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Патент USA US2405479

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F. w. WHITLOCK
'
2,405,479
WATER TREATMENT DEVICE
I
Filed May 31, 1941
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F. w; WHITLOCK
‘2,405,479
WATER TREATMENT DEVICE
Fil'ed May 31, 1941
' 3 Sheets-Sheet _2
Aug. 6, 1946).
F. w. WHITLOC‘K
2,405,479
WATER TREATMENT DEVICE
TFiled May 31, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 3 .'
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
altar:
UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE
2,405,479
WATER TREATMENT DEVICE
Fred W. Whitlock, Rockford, Ill., assignor to
Automatic Pump & Softener Corporation,
Rockford, 111., a corporation of Illinois
Application May 31, 1941, Serial No. 396,055
31 Claims.
1
My invention relates to improvements in water
treatment devices and control means therefor.
One of the objects of my invention is to pro
vide a water treatment device in which all phases
of regeneration such as service, backwash, intro
duction of regenerating ?uid and rinse are auto
matically controlled in response to tests made
upon the effluent of the softener, in particular,
(01. 210—24)
2
vertical extension of Fig. 5, the views also show
ing in diagrammatic form other structural fea
tures of the device.
Speci?cally my invention is shown as applied
to and part of a water treatment apparatus hav
ing a regenerating solution such as brine, and a
regenerable material such as zeolite within a soi
tening tank. It will be apparent from the dis
closure of this invention that it has numerous
termine when regeneration should be initiated, 10 other applications such as to water treatment de
vices of various kinds and devices controlling the
for turbidity during the backwash phase to de
flow of liquid through valve operation wherein
termine when washing should be terminated and
electrical control means and other mechanisms
for regenerating ?uid in the rinse to determine
may be utilized to achieve automatic and im
when the device should be returned to service.
An object of my invention is the provision of 15 proved operation. The softener disclosed herein
is adapted for fully automatic or semi-automatic
a device connected with a liquid treatment ap
operation. In the semi-automatic setting, the
paratus that will measure the turbidity of the
softener is caused to pass from one of its re
liquid during some phase in its treatment and will
generation steps to another by manually closing
signal an operator or terminate the operation of
this treatment phase upon the liquid reaching a 20 a switch at the termination of each step.
As is clear from Figure 1, the embodiment of
predetermined degree of clearness.
my invention herein shown has a softening tank
Another object of my invention is to provide
having conduits connected therewith for the in
a water softening device having a system of hy
troduction of hard water, carrying away of treat
draulic valves immediately controlled by a pilot
and having an electrically controlled staging de 25 ed water to a service line, and draining of water
vice for accurately indexing the pilot in response
utilized in backwash, brine and rinse steps dur
ing the regeneration cycle. The valves control
to tests being made upon the e?iuent of the sof
ling the ?ow through this system, with the ex
tener.
ception of certain motor valves, are hydraulically
It is also an object of my invention to provide
a nove1 control system for the steps in a liquid, 30 operated and are built substantially according to
the teachings of U. S. Letters Patent issued to
processing device, one transformation. of this gen
Griswold, No. 2,193,720. The valve positions are
eral object being a novel valve operating and con
immediately controlled by a staging device hav
trol means through which a plurality of valves
ing a pilot from which tubes are connected to
may be actuated to each one of a sequence of
positions in response to tests being performed 35 the Valves. Water is used as the valve control
?uid, a valve diaphragm being moved from its
upon the said liquid.
open position by hydraulic force in the tube from
A further object of my invention is to provide
the pilot and being returned to its open position
an automatically controlled water treatment de
by release of this pressure and in response to
vice requiring a periodic regeneration in which
an electrical clean-up device acts as a secondary 40 pressure in the pipe in which the valve is dis
posed. The staging device includes a continuous
automatic control to take over operation of the
ly running motor, and an electrically controlled
device during the regeneration cycle whereby it
selectively engageable means through which the
is returned to' service, in the event of fault oc
motor is engaged to drive the pilot through se
curring in a primary control system which in
cludes automatic testing means for controlling the ‘ , quence of pilot positions.
steps of regeneration.
A hardness testing device is located in the
instrument panel to test periodically for a pre
Other objects of my invention will appear from
determined amount of hardness in the effluent
he following disclosure, wherein—
of the softener. A line supplying ?uid for test
Figure 1 is a side elevation of tanks, valves, con
50 samples to the hardness tester is tapped into the
duits and instrument board of the softener;
softener conduits at a point ahead of the service
Fig. 2 is a view of two elements of the pilot
controlling the hydraulic valves; and
'
and drain outlets.
When the water going to the service line reaches
Figs. 3, 4 and 5 taken together constitute a
a predetermined degree of hardness, circuits and
wiring diagram of the softener, Fig. 3 being a
vertical extension of Fig. 4, and Fig. 4 being a 55 relays are actuated to indicate this condition to
such tests are made to indicate hardness to de
2,405,479
3
the operator and, if the device is set for auto
matic operation, to initiate the regenerating cycle
and discontinue service. This is accomplished by
causing the pilot to index 60° to the ?rst stage.
At this time, circuits to the hardness tester are
broken to retire it temporarily from operation.
Here, the ?rst step in the regenerating cycle is
the backwash phase which is well known to those
, skilled in the water treatment art.
The dura
tion of this step is controlled by a turbidity test
H that is indexed through a cycle of rotation.
The plates 9 and I I are enclosed by a casing which
acts as a support therefor, in accordance with
the teachings of said patent to Griswold. This
casing has a rear chamber through which hy
draulic pressure is transmitted to openings I2, I3,
Iéand 15 in plate II and thence to the openings
in stationary plate 9 inregistration therewith,
the source ?uid of hydraulic force in the rear
10 chamber being a tube it, having one end con
ing device comprising, among other elements, an
nected therewith, the other being connected with
observation cell placed between a source of light
and a light sensitive cell. Backwash ?uid from
the inlet water at a point I? in a vertical pipe I8
connected to the top and bottom of the tank 5.
Openings I9 and ZI and center opening 22 in the
movable plate are interconnected by a passage
the drain is passed continuously through this ob
servation cell during this phase. When the till‘
bidity of the ?uid is reduced to a predetermined
degree, the selectively engageable means on the
stager is actuated to index the pilot through a
way 29 in order that the two peripheral openings
in the stationary plate 9 that are in registration
therewith may be bled oif through. a drain tube
further 60°, whereupon the backwash stage is
23 that connects at one end with the drain 8 and
terminated and the brine stage is initiated. Brine 20 at the other with a center opening 2d of the sta
is carried into the tank by an injector and its flow
tionary plate 9. In an operative position then,
is terminated by operation of a motor valve upon
as, for example, that shown in Fig. 5, ?uid pres
the introduction of a predetermined quantity
sure will be applied to the openings in stationary
thereof. The softener then proceeds, without
plate 9 which are in registration with openings
further valve movement, to the rinse step which 25 l2, I3, 84 and I5 of movable plate H, thereby
continues until spent and excess brine are washed
carrying hydraulic pressure through tubes 25, 26,
clear of the tank. This point is determined by
2? and 28, respectively, that connect with open
the hardness tester which, in the meantime, has
ings 25a, 26a, 27a and 28a, respectively, in sta
returned to operation. At the conclusion of the
tionary plate 9. Pressure in these particular
rinse step, the pilot has been indexed to complete 30 tubes causes the closing of valves 29, BI, 32 and
180", thereby causing the valves to return to the
33, the diaphragms of which are indicated by
service position and complete a cycle of regen
cross-hatching in Fig. 5 and are shown in the
eration.
I
service position supplying water to the service
A clean-up device is provided to take over in
line ‘I while openings I9 and 2|, being connected
the event of control or operational failure dur- .
with tubes 34 and 35 at 340'. and 35a, will release
ing the regeneration period. While the softener
the pressure in these tubes and permit dia
is set for fully automatic operation, it will, if in
phragms, generally designated as numeral 36, in
_ the backwash stage, be carried from the backwash
stage to the next of the succeeding stages if fault
develops to delay the normal termination of the
backwash step and initiation of the brine step
in response to the turbidity testing device. If the
fault is such that the softener is not automatically
returned to service after the expiration of a pre
determined time, during which the softener would
normally have completed regeneration, the clean
up device will return the softener to service, sig
nal the operator of thisrcondition, and lock out
further automatic controls.
Ta-n‘ks, valves and conduits‘
A softening tank 5 is of a conventional sort,
being fully closed and containing a mineral such
valves 3'! and 38 to move to the open service po
sition in response to pressure of the liquid within
the pipes in which they are located as taught in
said patent to Griswold. The valves 29 and 38
are located in the pipe ill, the valve 29 near the
bottom thereof, and the valve 38 near the top.
The valves 3| and 32 are located on opposite sides
of the drain pipe 8 in a vertical pipe 332 con
nected to the pipe I8 above the valve 38 and
below the valve 29. The valve 37 is located in
the service pipe ‘I and the valve 33 is located in
a branch pipe 44 from the hard water pipe 9 lead“
ing through an injector 43 and into the pipe it
between the top of the tank 5 and the valve 38.
These valves occupy the position shown in Fig.
5 during service operation of the softener. Dur
ing backwash operation of the softener the valve
37 is closed, the valve 29 is open to direct water
from the pipe 6 into the bottom of the softener,
the valve 32 is open to permit water to flow from
as zeolite, which requires periodic regeneration.
6 is the inlet line to the tank 5, ‘I is the service
line and 8 is the drain line. The ?ow through
the tank is controlled by a system of individual
thertop of the softener through the pipe 332
hydraulic valves all of which are controlled by
to drain pipe 8, and the valves 3!, 36 and 33 are
a pilot, generally designated by the numeral I9.
