardness during serv actuating means to move the valve means from ice position and for regenerating solution during the rinse position, turbidity testing means includ the service to the backwash position, when the test indicates hardness in the treated Water, means responsive to the turbidity testing means ing a cell connected with the drain conduit to receive liquid from the tank for testing eiiiuent going- to the drain for turbidity while said valves for energizing the valve actuating means to move the valve means from backwash to regeneration occupy the backwash position, and switch means 50 position when the turbidity testing means indi responsive to the ?rst testing means and the tur cat-es less than a predetermined turbidity in the bidity testing means for energizingv said circuit drain e?iuent and means responsive to said ?rst and operating the selectively engageable means ' testing means to energize the valve actuating for successively actuating the pilot. means to move the valve means from rinse po 14. The combination in a water treatment de vice of a treatment tank having a water treat sition to service position when the ?rst testing means indicates the absence of regenerating so ing material, a source of regenerating solution, lution in the drain e?luent of said tank, and an conduits connected with the tank for providing a flow of water and regenerating solution through the tank and for carrying away treated water and a drain conduit, valve means including hydrauli automatic clean-up device for energizing said circuit and actuating the valve actuating means independentlyv of said testing means including a motor having a predetermined rate of rotation, cally operated valves for controlling the flow through said tank, a pilot for controlling said hydraulically operated valves, pilot actuating means for moving the pilot to index the same , progressively through successive positions to move the valves through a regeneration cycle, said pilot actuating means including a drive shaft con nected to said pilot, a continuously running mo switch means in said circuit means for energizing said motor when said electrically operated means is energized upon movement of the valve means out of service position, contacts in said circuit means, and cams operated by the motor for clos ing said contacts at predetermined time inter vals to energize said circuit means .and actuate the valve actuatingmechanism to move the valve tor, selectively engageable means for connecting 70 means successively from backwash position to the drive shaft with the motor. and for discon regeneration position and thereafter to service necting it therefrom, electric circuit means, elec position, said clean-up'device having means for trically operated means in said circuit means for actuating the selectively engageable means for connecting the drive. shaft with the. motor-‘when. opening the circuit to the ?rst testing means whereby further operation thereof, is locked out. 16. Ina water treatment device, the combina 2,405,479 25 V 26 means for moving said valve means between said cluding a cell connected with the tank for test ing the e?luent of the tank for hardness during the service position and for regenerating solution during the rinse position, turbidity testing means including a cell connected to the tank to receive positions, primary control means including a plu rality oi testers for testing the flow from said tank, relays operated by said testers and circuits connecting the tester relays and the driving means to the drain for turbidity while the valve means occupies backwash position, means responsive to the turbidity testing means for energizing the tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerating - solution therefor, valve means for controlling the flow through said tank movable between service and a cycle of regenerating positions, driving liquid from the tank for testing e?luent going for operating said driving means to move said valve means in succession through a series of valve actuating means to move the valve means steps in measured sequence to regenerate said treatment device, and an automatic clean-up de vice to return the said treatment device to the service position if fault develops during the re generation of the said treatment device compris turbidity testing means indicates less than a pre ing a timer, means for energizing the timer upon movement of the valve means from the service to the regenerating positions, and means oper from backwash to regeneration position when the determined turbidity in the drain e?‘luent and from rinse position to service position when the v?rst testing means indicates the absence of re generating solution in the drain e?iuentof said tank, an automatic clean-up device adapted to energize said circuit and actuate the valve actu ating means including a motor having a prede ated by the timer including circuits for operat 20 termined rate of rotation, means for energizing ing said driving means to move the valve means between said positions in timed relation. 