The pilot I0, which is a modi?cation of the pilot (ii) closed. During the brining step or the step in
which brine is being taken into the softener and
mechanism described in U. S. Patent 2,193,720,
during the rinse step, the valves 33 and 3! are
issued to Griswold, includes a stationary plate 9
and a movable plate I I.
open and the valves 29, 32, 37. and 39 are closed.
The pilot I0 is adapted to control six valves
The bleeding oil of tubes 34 and 35 is permitted
in a manner so that at any one time four of
through the center opening 24 that connects with
them will be closed and the other two open. The
the passageway 29 and with the drain tube 23.
inner faces of the stationary plate ,9 and the
As movable plate I I is caused to index through its
movable plate H each has six openings spaced
angular stages, in this case being equivalent to
about the periphery at 60° intervals and at equal
a rotation of 60°, the four valves having tubes
radial distances from the center so that upon a 70 connected with openings I2, I3, Id and I5 are
60° rotation of the movable plate II, a di?’erent
closed at each stage through pressure applied
series of openings in the plates 9 and I I will be in
therein as described in said Griswold patent,
registration with one another.
whereas the two valves having tubes connected
Figs‘. 2 and 5 show two members of the pilot
with openings I9 and 2| will be permitted to open
III, the stationary plate 9 and the movable plate
in response to line pressure within the pipes in
2,405,479
5
are initiated by the closing of a circuit through
the operation of a thermal timer 62. The thermal
timer 62 as well as the other thermal timers pres
ently to be described may be of any well known
type commonly obtainable on the market. These
timers are obtainable to operate in different time
ranges, the time interval being determined by
which they are located. The operation of the hy
draulic valves controlled by pilot I9 is so corre
lated with a motor valve 39 controlling the in
troduction of regenerating solution such as brine
that the well known regenerating steps of back
wash, brine, rinse, and return to service are ef
fected by three 60° movements of the movable
plate II. Therefore, after each 180° movement
of the movable plate II, a regeneration cycle is
the adjustment of the contacts, by the nature of
the bimetal employed, the size and nature of the
completed.
10 block, and the heating rate of the coil. While
the structure of the timer forms no part of the
Brine is carried from a brine tank 4! through
present invention, in this instance it comprises
a pipe 42 on which is located the valve 39' to
an injector 43 that is positioned in a pipe dis
a block of metal 52a carrying an electrical heat
posed between the pipe 414 and a four-way pipe
ing coil 'H for heating the block and a bimetallic
?tting 55 in the vertical pipe I B. When hydraulic
blade 12 secured to the block and” movable in
response to change in temperature of the block
to close or open a contact. Referring to Figs. 4
and 5,,the circuit to the timer 52 is from trans
valve 33 and motor valve 39 are open, water from
inlet 6 ?ows through pipe 44 through the in
jector 43, thence through vertical pipe l8 to the
top of the tank 5, causing brine to be sucked
former 50, power lead‘ 63, contact 64 of relay A,
from the brine tank Al and merged with the water 20 lead 65, contact 66 of relay D, lead 61, contact
at the injector to pass to the top of the softener
68 of relay C, lead 69, heater ‘H, to ground.
tank 5 in a combined ?ow. This'soluticn is car
Relay A, as are relays B, C, D and E, is com
ried down through the zeolite bed to regenerate
monly known as the latch-in type, such as shown
the same, then out to drain. The brine level is
in U. S. Letters Patent 2,114,862 to Karl H. Som
properly maintained in the brine tank Iii by an 25 mermeyer, a suitable form being sold by G. M.
automatic control on a pump 46 connected with
Laboratories, of Chicago, Illinois, under the name
a brine storage tank 51 through which the brine
“Type L_ Twin Latch Relay.” The relays each
tank 41 is re?lled after the softener is returned
have arms X and Y which shift from one posi
to service. Pipe line 50 connects the storage tank
tion to another in response to energization of
41 to the brine tank 4!.
30 one of the electromagnets, the, arms having in
As shown by Fig. 5, this water treatment device
terlocking ends X, and Y, which interlock to
is adapted for use with a well storage system.
hold the arms in any one position, though both
By this arrangement, all water entering the
electromagnets are deenergized, until the other
inlet line 5 is pumped through the electrically
electro-magnet is momentarily energized.
operated pump 48. All the treated water is then ‘
the relay arms may occupy either the position
carried to the storage tank 49 through the serv
ice line ‘I. When the Water level in the tank 59
shown by relay E of Fig. 4 with the end Y1 above
falls to a predetermined level, a pressure switch
5! will complete a circuit to the pump motor 52
to refill the tank 49 with softened water. This.’
circuit is through the line 53, lead 5"“a, switch 5!,
motor 52, lead 55 and line 55.
The hardness tester
The hardness tester which performs the test
ing operation is constructed substantially inac
cordance with the principles shown in U. S. Let
ters Patent 2,254,782, issued September 2, 1941,
Thus
the end X1 or the position of relay A of Fig. 4
with the end X1 above the end Y1. The positions
of the relays shown in Fig. 4 corresponding to the
positions occupied thereby while the service water
is running soft I have called the normal positions
of the relays. The arms X and Y are pivoted
at V and W and pivotally support depending
stems V1 and W1 upon which bridging contacts
45 are carried in the usual manner. Thus, if at
any time the power circuit is interrupted, the
setting of the controls in this Water treatment
to A. L. Riche, and is located in the instrument
device will not be interfered with; consequently,
' it will resume at the point left 01f when the power
panel 51. As shown by Figs. 1 and 3, water is 50 is restored. The circuit completed by heating of .
supplied to an observation cell 58 through a pipe
59 that is tapped into the bottom portion of the
vertical pipe N3 of the softener. In this instance
the tester includes a glass test cell H8 having a
photo-electric cell I84 disposed on one side of -
the test cell and a lamp 9S disposed on the oppo
site side to project light through the test cell
onto the photo-electric cell 154. Disposed within
the test cell is a wiper HT having blades Illa
bearing against the inner surface of the test cell
in order to remove sediment, the wiper being
blade ‘82 of the thermal timer 62 is through power
lead 13', contact point ‘M, blade ‘I2, line 13a, con
tact '35, to electromagnet 16, to ground, thereby
energizing electromagnet 16 of relay C to cause
this relay to shift to the abnormal position with
the end of arm X below that of arm Y. The
movement of the arm Y opens contact ‘55 to
again deenergize the electromagnet ‘i6 leaving
in such relation to the remainder of the device
that it is out of the path of light between the
the relay in the abnormal position as explained
above. This shift breaks the circuit to the ther
mal timer 52 at contact 68, completes a circuit
to “test” lamp ‘ll through lead 61, contact 68 and
lead 78. Contact 19 of relay C completes a cir
cuit from power lead ‘is to lead 5| and lead 86
which goes to the hardness tester motor 82 and
lamp and the photo-electric cell when the lamp
to ground, thereby actuating the motor.
is energized for a test. When the hardness test
is initiated, a sample of water will flow from the
contact “32 of relay C is closed to precondition
a circuit to the electromagnet N33 to return the
relay C to its normal position upon closing of
switch 98 by way of circuit including switch 96,
lead 89, contacts I02 and magnet I03 to ground.
A cam shaft 82a carrying cams 83, 81 and 95 is
driven by the motor 82 as described in said Riche
patent. As motor 82 begins to rotate, cam 83
driven from a shaft 82a. of a motor 32 as described
in said Riche patent, the wiper being disposed
vertical pipe 13 through the pipe 59 to the obser
vation cell 58, the displaced water ?owing out to ~
the drain line 8 through a pipe 5% this ?ow of
water being controlled by means presently to be
described.
The periodic testing cycles of the hardness
tester, in this instance at ten minute intervals,
The
provides a means for sustaining the motor cir
2,405,479
7
8
cuit during its one revolution movement, the
lobe thereof permitting lever 85a, which is spring
pressed toward the cam, to move contacts 85 into
closed position thereby completing a circuit
through the power lead 63, power lead 84, con
tacts 85 to lead 86 and thence through motor 82
to ground. The motor 82 may be started either
by manually closing a switch @222 or by the clos
ing of contact ‘Id of thermal timer 62. Further
to a coil Hi8 of a movable coil, chopper bar, gal
movement of the motor 82 causes cam 81 to
complete a circuit from power lead 84 through
contact 88 on a lever 8861. spring pressed against
the cam to both a normally closed magnetic
valve 85 and the solenoid 9! oi" a reagent pump
am, through leads 92 and 93, respectively. En
ergizing the circuit to valve 89 causes it to open
and remain open while the circuit is energized
as determined by the length of the lobe on cam
8‘! to displace the water of the previous test in the
cell 58 and ?ll it with a fresh sample of the water ~
going to the outlet '1 of the valve being self
closing to terminate flow through the cell 58.
Energizing the circuit to solenoid 9! energizes the
solenoid and upon deenergization, by opening of
the circuit, a measured quantity of reagent, such
as soap, is injected by a diaphragm pump SIa as
vanometer III) of conventional design such as
that sold by G. M. Laboratories of Chicago, Illi
nois, under the designation No. 11886 galvanom
eter, and of the general type shown in U. S.
Letters Patent 2,11%,853 to Archie J. McMaster
through external critical damping resistance
Iii'la, shown in Fig. 4. The coil I68 carries a
needle I69 movable therewith in accordance with
the usual practice. The resistance I In is adjusted
so that when the water is soft and no obscuration
occurs in the test cell, the output or the photo
electric cell IM will energize the coil I88 of the
galvanometer rotating the coil to cause needle I09
to shift to the soft position above a contact bar
H5 while, if the water tests hard, the output of
cell I64 is insu?icient to rotate the coil I08
through a full swing and the needle I09 will re
main at or near its point of rest above the “hard”
contact bar IIIi.
Through a cam III on the shaft of motor IOI
and sustaining contacts H2 and H3, a circuit
through power lead 84 to timing motor IE] will
be completed shortly after the motor starts so
that this motor will always complete one 360°
cycle of operation. A cam IIIa carried on the
described in said Riche patent into the observa
motor shaft and acting on a lever I Illa of chopper
tion cell 58 through pipe 9t. In this instance
bar H4 causes chopper bar IM to oscillate about
approximately 90 seconds, is allowed for the re
pivots I IIlb within a narrow arc to permit needle
action of the reagent with the sample before the 30 I69 to be clamped in a closed position between
lobe of cam 95 closes switch contacts 95 to
the chopper bar I I4 and either the “soft” contact
energize lamp 98 and pass light through the
bar H5 or the “hard” contact bar H6, when the
sample in the observation cell. This reaction is
flat spot on cam Illa. engages the lever IIIIa de
such that if the water is hard, varying degrees of
pending on the result of the test. At this stage
obscuration will be apparent in the sample pro 35 of the operations, so long as the needle shifts as
portional to the degree of hardness, while it the
above described to a point above the contact bar
water is soft, the sample will remain clear. Dur
I15, no action occurs when the chopper bar moves
ing this interval the thermo timer 52 has cooled
to a closed position.
sui?ciently to open contact ‘I4. Thus, further
If the test sample of water within the cell 58
movement of motor 82 causes the lobe of cam 95 40 reaches a predetermined degree of hardness, such
as above described to engage the support lever
as one-half grain per gallon, the reduced amount
Sta which is biased to open position, closing
of light from the bulb 98 falling upon the photo
cont-act 96 to complete a circuit from power lead
electric cell I94 will cause needle I59 of the gal~
84, contact 96, lead 91 to light bulb 98 disposed
vanometer to remain in the “hard” position above
on one side of the cell in a position to project
the contact bar H6. Thus, when clock motor
light therethrough. At the closing of contact 95,
IGI reaches the clamping phase in its revolution,
another circuit is simultaneously energized to
the chopper bar I III will clamp the needle against
initiate a timing motor preferably a synchronous
the bar IIE closing a circuit from power lead 85,
motor I?l that operates chopper bar I Id of a gal
through chopper bar H4, needle I09, contact bar
vanometer presently to be described, as shown in 50 I It all of which are of electrically conductive ma
Fig. 4. This circuit is from contact at of the
terial, lead IIS, relay contact I2I, and electro
hardness tester to lead 89 to the timing motor
magnet I22 of relay A, drawing the arm X down
IcI and thence to ground. In addition to the
causing the latter to shift to the abnormal posi
initiation of the motor we the completion of this
tion. The shifting of relay A opens contacts
circuit energizes lamp mm to indicate the con
I2Ia, Ella, Eda, and I251"; and closes relay con
dition of the circuit. A further circuit is also
tacts 2‘IIb, 6417, I251), I13a, and I?Ia to complete
set up through conductor 99, to contact I02 of
and break a number of circuits in the process of
relay C, to an electromagnet I I33 of relay C to
initiating regeneration. These circuits will be
ground, in order to cause the end of arm Y of
taken up in due time.
the relay to be drawn downward past the end of
Staging device for control of pilot
arm X, resetting relay C to its normal position
as shown in Fig. 4, from abnormal position with
The circuit to “hard” lamp I23, which indicates
the arm Y uppermost, thereby reenergizing ther
hardness in the water, is completed through
mal timer 62 to time the period between tests.
power lead I24, contacts I25 and I251) of relay A
If the water is soft, light rays from bulb 98 65 and lead I26. Also completed is a circuit, pres
will be relatively unobstructed in their passage
ently to be described, to a stager that actuates
through the observation cell 58 and will fall with
the movable plate II of the pilot II). As shown
relatively great intensity upon a photoelectric cell
in Fig. 5, this stager has a continuously running
IM positioned on the opposite side of the cell 53.
motor I21 whose circuit is power lead 63 and lead
A suitable form of photoelectric cell is that made
I28. The motor I 21 rotates at a relatively high
by G. M. Laboratories and sold under the name
speed and actuates reduction gearing in gear box
“Type F—3",” which is a selenium cell of the
I29, causing a bevel gear I3I to rotate at a'slower
self-generating type. Energy from this photo
rate. In axial alignment with the axis of gear
electric cell IIM is carried through the leads I05
I 3| is the drive shaft I32 which is ?xed to the
and I 06, as shown in Fig. 3, to a resistance [61,
center of movable plate II of the pilot I0. Selec
2,405,479
10
9 Y.
tively engageable means for engaging bevel gear
I3I with a complementary bevel gear I33 on the
shaft I32 includes a gear I34 which is adapted to
engage and disengage from the gears I3I and
I33 as it is moved inwardly and outwardly there
from in response to the energization and de
energization, respectively, of a selectively engage
able means operating magnet I35, the gear I34
dropping out of mesh under its own‘ weight and
the weight of the magnet armature. This system
of engagement for driving the shaft I32 has been
found to index accurately the pilot II], without
objections such as overrun or variable move
ment, so that the hydraulic valves controlling
the flow through the softener are eificiently and
accurately operated in the proper sequence.
Shaft I32 of the stager has three cams I36,
I5I and I55 mounted thereon, each of which has
a pair of knobs disposed at 180° intervals so that
rotation of the shaft through 180° completes the
cam cycle for one regeneration, the shaft rotat
ing through one-half turn at each regeneration.
The shaft I32 also has a cam I41 amxed thereon
button I42 to ground to start regeneration. Un
der these conditions, indicator bulb I43 of low
amperage will be energized along with “hard”
lamp I23 when relay A is shifted, thus informing
the operator that the softener is set up for the
initial or backwash stage of regeneration and all
that need be done is the completing of a circuit
manually, through push button I42 to shunt out
the lamp I43 and cause sufficient current to flow
to ground to energize the magnet. A relay I44 is
simultaneously energized with the circuit through
push button I42 or switch I4I to close contacts
I44a thereby establishing a new ground for the
circuit by way of conductor I36 to sustain a cir
cuit through a ground I45 upon release of the
push button I42 until the stager has indexed the
pilot I6 through one stage of movement. Either
fully automatic operation or semi-automatic op
eration of the softener, then, is obtained by either
20 closing or opening, respectively, knife switch I4I.
Upon initial movement of the cam I36, either
as a direct result of the shifting of relay A or as
a result of the closing of switch I42, the circuit
having six depressions I49 therein separated by
cam lobes, the depressions being arranged at 60°
to magnet I35 is sustained by closing of contact
I46 by cam I41, the circuit being broken upon the
completion of 60° movement by opening of con
intervals around the cam. The cams I36, I5I
and I55 are so arranged on the shaft that lobes
tacts I46 carried on lever I46a biased to closed
position and. controlled by the lobes on a master
of the cams will close the switches I31, I52 and
cam I41, the completed circuit being through
I56 successively upon 60° rotations of the shaft
and will allow these switches to open prior to 30 power lead 63, lead I48, contacts I46, to lead I38,
magnet I35 and lead I39. Prior to opening of
completion of 60° rotation of the cams. The
contacts I46 contacts I52 are closed by cam I5I.
cam I41 is ?xed to the shaft in a position such as
Depressions I46 of cam I41 are spaced so that
to close switch I46 after the shaft starts rotation
the circuit to magnet I35 is broken upon the
and hold this switch closed and keeps magnet I35
energized until the shaft has rotated a full 60° 35 completion of any 60° movement of drive shaft
I32. The next cam I5I of the stager cams “sets
and to deenergize the magnet when the 60° rota
up” the stager for movement of the hydraulic
tion has been completed. It will be observed that
valve to positions which control the brine and
upon the completion of each 60° rotation of the
rinse stages of the softening, that is, upon com
shaft, one of the switches I31‘, I52, and I56 is
closed to precondition a circuit to the magnet 40 pletion of the ?rst 60° of rotation of drive shaft
I32, contacts I52 carried on a spring pressed
I35. This switch mechanism it will be observed,
is a simple program switch such as is well known
lever I52a are closed by the cam I5 I. Thus, when
the backwash stage is completed, as determined
in the art.
by a test made by a turbidity tester which will
In Fig. 5 the cams are shown in a position of
rest between regeneration cycles. In this posi- ‘ be hereinafter described, a circuit will be com
pleted to magnet I35 through the shift of a relay
tion cam I36 “sets up” the stager to move the
B to an abnormal position opposed to that of
valves to the backwash position, one lobe of the
cam engaging a switch lever I31a normally biased
Fig. 4, this circuit being through power lead 63,
to open position, to close contact I31 to precon
contacts I53 and I53a of relay B, lead I54, stager
dition a circuit to the magnet I35 whereby upon
contacts I52, lead I38, magnet I35 and lead I36.
the shift of relay A to the abnormal position in
This causes a second 60° movement of the drive
response to energization of magnet I22 as here~
shaft I32 so that the hydraulic valves are moved
tofore described, circuit will be completed to the
by the pilot I6 to the brine and rinse position,
magnet I35, this circuit running from power lead
whereupon brine is introduced into the tank 5
through the pipe 42 by action of the injector 43
I24, contacts I25 and I25b of relay A, leadI26,
contacts I31, lead I33, magnet I35, and thence
and opening of motor valve 39, the rinse step
to ground by way of a switch I4I or a lamp I43
being entered upon, without further movement
as will presently more fully appear. This move
of the hydraulic valves, after the introduction of
ment of relay A also opens the circuit of "soft”
a predetermined quantity of brine. Upon initial
lamp 33I at contact I25 and completes circuit to
rotation of the cams, cam ‘I41 again closes switch
hard lamp I23 by way of power lead I24, contact
I46 and holds the circuit until the shaft has‘
Where complete automatic operation is desired,
rotated another 66° and closed contacts I56.