1'7. In a water treatment device, the combina tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerating solution connected with the tank, conduits con nected with the tank for introducing raw water to be treated therein introducing regenerating solution and for carrying away treated water and a drain conduit, valve means for controlling the ?ow through the tank movable successively be 30 tween service, backwash, regenerating and rinse positions, a circuit, electrically operated means said motor upon movement of the valve means out of service position, pairs of contacts con nected with said circuit, cams operated by the motor for successively closing said contacts after a predetermined time interval to energize said circuit and actuate the valve actuating mecha nism to move the valve means from backwash position to brine position and after a further pre determined interval of time to actuate the valve actuating mechanism to move the valve means to service position, and a relay in circuit with the hardness testing means and operated by the mo tor to open the circuit to the hardness "testing in said circuit for actuating said valve means, means for IOCkil'lg the treatment device against testing means including a cell connected with the tank for testing the eilluent of the tank vfor hard 35 automatic operation when the treatment device is ness during service position, for turbidity during returned to service position by said clean-up de the backwash position and for regeneration so V108. . lution during rinse position, means including cir cuits and relays responsive to the testing means for energizing the valve actuating means to move the valve means from service position to back Wash position, for energizing the valve actuating 19. In a water treatment device, the combi nation of a tank, a source of regenerating solu tion, an inlet for raw water, an outletfor service water and a drain, valve means for controlling means to move the valve means from backwash means to test for the absence of regenerating so lution in the ef?uent of said tank, an electrode immersed in the drain effluent of the said tank, a circuit including said electrode arranged to be closed by the presence of high percentage brine in said drain e?luent, timing means in said circuit started by closing of the same, a‘ switch on said position to regenerating position and for energiz ing the valve actuating means to move the valve means back to service position in response to tests on the e?luent, an automatic clean-up device to the flow through the said tank, electrical testing return the treatment device to service position in the event that fault develops during the re generation cycle of the said treatment device in 50 timing means closed thereby at the expiration cluding a timer, means operated by the timer of a predetermined period, and a circuit con adapted to energize the valve actuating means at nected with the said switch and said testing predetermined intervals of time to move the valve means for initiating operation of the said elec means from backwash position to regenerating trical testing means upon the closing of the said position if the valve means has not been oper switch. ated by the testing means and to move the valve ‘20. The combination in a water treatment de means to service position if the valve means has not been operated thereto by the testing means, and means operated by said timer to open the circuit to the testing means after the valve means has been returned to service position for termi nating the control of the valve means by the testing means, whereby the treatment device is locked out of automatic operation. 18. In a water treatment device, the combina 65 tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat ing solution, conduits connected with said tank for introducing raw water to be treated therein introducing regenerating solution and carrying away treated water and. a drain conduit, valve means for controlling the ?ow through the tank movable successively between service, backwash, regenerating and rinse positions, a circuit, elec trically operated means in said circuit for actu ating the valve means, a ?rst testing means in vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for treating the water, a source of regenerating so— lution, conduits connected with said tank for in troducing water to be treated therein introducing regenerating solution and carrying treated water therefrom and a drain conduit, valve means con trolling the flow through said tank, testing means for testing for the presence of regenerating so lution in the e?luent of the tank, means respon sive to said testing means for actuating the valve means, timing means for initiating operation of the testing means upon the lapse of a predeter mined time, and a conductivity electrode disposed in the drain e?luent and electrically connected with said timing means for initiating operation of the same after the appearance of regenerating solution in the e?luent of the tank. 21. The combination in a water treatment de Vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for 2,405,479 27 .28 