At the completion of this second 60° movement
knife switch MI is closed so that upon the shift
or a total of 120° of movement of drive shaft I32,
I25 and conductor I26.v
'
one lobe of ?nal cam I55 of the stager “sets.up"
of relay A, as above-mentioned, the stager will
be automatically initiated. Where semi-auto
a circuit to magnet I35 through closing of con
matic operation is desired switch MI is left open
tacts I56 by urging spring pressed lever I56a in
and when relay A is shifted to the abnormal
a direction to close the contacts I56. The dura
position, current ?ows to ground from magnet 70 tion of the rinse is determined by tests made by
I35 by way of lamp I43, illuminating this lamp
the hardness tester which has returned to opera~
as well as “hard” lamp I23, the lamp I43 pre
tion an interval, in this instance 25 minutes, after
venting the ?ow of sufficient current to operate
the appearance of high brine at an electrode I51
positioned in the lower end of vertical pipe I6
the magnet I35. Thereupon the circuit to clutch
magnet I35 is manually completed through push 75 of the softening tank 5. This electrode may suit
2,465,479
11
12
ably be a conventional engine spark plug screwed
for turbidity ‘is delayed until the backwash has
into the pipe with the central electrode thereof
continued to the point when hard water in the
tank 5 has passed to drain and turbid backwash
connected to a contact-or 233 of relay E as will
presently ‘be described. When the rinse is free
from excess or spent brine and the eiiiuent of
the softener is soft, the photoelectric cell IM of
the hardness tester will cause needle ‘£99 of the
galvanometer to shift to a point immediately
above “soft” contact bar II5 to complete a cir
water is ?owing through the cell I55. Upon the
expiration of this predetermined time interval,
in this instance approximately 10 minutes, blade
I ‘I8 of the timer I12 completes a circuit from
ground contact I79, blade I18, lead I82, motor
I83, lead I84, contacts I85 and “25d of relay B,
cult from power lead 84, chopper bar I I5, contact
vbar H5, lead E59, lead I59, contacts l6! and I6Ia,
lead I92, to electromagnet I53 to ground
to power line 63.
whereupon arm Y is drawn down and arm X
raises under the action 'of gravity on the stem
V1 and relay A
reset in its norl lal position as
similar to galvanometer HO and also to energize
a “turbid” lamp I88 having a circuit through
shown in Fig. ll. This shift 'of relay A completes
the circuit previously set by the contact I55 of
the stager, the circuit being power lead 63, lead
I25, contacts 525 and £250. of relay A, lead I54,
I98, lead I9I, contacts I92 and I92a of relay B
and power lead 63. A resistance £93, an exter
The energization of this cir
cuit causes a timing motor I83 to actuate a chop
per bar I86 of a chopper bar g'alvanometer I8?
ground contact I19, the blade I78, lead I39, lamp
nal critical damping resistance Hits, and coil I94
of the galvanometer I31 are so adjusted with
stager contact I55, lead I38, magnet i355, lead 20 respect to the energy in the leads I95 and I95
This causes the stager to move a further
of the photoelectric cell III that a needle I91
60° to complete a cycle of operation of 180° bring
ing the ‘cams and switches back to the position
electrically isolated bar I98 so long as the water
I39,
operated by the coil will be positioned above the
shown in Fig. 5, whereupon the hydraulic valves
?owing through cell IE6 is turbid and will shift to
controlled by pilot It are returned to the service 25 the opposite side, above a contact bar l99 upon
position and the regeneration cycle is completed.
the water becoming clear. Indication of move
ment of motor I83 and hence of the turbidity test
Turbidity tester and the backwash phase
is given by lamp ISSa. The sustaining circuit for
The turbidity tester, like the hardness tester,
the motor I83 is through contacts Ni and 202
is located in the instrument panel 51. Its func 30 closed by a cam I837) on the shaft of motor ‘I83
tion is to determine the duration of the backwash
enabling it to make a complete revolution before
phase of softening, in order that the‘soitener may
stopping. The sustaining circuit then will be
be advanced to the brine step at the proper time.
through power lead 63, sustaining contactZ?I,
In the backwash phase, raw water is entering the
sustaining contact 202, motor I83, lead I82, blade
inlet 6, proceeding downwardly through the ver 35 I78, to ground contact I'i9.
tical pipe it into the bottom of the tank 5, up
When the backwash has progressed. to the
through the mineral bed within the tank 5, and
extent that the water ?owing through the cell
thence out through the drain 8. A small por
I66 is clear beyond a preselected turbidity suffi
tion of the drain water is carried through a ‘pipe
cient light from lamp I59 will fall on light sensi
I55 to a generally elongated observation c'ell I35 40 tive cell I'iI to cause its output to be sufficient to
and thence returned to drain through a pipe (ii.
energize galvanometer coil I94 and the needle
The flow is so regulated that water will flow con
I97 of galvanometer I81 to shift to a point over
tinuously through the cell meet a predetermined
bar I99 as described in connection with galva
rate so long as there is water flowing through the
drain line 8. In order that an air space will not
form in the toprof the cell Iii-‘3, one end of a pipe
IS‘I is positioned in the top portion of the cell
nometer I ID to complete a circuit from power lead
63, chopper bar I96, needle I91, contact bar I99,
lead 203, contacts 204 and 205a of relay B, con
tact 205, to electromagnet 295, to ground. This
to carry off any air to the drain pipe SI. Win
causes relay B to shift to an abnormal position
dows I68 are located on opposite ends of the cell
with arm Y above arm X causing the circuit to
ass, a bulb I59 being ‘positioned before one of 50 the heater of timer I72 and to bulb I99 to be
the windows and a photoelectric cell Ill of the
broken at contacts I76 and H611, opening contacts
same type as the photoelectric cell I64 before the
I92a, I'Iiib, I85a, and zero of relay B and closing
other so that the light absorption characteristic
contacts I921), "6a, I‘Ida and I5iia. A circuit
of the ?uid within the cell I55 may be measured
to the stager is thus energized to index the pilot
by the photoelectric cell I1 I.
When relay A shifts to the abnormal position
in response to presence of hardness in the water
being tested by the hardness tester, the controls
of the turbidity tester are initiated. One of the
I5 to the next phase of regeneration, namely,
the brine introduction phase. The circuit thus
completed to the stager is through power lead
63, contacts I53 and I531; of relay B, lead I54,
contact I52 of the stager, lead I38, magnet I35,
circuits completed by the shifting of relay A is to 60 and lead I39 to ground.
the heater in a thermal timer I12 similar in struc
Another circuit en
ergized at the shift of relay B is that to a “clear”
ture to timer 62, as'shown in Fig. 4, through
lamp 259 through power lead 63, contacts I92
power lead 53, lead I28, contacts I13 and I730. of
and I92b of relay B, lead ZID, “clear” lamp 290,
relay A, lead I74, lead I'I5, contacts I18 and I'l?b
lead 229, contacts 230 of relay E to ground.
of relay B, lead I‘l'I, to the heater of timer I12,
The brine and rinse phases of regeneration
to ground. At the same time, a circuit to‘the
bulb I69 is energized. This circuit taps into the
When-the stager has moved the pilot II] from
circuit of the heater or timer H2 at the'contacts
the backwash position to the position for intro
I'll)‘ and H612 ofrelay B, and thereafter consists
of lead I89 which goes to the bulb I69 and thence 70 ducing brine, water flows ‘through the inlet line
upwardly past valve 33 through a pipe 46 through
to ground through lead ‘IBI. A counter I8Ila of
the injector 43 through the top portion of vertical
conventional type may be. provided in this circuit
pipe‘ I8 downthrough the tank 5 and out through
to be indexed upon each energization of light
the lower portionof verticalpipe It to the drain
bulb I69 to record the number of regeneration
cycles eifected by the softening device. The test 75 line 8. Through the shift of relay B in response
2,405,479?
.
13
14"
thence into lead 8| through lead 96 to the hard
ness tester motor 82. The hardness tester begins
operation according to the manner previously de
scribed to test for the presence of brine inthe
rinse water. Indication of the hardness tester’s
return to operation is given by energization of a
“brine test” lamp 259 whose circuit is completed
simultaneously with the closing of blade 252 of
the thermal timer 248, the circuit being from lead
259, through contact 26| of relay 253, through
lead 262 to “brine test” lamp 259, to ground. At
to the water testing clear in the turbidity tester
as just described, a circuit is completed whereby
the motor valve 36 in the brine line 42 is opened.
This circuit begins near relay A of Fig. 4 from the
power line 63 to the lead I24 to contacts I13 and
H311 of relay A, lead I14, lead I15 to contacts I16
and |16a of relay B, and lead 263 to a step~up
transformer 233 in Fig. 5. Relay 2| I, shown in
Fig. 5, is thereupon energized, its circuit being
from transformer 269 through lead 2 I2 to lead 2 I 3
to electrode 2I4 located in the brine tank M, the
brine 2I5 within this tank serving to ground
the same time, a circuit to relay 246, as shown in
Fig. 4, is completed through lead 2533, relay con
tact 26! of relay 253, lead 263, relay 246, lead 264,
electrode 2I4 and thereby complete the circuit.
Upon energization of this circuit, relay 2“ shifts
to complete a circuit to valve 33 through lead 15 to ground.
The shifting of relay 246 breaks the
circuit to thermal timer 248 at relay contact 245,
2|6, relay contact 2I1, and lead 2I8 through the
motorized valve to ground, whereby valve 39 is
opened permitting brine to be sucked from the
tank 4| by the injector 43 into the softening
and sustains a circuit to relay 253 through a lead
265, a contact 266 of relay 246, and lead 256
causing the tester to operate continuously and
tank 5. The circuit to relay 2|I is sustained 20 conduct continuous tests.
The hardness tester conducts continuous tests
during this interval through contact 2I9 of re
during the rinse phase after the timer 248 closes,
lay 2H, lead 22!, and electrode 222 which is
the test samples being taken at intervals of ap
grounded to the tank 4Lin the presence of the
proximately 120 seconds. Continuous testing is
brine 2I5. When the brine level reaches a point
effected through the maintenance of the circuit
below the electrode 222, the ground circuit
to motor 62 of the hardness tester by the energi
through both electrodes 2|4 and 222 will ,be
zation of relay 246 at the actuation of series relay
253, whereby the circuit to series relay 253 and
broken, causing relay 2| I to shift so that a circuit
will be completed to close motor valve 33 through
lead 2I6, contact 2I1, lead 223, to ground. The
consequently motor 82 is sustained, this circuit
?ow through the inlet 6, through the injector 43,
of relay 246, lead 258, series relay 253, leads 6| and
86 to motor 82. It is clear, then, that the circuit
softener is automatically then in the rinse posi 30 being from power lead 63, lead I24, contacts 64
and 64b of relay A, leads 23I, 22 9, 265, contact 266'
tion, inasmuch as fresh water is continuing to
where it ceases to take on brine‘, down through
to motor 32 will be maintained until relay A re
turns
to the normal position to break the circuit
thence to drain line 6.
'
at contacts 64 and 641). When the e?luent is free
In the meantime, when brine ?rst enters the
of brine and there is less than approximately one
top of tank 5, a circuit is completed to a “brine
half grain per gallon of hardness, the needle I66
in” signal through electrode 224 in the top of
of the galvanometer shifts to a position above the
vertical pipe I6, this circuit running from ground,
through electrode 224, through lead 225, through 40 contact bar I I5 to reset relay A in the normal p0
sition, this circuit being through power lead 64,
the “brine in” lamp 226, lead 221, lead 228, lead
chopper bar II4, needle I99, contact bar I I5, lead
229, lead 23I, contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead
I24 and power lead 63.
I53, lead I59, contacts I6I and |6Ia of relay A,
the tank 5, out the bottom of the tank, and
‘ At the presence of brine leaving tank 5 at an
electrode I51 near the lower end of pipe ‘I8, this
being the spent brine displaced through the in
troduction of brine, a circuit is completed through
45
lead I62, electromagnet I63, to ground. Simul~
taneously with the return to thenormal position
of relay A, the relay B and relay E are caused to
return to the normal position. Relay B is actu
the ground of tank 5, electrode I51, lead 232,
ated by a circuit completed by the shift of relay A
contact 233 of relay. E, lead 234, electromagnet
through power lead 63, lead I24, contacts 21! and
235, lead 236, lead 238, lead 228, lead 229, lead 23I, 60 21Ia of relay A, lead 212, lead 213, contacts 214
contacts 64 of relay A, lead I24, and power lead
and 214a of relay B, lead 215, to electromagnet
63. This causes relay E to shift to the abnormal
216 to ground which acts to return the relay to
position opening contacts 236 and 233 and closing
its original position of Fig. 4. Relay E is reset
. contacts 239 and 218, causing “brine drain” lamp
through a circuit tapping into the above-men
231 to light by completion of circuit running from 55 tioned lead 212, to lead 211, to contact 213 of relay
contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23I, lead 229,,
E, lead 219, electromagnet 29! to ground. As has
lead 228, lead 238, contact 239 of relay E, lead 24!,
lead 242 of “brine drain” lamp 231, lead 243, lead
244, contact 245 of relay 246, and lead 241 to
ground. contemporaneously with the energiza
tion of this signal lamp circuit, a circuit to a
heater in a thermal timer 243 similar to timer 62
already been brought out, the resetting of relay A
initiates the pilot I9 through its last 60° period of
rotation whereby the hydraulic valves are re
60 turned to the service position.
Brine re?ll operation and pump controls
is energized, this circuit being made through the
As
has been pointed out, the brine tank 4| is
contact 239 of relay E, lead 249, timer 248, lead
25I, which junctions with lead 244 of the “brine 65 re?lled through the operation of the pump 46
which draws brine from the brine storage tank 41
drain” lamp 231, and thence to ground through
to the brine tank 4| through the pipe 59. In or
relay 246. At the lapse of a suitable time, for
der that only a predetermined quantity of brine
example, approximately 25 minutes, blade 252 of
will be introducedinto the softening tank 5, the
the thermal timer 243 completes a circuit through
a series relay 253 and thence on to the hardness 70 pump 46 is held inoperative while the softener is
in the process of regeneration.
tester motor 62 to re-initiate its operation. The
When the softener is not regenerating, then,
circuit thus completed is through power lead 63,
the circuit to motor 282 which controls the pump
lead I24, contacts 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23I,
lead 229, lead 228, lead 254, contact 255, blade 252, I. . 46 is controlled by the brine level in brine tank
lead 256, lead 251, lead 258, series relay, 253 and 75 4| with respect to electrodes 293'and 264 within
15'
M05479
16
lever having resiliency and is positioned to bear
this tank. When the level in the tank 4| is even
with electrode 283, a circuit is completed from a
against the cam 366 as a result of which it fol
transformer 285, lead 286, relay 281, lead 288,
lows the curvature of cam 368. The cam 368 is
electrode 283, to ground of tank 4| through the
brine 2 I5. When the brine level falls below elec
shaped so that when the lobe thereof, which is
the protruding part of the peripheral surface
thereof, is disposed away from the lever 361a, the
trode 283, the circuit to relay ‘281 is sustained
through electrode 284, lead 289 and contact 26I of
relay 281. However, the circuit to relay 281 is
broken when the brine level goes below electrode
284, thereby causing relay 281 to shift and to en
ergize the circuit to motor 282 of the brine pump,
end of this lever will engage lower contact 361
permitting current to flow between the lever and
the contact. The lever 361a and contacts 361
shown in the drawings constitute simply a dia
grammatic showing of any conventional and well
known double-throw switch adapted for cam op
eration. After the expiration of approximately
this circuit being from line 56, lead 292, contact
293 of relay 281, lead 294, motor 262, lead 295, and
line 53. The relay 281 will again be energized
upon the brine level reaching the electrode 283,
whereby the relay circuit is again completed and
36 minutes, or other suitable period, and after
the softener has been placed in the backwash
phase, the lobe of cam 3II closes contact 3I2 to
complete a circuit from power lead 63, lead I24,
contacts21 I and21 lb of relay A, lead 3 I3, lead 3 I4,
the circuit to motor 282 is broken at the contact
293 of relay 281.
As has already been described, the relay A
shifts to the abnormal position when the hard- .
ness tester indicates hardness in thewater, there
by either throwing the softener into regenera
tion if set for automatic operation, or setting the
softener up for initiation of regeneration by the
actuation of the push button I42 shown in Fig. 5,
if set for semi-automatic operation. At this shift
ing of relay A, a circuit is completed to a relay
296, this circuit running from power lead 63, lead
I24, contacts I13 and I13‘a of relay A, lead I 14, lead
291, relay 296 to ground. The energization of
relay 296 completes two circuits, one of which
is from transformer 285 through lead 298, re
3U
lay contact 299 of relay 296, lead 36I, lead 288,
relay 261, and lead 286. This sustains the en
ergization of relay 261 to prevent the actuation t.
of motor 282 of the brine pump 46 irrespective
of the brine level in the brine tank 41, thus pre
venting re?lling of the brine tank 4| during the
regeneration period. Relay 296 also provides a
contact 3I2, lead 3I5, lead 263, contacts 264 and
264a of relay B, lead 265, electromagnet 266 to
ground, whereupon relay B is shifted to the ab
normal position. It will be recalled that relay
B is normally shifted to the abnormal position
through the action of the turbidity tester which
actuates relay B through a circuit completed by
galvanometer I81 when the backwash through
the turbidity tester tests clear. Thus, if the back
wash period exceeds a preselected period with
out actuating relay B, relay B is automatically
shifted through movement of cam 3II by motor
365, after which the previously described steps of
regeneration are continued, the softener being
eventually returned to‘ the service position in a
regenerated condition.
In the event that fault occurs at some point
in the regeneration period so that the softener
has not returned to service after the expiration
of approximately one hour or other suitable period
as determined by the speed of motor 365, cam 3 I6
shunt circuit around pressure switch .5! of the 40 of motor 365 completes a circuit through con
pump 48, so that pump 48 is continuously oper
tact 311, this circuit being through power lead
ated to provide water in the inlet line 6 during
53, lead I24, contacts 2H and 21Ib of relay A,
the regeneration period, irrespective of the water
level in the tank 49 which otherwise controls pres
lead 3I3, contact 3I1, lead 3I8, contact 3I9 of
relay D, electromagnet 32I, to ground. This
sure switch 5I.
causes relay D to shift to the abnormal position
opposed to that of Fig. 4 whereby relay A is re
turned to the normal position through a circuit
consisting of power lead 63, lead 322, contacts 323
The circuit thus completed is ~
from line 53, lead 54, lead 362, contact 363 of
relay 296, lead 364, motor 52 lead, 55 and line 56.