treatingwater, a source .of. regenerating solution, conduits connected with said tank. for introduc ing water to betreated. therein introducing re generating solution and carryingtreated water .means including switch means insaid circuit,,and .a signalmeans electrically connected with: the therefrom and a drain conduit, valve means con . trolling the ?ow through said tank, .a circuit, electrically operated meansin said circuit for actuating the valve means whenthe circuit is energized, testing .means for testing the e?iu .ent forhardnesswhen .the valveoccupiesthe .service position and for absence of regenerating switch means for indicating the presence of hard ness .in the e?luent when the valve actuating means is energized. ,24. The combination in a water softenerof a treatment tank, a source of regeneratingisolu tion,.conduits connected with the tank for intro ducing raw water to be treated therein intro ducing regenerating solution. andcarrying away treated water. and. a_drain.conduit, valve means solution. intheeiiluent when the valve means .occupies rinse .position including. a cell connected .for controlling the. ?ow through said. tank,..mov with the tankv for receiving ‘effluent from the tank, vgenerating, andrinse positions, a ‘?rst testing able successivelybetween scrvice,.,backwash, re~ .a. second testing. means. connected to receive drain 15 means including..a..ce1l connected with thetanl: for .testingrthe'e?luent of.-. the ,tankicr hardness a Water from-said tank. for testing the drain Water .forturbidityin the backwash position, signal means .forlindicating the presenceof hardness in. theservice water, the. absence of turbidity. in ‘during the. servicelpositioni and. for regenerating solutionduring rinse_..position, electrically oper .ated valve actuating means for actuating the valve thedrain water and theabsence of regenerating 20 means tomove. the . valve means. from'service po . solution, in the drain water,.electrica1 circuits con sition .to backwash position whenuthe hardness nectingsaid testing means to said signal means, .meanscontrolledby the .testingmeans to ener gize and. deenergize. said last-mentioned circuits, testing means. indicateshardness inthe .e?luent cfithetank, a signaLelectrically connected with the ?rst testing..means,for .indicatinghardness 7. and ,manuallyoperated- control means including 25 in the e?luentturbidity. testingmeans including a. push button in said. ?rst mentioned circuit for .controlling the same formoving said. valve means frornservicev position through successive positions a cell connected withrthetdrain.conduit tore ceive liquid .from the tank for testing e?luent going to the _drain.for.turbidity while said valve _. and return to serviceposition through successive means occupies backwash vposition, .means re actuation ofsaid push buttonas indicated by the sponsive tothe turbidity testing means to ener gize said valveactuating means to move the valve .signalmeans. ‘ ".22. LThe combination. in awater treatment de .vice.cf..a.treatmentl tank,‘ asubstance therein for -.treating.thelwater, a. source of regenerating solu tion,.conduitsconnectedwith said tank for in troducing water to be treated. therein introduc ing regenerating solution and carrying treated water therefromand a drain conduit, valve means controlling .the. flowthrough said tank, light-sen from backwash .positionto regenerating position when theturbiditytesting means indicates less thanra predetermined turbidity in the drainer ?uent, asignal electrically connected with the turbidity testing means and energized by the same, for indicating. a.turbidity test, said ?rst testing means operating .to ,energize the valve actuating-.means to move the valve means back ..sitive testing means to test turbidity of the drain 40 to service position when test indicates absence .water,_sa_id .means including. atest cell having of_regenerating solutionin the e?luent of the windows, means iorpassing drain water from the tank,..and a .signalelectrically connected-with drainconduit towaste through said cell,»a source said ?rst testingmeans and energized by the lat .of light, alight sensitive cell, said source of. light ter when rtestindicates absence of regenerating .and light sensitive cellcbeing. located. to pass light solution in thee?‘luent and thezwater. is clear. .‘fromthe. source. through the water insaid test .25. .In ..a .water treatment: device, :the combi ,celLonto. the light-sensitive cell, means-respon .nation .of..a treatment tank having a. sourceof sive to said lightsensitive cell :and including a . regenerating.solutioman inlet for hard water and .circuit, ,electrically -operated valve actuating r€generating~solutiornservice outlet for .soft wa means in said, circuit. for -. actuating. said valve 5.0 ter . and: a. drain, valve. means for controlling the ‘means ata predetermined. turbidity of. the drain water‘ for moving the. valve means. toeanother po ‘ sition, a signal means, and a.circuit..connected .with 'the turbidity testing. means. for: energizing ..flowv through the. said tank-movable betweeniserv . ice, . regenerating , and . rinse positions, ..meansifor driving 1 said . valve. means "between .said :positions, ..testing.means. fortesting the water for hardness said signal means during the test of the turbidity. 