Device for notifying of a fault
If a fault develops in any of the control steps
of regeneration, a clean-up device takes over the
control of the regeneration whereby the softener
is eventually returned to the service position, the
operator is signaled as to the existence of the
fault, and further automatic operation of the re
and 323m of relay D, lead 324, contacts I6I and
I6Ia of relay A, lead I62, electromagnet I63, to
ground. A circuit is also completed to a “fault”
lamp 325, through lead 322, contacts 326 and 32811
of relay D, lead 329, “fault” lamp 325, to ground.
Resetting of relay A to the normal position acts to
return the softener to the service position through
the circuits thus energized. It will be remem
bered that if relays B and E are set in the ab
remedies the trouble.
normal position, they are returned to the normal
As shown in Fig. 4, this device includes a motor
position upon the resetting of relay A to the nor
365, having a half revolution per hour rate of ro
60 mal position. A circuit that is broken by the
tation, cams 368, 3I I, and 3 I 6,, switch levers 361a,
shift of relay D in response to timed movement
3I1a and 3I2a riding the cams, and contacts 361,
of motor 365, is a circuit to the heater H of ther
3I1 and >3I2 opened and closed by operation of
mal timer .62 which controls the frequency of the
the cams against the levers operated thereby,
hardness tests while the softener is in the service
and a relay D. Upon the shift of relay A to the 65 position. This circuit is broken by contact 66 of
generation cycle is prevented until an operator
abnormal position at the start of regeneration,
relay D. Thus, when relay D is actuated, the
the motor 365 is energized through power lead 63,
operator is advised of the fault through the ener
lead I24, contact 64 and 64b of relay A, lead 23!,
gization of “fault” lamp 325, the hardness tester
lead 366, contact 361, and motor 365 to ground.
is prevented from making further tests, and the
Upon initiation, the circuit to motor 365 is .sus 70 softener controls are locked out to prevent fur
tained by the lobe of cam 368, permitting contact
ther automatic control. In order to restore the
lever 361a to engage lower contact 361 to com
softener to automatic control, the operator must
plete a sustaining circuit through lead 369, where
actuate a push button 328 to complete a circuit
by the motor is always returned to its original
through electromagnet 323 of relay D, whereby
starting position. The lever 361a is a metallic 75 the relay D is reset to the normal position.
2,405,479
.
Operation
When pump 48 is inactive, no water is ?owing
through the softener and the power lead 63, that
terminates in transformer 69, is dead. The power
lead 63 is connected with a source of power only
when transformer 68 is energized either through
a circuit completed by the closing of pressure
switch 51 from line 53, lead 54, switch 5i, lead
18v
~
In the backwash stage, valves 29 and 32 are
open and the remaining valves are closed, caus
ing the flow to be through inlet 6, down through
vertical pipe I8, up through the softening tank
5, down through a pipe 332, past the valve 32,
to the drain line 8. A portion of the drain ef
?uent is then passing through drain line I65
through observation cell 188 of the turbidity
tester.
338, transformer 60, to line 56, or through a sus 10
At the start of regeneration, one of the cir
taining circuit to motor 52 through a shunt
cuits completed by the shift of relay A is the cir
around pressure switch 5I consisting of the lead
cuit to the heater of thermal timer I12 along
302, contact 363 and lead 394. This shunt cir
with a circuit to bulb I89 of the turbidity tester
cult is completed by the closing of relay 296 in
through lead I88, contact I16, lead I15, lead I14,
response to the energization of lead 29'l‘upon
contact I13 of relay A, lead I24, and power lead
the shift of relay A at the start of regeneration,
83. When the apparatus is located where there
the relay 296 being provided to prevent the pump
may be wide temperature variations, the thermal
5| from being shut off while a test or regenera
timers I12 and 248 may be replaced by clock
tion operationis in progress s0 as to prevent in
timers of. conventional form. After the expira
terruption of the tester or the regeneration cycle 20 tion of a suitable time corresponding to that re
after it has once been started. It will be obvious
quired for clear Water to be passed from the head
that since regeneration is started in response to
space of the softener tank and turbid water to be
a test’ of the water ?owing in the system, re
discharged, blade I18 of timer I 12 completes a
generation will not be initiated or tests made ex
circuit energizing motor I83 that actuates the
cept when the pump 48 is in operation. It is .
chopper bar I86 of galvanometer I81 and also
clear, then, that the power lead 63, which sup
energizes the “turbid” lamp I88. When the ef
plies the energy for all controls but the brine re
fluent passing through cell I66 of the turbidity
?ll control, is dead unless pump motor 52 is op
tester reaches a predetermined degree of clear
erating.
During the service position, when the softener ,.
is in operation, pump 48 is operating through
completion of the circuit to motor 52 by the clos
ing of pressure switch 5i in response to the low
ering of the water level in storage tank 49. At
this time water is ?owing through inlet line 6,‘ I
up through vertical pipe I8 to the top of tank
5, down through tank 5, up through the lower
portion of vertical pipe I8, and out through the
service line 1 into storage tank 45. The hard
ness tester completes a series of test cycles at
periodic intervals as the circuit of thermal timer
62 is broken and made by the movement of blade
ness, needle I91 of galvanometer I81 completes
a circuit through power lead 33, chopper bar I86,
needle I91, contact bar I89, lead 283, contact 204
of relay B, lead 285, electromagnet 286 to ground,
causing the shift of relay B to the abnormal po
sition and causing the completion of a circuit to
“clear” lamp 288. If the softener is in its auto
matic setting, a circuit completed by the shift
of relay B is the circuit to the stager through
lead 154, whereby, through the closing of con
tact I52, the stager is caused to rotate the pilot
I In a further angle of 60° to place the softener in
the brine phase. If the softener is in its semi
automatic setting, push button I42 must be ac
12, Each closing of blade 12 operates to shift
tuated to initiate this movement of the pilot I 0.
relay C‘to initiate movement of motor 82 of the
During the brine phase, the hydraulic valves
hardness tester to begin the test cycle and to
33 and 35 are open, the remaining hydraulic
break the circuit to heater ‘H of the thermal
valves being closed, causing flow through inlet
timer 62. Toward the conclusion of the test
line 8, past valve 33, through pipe 44, past the
cycle, cam 95 of the motor 82, completes a cir
injector 43, in and down through the tank 5, out
cuit to reset relayC and to energize a circuit to
through the lower portion of vertical pipe I8, past
bulb 98 in order that photoelectric cell I04 may 50 valve Si in pipe 332, and out through the drain
measure the light absorption characteristic of the
line 8. contemporaneously with the shifting of
segregated sample within the observation cell 58.
relay B, a circuit through lead 268 is energized
So long as the effluent tests soft, galvanometer
to move the motor valve 39 to open position. This
needle I99 swings to the “soft” side so that relay
permits the injector 43 to draw brine from the
A remains in the normal position. At that time,
brine tank 4i until the brine level in the brine
an indicator “soft” bulb 33I is lighted through a
tank ill reaches a point below the electrode 222,
circuit consisting of power lead 53, lead I24, con
whereupon ‘the motor valve 39 is closed. At the
tact I25 of relay A, and lead I 64, advising the
presence of brine around an electrode 224 at
operator of the result of the tests.
the top of vertical pipe I8, a circuit is completed
If the Water tests hard, galvanometer needle 60 by conductivity causing the energization of
I09 remains on the “hard” side to cause relay
“brine in” lamp 226. When the brine has passed
A to shift to the abnormal position. This lights
down , through the tank and spent brine has
“hard” lamp I28 and “sets up” the stager for its
reached the electrode I51 in the bottom of ver
?rst 60° movement of the pilot I9. If the knife
tical pipe IS, a circuit through lead 232 is com
switch I4I of the stager is open as in the semi 65 pleted, causing the shift of relay E. At the same
automatic setting, the operator merely presses
time, the heater of thermal timer 248 along with
the push button I42 to complete a circuit from
the “brine drain” lamp 231 is energized.
ground through push button I42, lead I39, clutch
Upon the closing of motor valve 39, it will be
magnet I35, lead I38, contact I31, lead I26, con
apparent that the softener enters the rinse stage
tact I25, lead I24, and power lead 63. This 70 without movement of the pilot I8, the fresh water
causes the stagger to move the pilot I9 through
continuing to ?ow past the injector through the
an angle of 60° to the backwash position, this
same ?ow route as the brine flow route. After
movement being controlled, after initiation, by
the expiration of approximately 25 minutes, the
the master cam of the stager which makes and
thermalv timer 248 completes a circuit through its
breaks a sustaining circuit through contact I46. 75 contact 252, through series relay 253 and lead
2,405,479
19
20
8!, whereby the hardness tester motor is initiated
means to the aforesaid position to effect a con
to begin an uninterrupted series of test cycles. At
tinuing test of the turbidity of the drain water,
the same time, a circuit to “brine test” lamp 259~is
andmeans operated‘by said testing meaus'when
energized. When the rinse water passing through
a predetermined turbidity is reached in the ef
observation cell i ll of the hardness tester is free
?uent of the treatment device for moving said
of spent and/or excess brine and is soft, a circuit
valve means to another position.
is completed by the galvanometer needle [09,
3. The combination in a water treatment de
whereby relay A is caused to return to the normal
vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
position. When the softener is in the automatic
treating the water, conduits connected with the
setting, this return completes a circuit previously 10 said tank for introducing water to be treated
“set up” by cam I55 of the stager, causing the
therein, carrying treated water therefrom and
stager to move the pilot a further 60°, whereupon
for drain, valve means controlling the ?ow
the hydraulic valves are returned to the service
through said tank, movable to a position where
position, as shown in Fig. 5. If the softener is in
by the ?ow through the service line may be cut
the semi-automatic setting, the actuation of push
off, the drain line opened and water backwashed
button I 42 accomplishes this same movement. As
through the said tank to drain, light sensitive
previously pointed out, the return of relay A to
testing means to test turbidity of the drain wa
the normal position completes circuits, causing
ter, said meansincluding an observation cell hav
relay B and relay E to return to the normal posi
ing opposed windows through which the sample
tion. In addition, the heater ‘H of the thermal
of water continuously passes in the presence of
timer 52, which controls the test intervals of the
ef?uent in the drain, a source of light and alight
hardness tester, is again energized. Thus, the
sensitive cell, said source of light and said cell
hardness tester returns to its periodic testing
being placed on opposite sides of the said obser
function and all the circuits are again set up for
vation cell, means operated upon movement of
another regeneration cycle.
said valve means to said position for starting
I claim:
said testing means, and means responsive to the
1. The combination in a water softener of a
said testing means for moving said valve means
softener tank, a source of regenerating solution,
to another position to terminate the said back
conduits connected with said tank for introducing
wash in the absence of a predetermined turbidity
raw water to be treated therein, introducing re 30 in the effluent of the said treatment device and
generating solution, carrying away treated water
for terminating the operation of said testing
and a drain conduit, valve means for controlling
means.
the flow through said tank movable successively
4. The combination in a water treatment de
vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
rinse positions, testing means including a cell 35 treating the water, conduits connected with the
said tank for introducing water to be treated
connected with the tank for testing the ef?uent
therein, carrying treated water therefrom and
of the tank for hardness during the service posi- ,
for drain, valve means controlling the flow
tion and for regenerating solution during the
through said tank movable to a position for ter
rinse position, turbidity testing means including
a cell connected to receive liquid from the tank 40 minating ?ow of treated water and starting flow
to drain, light sensitive testing means to test tur
for testing e?iuent going to the drain for turbid
bidity of the drain water, an observation cell hav
ity while said valve means occupies the backwash
ing windows in its opposite ends, means for pass
position, valve actuating means for moving said
ing
drain water from the conduit to drain through
valve means through said positions in succession, .
between service, backwash, regenerating, and
control means for said valve actuating means in
cluding a plurality of circuits and switches for
operatively connecting the actuating means with
said testing means to move the valve means from
backwash to regenerating position when the tur
bidity testing means indicates less than a prede
termined turbidity in the drain effluent and from
the rinse position to service position when said
said observation cell, a source of light and a light
sensitive cell, said source of light and said cell
being placed to measure the light absorption
characteristic of the ?uid flowing through the
said observation cell, timing means started upon
movement of said valve means to said position to
delay action of said testing means for a preselect
ed time required for turbidity to appear in the
drain, means operated by said timing means for
?rst testing means indicates the absence of re
energizing said source of light upon the lapse of
generating solution in the drain e?luent of said 55 the predetermined time, and electrical means re
tank.
sponsive to the said testing means for signaling
2. The combination in a water treatment de
the operator when the turbidity in the effluent
vice of a treatment tank, a mineral therein for
of the said treatment device reaches a predeter
treating the water, raw water conduits connected
mined minimum.
with said tank for introducing water to be treat 60
5. The combination in a water treatment de
ed into either of the opposite ends thereof, a
vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
service conduit connected to one end of said tank
treating the water, conduits connected with the
for carrying treated water therefrom, a conduit
said tank for introducing water to be treated
connected to the opposite end of said tank from
therein, carrying treated water therefrom and a
said service conduit for carrying waste water to ' drain conduit, valve means controlling the flow
drain, valve means controlling the flow through * through said tank, light sensitive testing means
said tank movable to a position to terminate the
to test turbidity of the drain water, said means
?ow through the service conduit and one of said
including an observation cell having windows in
raw water conduits to pass water in a reverse
its opposite ends, means for passing drain wa
direction through the treatment tank to back 70 ter from the drain conduit'to waste through said
wash the treatment tank, light sensitive means
observation cell, a source of light, a light sensi
connected to said tank to receive backwash wa
tive cell, said source of light and light sensitive
ter therefrom, means connecting the valve means
cell being located to measure the light absorp
and the light sensitive means for energizing said
tion characteristic of the ?uid ?owing through
light sensitive means upon movement of said valve
the observation cell, a galvanometer responsive
2,405,479.
21
to'the said light sensitive cell, a circuit, and‘
switch means electrically connected with the said
galvanometer for energizing said circuit, means
actuated by the last-mentioned circuit when the
light absorption characteristic drops below a pre
selected point as indicated by the output of said
light sensitive cell for actuating said valve means
22
-
vice of a tank, valve means for controlling the
?ow through said tank movable between service,
backwash, and rinse positions, light sensitive
means for testing the e?luent of the treatment
device for turbidity during the backwash step,
said means comprising a source of light, light sen
sitive means, an observation cell having oppositely
disposed transparent windows and placed between
to e?ect a change of flow through the said treat
the said source of light and light sensitive means,
ment tank in the absence of a predetermined tur
bidity in the effluent of the said treatment device. 10 conduitsconnecting the said observation cell with
the effluent of the softener, and a drain line from
6. The combination in a water treatment de
the said observation cell for the carrying o? of
vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
treating the water, conduits connected with the
said tank for introducing water to be treated
therein, carrying treated water therefrom and a
drain conduit, valve means controlling the flow
through said tank, light sensitive testing means
to test turbidity of the drain water, said means
including an observation cell having windows in
all water passing through the said observation
cell, means operated by movement of said valve
means to the backwash position for energizing said
testing means to effect a test, and electrical in
dicating means responsive to the light sensitive
means for indicating the presence and absence
of a predetermined turbidity in the water pass
its opposite ends, means for passing drain water 20 ing through the observation cell.
10. The combination in a water treatment de
from the drain conduit to waste through said ob
servation cell, a source of light, a light sensitive * vice of a tank, valve means for controlling the
flow through said tank movable between service,
cell, said source of light and light sensitive cell
backwash, and rinse positions, light sensitive
being located at opposite ends of the said observa
tion cell, a galvanometer responsive to the said 25 means for testing the effluent of the treatment
device for turbidity during the backwash step,
light sensitive cell, and switch means including a
said means comprising a source of light, light
circuit coupled with the said galvanometer, said
galvanometer energizing the circuit at a prese
sensitive means, an observation cell having oppo
sitely disposed transparent windows and placed
lected output of said light sensitive cell corre
sponding to a predetermined ‘turbidity in the ef 30 between the said source of light and light sensi
tive means, conduits connecting the said obser
fluent of the said treatment device, and means
vation cell with the e?luent of the softener, and a
actuated by the said switch means for controlling
drain line from the said observation cell for the
'the said valve means to effect a change in the
continuous carrying oil? of water passing through
flow through the said tank.
the said observation cell, means for operating said
'7. A device as described in claim 6, which in
valve means and means energized by said light
cludes a timing device energized upon movement
of said valve means to a preselected position, and
sensitive means responsive to the presence of a
means controlled by said timing device for start
ing said testing means to delay the making of
the test of the said light sensitive testing means
until turbid water has reached the said obser
vation cell.
8. The combination in a water treatment de
preselected minimum turbidity in the water ?ow
ing through the said observation cell for actuat
ing the said operating means to operate said valve
through said tank movable between service, back
wash, and rinse positions, means connected to
through a series of regenerating steps, said stager
means from the backwash position to the re
generating position.
11. The combination in a water treatment de
vice of a tank, hydraulically operated valve means
vice of a treatment tank having a regenerating
material therein and a source of regenerating so 45 for controlling the ?ow through said tank, and
a stager for actuating the said valve means
lution, valve means for controlling the flow
comprising a pilot, a drive shaft on said pilot, a
continuously running motor, and selectively en
one end of said tank for testing the e?iuent of
the treatment device for exhaustion of the re 50 gageable means between said drive shaft and con
generating material during the service position
tinuously running motor, means for engaging and
disengaging said selectively engageable means,
and for regenerating solution during the rinse
position, turbidity testing means connected to
means connected to said shaft and to said en
gaging and disengaging means for disengaging
the opposite end of said tank for testing the ef
?uent of the softener for turbidity during the 55 said selectively engageable means at predeter
backwash position, driving means for operating
mined angular positions of said shaft, means for
re-engaging said selectively engageable means at
said valve means between said positions in the
said predetermined angular positions to drive said
order enumerated, means connecting the ?rst
drive shaft through a series of successive prede
mentioned testing means and said driving means
when the valve means are in the service position 60 termined periods of rotation for intermittently in
dexing the said pilot from one position to the
to move said valve means out of said position
succeeding position in its cycle and fluid con
when said effluent indicates a predetermined hard
ness, means for connecting the turbidity testing
duits connecting said pilot with said hydraulical
ly operated valve means for operating said valve
means and the driving means in the backwash
position of the valve means to move the valve 65 means upon movement of said pilot between its
means out of the backwash position upon the oc
currence of a test by the turbidity testing means
positions.