55 when , the‘v valve occupies. the. service; positionand .23. The combinationin. a water. softener of a .for.-absence..of brinein the eliiuent When the treatment‘tank, a sourceof regenerating solu .valve means; occupies the rinse-position, -.means tion, conduits connected withsaid tank forin operated by said testing means to control the 'troducing raw Watertobe. treated thereinintro operation of said driving means, an electrode im ducing regenerating solution and. carrying away mersed insaid drain effluent, a' circuit to the said treated water and a drain conduit,.valve, means electrode. energizedupon initiation of regenera for controlling the ?ow through said tank mov tion bythe said control means, said circuit being able-successively between service, backwash, re generating,’ and rinse positions, testing means. in cluding a' cell connectedwiththe tank for test ing the-e?iuent of’ the tank for hardness during the-service position~ and for regenerating solution duringregenerating position, electrically operated completed by the presence Of-‘I‘Ggener?ingsolll tion at said electrode, timing means in said cir cuit'started by completion thereof, "a switch on said timingmeans operable attheexpiration of .a predetermined period,. and circuits, connected with the said- switch for-initiating operation'of the said electrical .testingmeans at'the closing rthroughsaidpositions in succession, means re- 7 of the said switch. :sponsive'to the testing means for. energizing the .26. .In awaterv treatment system; thercombina valveactuating means to move the valve means tion of a liquidtreatment devicer'requiringperi valve actuating means .forvmoving said valve i from service position to backwash position when the testing means indicates hardness in the ef "iiuentto the service conduit, the . last mentioned odic regeneration including a‘ water treatment tank, .a-source of regeneration solution, conduits for . raw , water, service water; regeneration .solu ‘ 2,405,479 29 30 tion, and a drain conduit and valve means for controlling the flow therethrough movable through the service, backwash and rinse steps in ice position and for regenerating solution during a regeneration cycle, a source of liquid supply, a pump for drawing liquid from the source of supply, a water storage tank for water delivered by the said pump and. passed through the treat ment device, an electrically controlled motor for the said pump including a plurality of independ ent circuits therefor, a pressure switch in one of the circuits of the electrically controlled motor, said pressure switch being connected to said stor the rinseiposition, turbidity testing means in cluding a cell connected to receive liquid from the tank for testing e?‘luent‘going to the drain for turbidity while said valve means occupies the backwash position, valve actuating means for moving said valve means through said positions in succession, control means including means re sponsive to the ?rst testing means for energizing the valve actuating meansto move the valve means from service position to the backwash po sition when the ?rst testing means indicates hard age tank and responsive to a predetermined ness in the eiiluent to the service conduit, and means responsive to the turbidity testing means amount of stored liquid so that the said pump will be operated upon the liquid reaching the 15 to energize the valve actuating means to move predetermined amount, a relay in another of the the valve from the backwash position to the re said circuits for controlling the ?ow of current to generating position when the turbidity testing said motor, means for energizing said relay upon means indicates less than a predetermined tur movement of said valve means to backwash and bidity in the drain effluent, said control means rinse positions and for de-energizing the same 20 being also responsive to the ?rst testing means upon movement of said valve means to service to energize the valve actuating means to move position whereby operation of the said pump will the valve means back to the service position when be sustained once the said relay has been ener the ?rst testing means indicates the absence of gized irrespective of the position of the said pres regenerating solution in the drain ef?uent of the sure switch. 25 tank. 27. The combination in a water treatment de 30. In a water treatment device, the combi vice of a treatment tank, a source of regenera nation of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat tion solution, conduits for raw water, service wa ing solution connected with the tank, conduits ter, regeneration solution and a drain conduit, connected with the tank for introducing raw wa valve means in said conduits movable through ter to be treated therein introducing regenerat steps to effect a cycle of regeneration, electrically ing solution and for carrying away treated wa operated control means connected to said valve ter and a drain conduit, valve means for con means, electrically operated testing means con trolling the flow through the tank movable suc nected to said service conduit operative in at cessively between service, backwash, regenerating least one of said steps to test the effluent of said and rinse positions, a circuit, electrically operated tank, a circuit connecting said testing means and means in said circuit for actuating said valve said control means for energizing said control means, testing means including a cell connected means in response to a test, said circuit including with the tank for testing the e?iuent of the tank a latch-in relay for maintaining said circuit closed for hardness during service position for turbidity in the event of a temporary electrical power fail 40 during the backwash position and for regenera ure to resume operation of said cycle at the point ‘ tion solution during rinse position, means includ- ‘ left off upon the resumption of power supply. ing circuits and relays responsive to the testing 28. The combination in a water treatment de means for energizing the valve actuating means Vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for to move the valve means from service position, treating the water, conduits connected with said for energizing the valve actuating means to move tank for introducing Water to be treated therein the valve means from backwash position to re and carrying treated water therefrom and a drain generating position, and for energizing the valve conduit, valve means controlling the flow through actuating means to move the valve means back said conduits, light sensitive testing means to test to service position in response to tests on the turbidity of drain water when the valves occupy effluent, an automatic clean-up device-to return the backwash position, said means including an the treatment device to service position in the observation cell having windows in its opposite event that fault develops during the regenera ends, means for passing drain water from the tion cycle of the said treatment device including drain conduit to waste through said observation a timer, means operated by said timer adapted cell, a source of light, a light sensitive cell, said ‘ to energize the valve actuating means at predeter source of light and light sensitive cell being lo mined intervals of time to move the valve means cated at opposite ends of said observation cell, a from backwash position to regenerating position relay energized by said light sensitive cell, a cir if the valve means has not been operated by the cuit coupled with said relay, and a second relay testing means and to move the valve means to connected in said circuit and energized thereby service position if the valve means has not been at a predetermined turbidity of the drain water, operated thereto by the testing means, means op and means energized by the operation of said sec erated by said timer to open the circuit to the ond relay for operating said valve mechanism to testing means after the valve means has been re move the valves out of backwash position. turned to service position for terminating the 29. The combination in a water softener of a control of the valve means by the testing means, softener tank, a source of ‘regenerating solution, whereby the treatment device is locked out of conduits connected with said tank for introduc automatic operation, signal means for indicating ing raw water to be treated therein, introducing faulty operation of the testing means, and means regenerating solution, carrying away treated wa operated by said timer for energizing the signal ter and a drain conduit, valve means for control means when the valve actuating means is ener ling the ?ow through said tank movable succes~ gized by said timer. sively between service, backwash, regenerating, 31. In a water treatment device, the combi and rinse positions, a ?rst testing means includ nation of a tank, a source of regenerating solu ing a cell connected with the tank for testing the tion, inlets for raw water and regenerating so eiiluent of the tank for hardness during the serv lution, an outlet for service water and a drain,’ £2,405,479 .131 32 a valve means?for controlling therl?owr through the ringzmeansuciosedithereby:at the expirationcf; a :predetermined'period, a-circuit connected with ‘said; tank, testing means‘ to test'fori the: ‘presence of'regenerating solution in the e'?iuentQ-of ‘said tank-an electrode immersed in the drain e?iu ent-of the said tank, a circuit including said elec troole»v arrangedito be closedby the presence of high 'percentage regenerating solution-in said .‘draineiiiuent, timing means in said. circuit start 1 edzbyclosing of the same, a switch on said tim the-said switch~ and‘rsaid » testing means for ‘ ini tiatingf operation of the said’ testing means upon the closing of the said switch, a signal means for ‘indicating when said testing means is inopera tion, and a circuit connecting the signal means with the timer and energized by said timer. ’ FRED W. -WI-IITLOCK.