12. The combination in a water treatment de
indicating a preselected minimum turbidity, and
vice, of a tank, hydraulically operated valve means
means for connecting the driving means and the
I for controlling the flow through said tank, and
?rst mentioned testing means in the rinse posi 70 a stager for actuating ' the said valve means
through a series of regenerating steps, said stager
tion of the valve means to move the valve means
out of the rinse position upon the occurrence of
comprising a rotatable pilot, a drive shaft on the
a test indicating a preselected minimum brine
said pilot, a continuously running motor, and
content.
selectively engageable means-between the said
9. The combination in a water treatment de 75 drive shaft and continuously running motor mov
23
2,405,479
24
able between engaged and disengaged positions,
the circuit‘means is energized, a plurality of- pairs
electrically operated means for moving said se
lectively engageable means to one of said posi
tions, circuit means including said electrical
of contacts in said circuit ‘means, cam means on
means and at least one switch, and cam means
on the said drive shaft for operating said switch
to control said electrical means to disengage the
selectively engageable means upon the rotation
of the said drive shaft through a predetermined
period of rotation, switch means in said circuit 10
said shaft arranged for successively operating
pairs of contacts for closing said circuit means
at the operated contacts during rotation of said
shaft, master cam means on said shaft cooper
ating with one pair of contacts and constructed
to close and open said one pair of contacts peri
odically during rotation of the shaft for sustain
ing and breaking the circuit for periodic rotation
for controlling said electrical means to move said
of the shaft, a ?rst testing means including a cell
selectively engageable means to said engaged po
sition to index» said pilot through a series of pre
determined periods of rotation, and ?uid conduits
connected with the tank for testing the e?luent
of the tank for hardness during service position
and for regenerating solution during rinse posi
tion, turbidity testing means including a cell con
nected with the tank to receive liquid from the
tank for testing eilluent going to the drain for
turbidity while said hydraulic valves occupy the
backwash position, and switch means responsive
to the hardness testing means and the turbidity
connecting said pilot andsaid hydraulically op
erated valve means for operating said valve means
upon movement of said pilot‘between its posi
tions.
13. The combination in a water treatment de
vice of a treatment tank having a water treating
material, a source of regenerating solution, con
duits connected with the tank for providing a ?ow
of water and regenerating solution through the
tank and for carrying away treated water and a
drain conduit, valve means including hydraulical
1y operated valves for controlling the ?ow through
said tank, a pilot for controlling said hydrauli
cally operated valves, pilot actuating means for
testing means for energizing said circuit means
and operating the selectively engageable means
for successively actuating the pilot.
15.,In a water treatment device, the combina
tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat
ing solution, conduits connected with said tank
for introducing raw water to be treated therein
introducing regenerating solution and carrying
moving the pilot to index the same progressively
away treated Water and a drain conduit, valve
through successive positions to move the valves 30 means for controlling the flow through the tank
through a regeneration cycle,rsaid pilot actuating
movable successively between service, backwash,
means including a drive shaft connected with the
regeneration, and rinse positions, circuit means,
pilot, a continuously running motor, selectively
eiectrically operated means in said circuit for
engageable means for connecting the motor with
actuating the valve means, a ?rst testing means
and disconnecting it from the drive shaft, an elec 35 including a cell connected with the tank for test
tric circuit, electrically operated means in said
ing the eiiiuent of the tank for hardness during
circuit for actuating the selectively engageable
the service position and for regeneration solution
means when the circuit is energized, cam means
during the rinse position, turbidity testing means
actuated by the drive shaft, contacts in sm'd eir~
including a cell connected to the tank to receive
cuit operated by said cam means for sustaining 40 liquid from the tank for testing effluent going to
and breaking the circuit for controlling periodic
the drain for turbidity while the valve means oc
operation of the shaft, a ?rst testing means in
cupies backwash position, means responsive to
cluding a cell connected with the tank for testing
said ?rst testing means for energizing the valve
the eiiluent of the tank for hardness during serv
actuating means to move the valve means from
ice position and for regenerating solution during
the rinse position, turbidity testing means includ
the service to the backwash position, when the
test indicates hardness in the treated Water,
means responsive to the turbidity testing means
ing a cell connected with the drain conduit to
receive liquid from the tank for testing eiiiuent
going- to the drain for turbidity while said valves
for energizing the valve actuating means to move
the valve means from backwash to regeneration
occupy the backwash position, and switch means 50 position when the turbidity testing means indi
responsive to the ?rst testing means and the tur
cat-es less than a predetermined turbidity in the
bidity testing means for energizingv said circuit
drain e?iuent and means responsive to said ?rst
and operating the selectively engageable means '
testing means to energize the valve actuating
for successively actuating the pilot.
means to move the valve means from rinse po
14. The combination in a water treatment de
vice of a treatment tank having a water treat
sition to service position when the ?rst testing
means indicates the absence of regenerating so
ing material, a source of regenerating solution,
lution in the drain e?luent of said tank, and an
conduits connected with the tank for providing a
flow of water and regenerating solution through
the tank and for carrying away treated water and
a drain conduit, valve means including hydrauli
automatic clean-up device for energizing said
circuit and actuating the valve actuating means
independentlyv of said testing means including a
motor having a predetermined rate of rotation,
cally operated valves for controlling the flow
through said tank, a pilot for controlling said
hydraulically operated valves, pilot actuating
means for moving the pilot to index the same ,
progressively through successive positions to move
the valves through a regeneration cycle, said pilot
actuating means including a drive shaft con
nected to said pilot, a continuously running mo
switch means in said circuit means for energizing
said motor when said electrically operated means
is energized upon movement of the valve means
out of service position, contacts in said circuit
means, and cams operated by the motor for clos
ing said contacts at predetermined time inter
vals to energize said circuit means .and actuate
the valve actuatingmechanism to move the valve
tor, selectively engageable means for connecting 70 means successively from backwash position to
the drive shaft with the motor. and for discon
regeneration position and thereafter to service
necting it therefrom, electric circuit means, elec
position, said clean-up'device having means for
trically operated means in said circuit means for
actuating the selectively engageable means for
connecting the drive. shaft with the. motor-‘when.
opening the circuit to the ?rst testing means
whereby further operation thereof, is locked out.
16. Ina water treatment device, the combina
2,405,479
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V
26
means for moving said valve means between said
cluding a cell connected with the tank for test
ing the e?luent of the tank for hardness during
the service position and for regenerating solution
during the rinse position, turbidity testing means
including a cell connected to the tank to receive
positions, primary control means including a plu
rality oi testers for testing the flow from said
tank, relays operated by said testers and circuits
connecting the tester relays and the driving means
to the drain for turbidity while the valve means
occupies backwash position, means responsive to
the turbidity testing means for energizing the
tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerating -
solution therefor, valve means for controlling the
flow through said tank movable between service
and a cycle of regenerating positions, driving
liquid from the tank for testing e?luent going
for operating said driving means to move said
valve means in succession through a series of
valve actuating means to move the valve means
steps in measured sequence to regenerate said
treatment device, and an automatic clean-up de
vice to return the said treatment device to the
service position if fault develops during the re
generation of the said treatment device compris
turbidity testing means indicates less than a pre
ing a timer, means for energizing the timer upon
movement of the valve means from the service
to the regenerating positions, and means oper
from backwash to regeneration position when the
determined turbidity in the drain e?‘luent and
from rinse position to service position when the
v?rst testing means indicates the absence of re
generating solution in the drain e?iuentof said
tank, an automatic clean-up device adapted to
energize said circuit and actuate the valve actu
ating means including a motor having a prede
ated by the timer including circuits for operat 20 termined rate of rotation, means for energizing
ing said driving means to move the valve means
between said positions in timed relation.
1'7. In a water treatment device, the combina
tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerating
solution connected with the tank, conduits con
nected with the tank for introducing raw water
to be treated therein introducing regenerating
solution and for carrying away treated water and
a drain conduit, valve means for controlling the
?ow through the tank movable successively be 30
tween service, backwash, regenerating and rinse
positions, a circuit, electrically operated means
said motor upon movement of the valve means
out of service position, pairs of contacts con
nected with said circuit, cams operated by the
motor for successively closing said contacts after
a predetermined time interval to energize said
circuit and actuate the valve actuating mecha
nism to move the valve means from backwash
position to brine position and after a further pre
determined interval of time to actuate the valve
actuating mechanism to move the valve means to
service position, and a relay in circuit with the
hardness testing means and operated by the mo
tor to open the circuit to the hardness "testing
in said circuit for actuating said valve means,
means for IOCkil'lg the treatment device against
testing means including a cell connected with the
tank for testing the eilluent of the tank vfor hard 35 automatic operation when the treatment device is
ness during service position, for turbidity during
returned to service position by said clean-up de
the backwash position and for regeneration so
V108.
.
lution during rinse position, means including cir
cuits and relays responsive to the testing means
for energizing the valve actuating means to move
the valve means from service position to back
Wash position, for energizing the valve actuating
19. In a water treatment device, the combi
nation of a tank, a source of regenerating solu
tion, an inlet for raw water, an outletfor service
water and a drain, valve means for controlling
means to move the valve means from backwash
means to test for the absence of regenerating so
lution in the ef?uent of said tank, an electrode
immersed in the drain effluent of the said tank,
a circuit including said electrode arranged to be
closed by the presence of high percentage brine
in said drain e?luent, timing means in said circuit
started by closing of the same, a‘ switch on said
position to regenerating position and for energiz
ing the valve actuating means to move the valve
means back to service position in response to tests
on the e?luent, an automatic clean-up device to
the flow through the said tank, electrical testing
return the treatment device to service position
in the event that fault develops during the re
generation cycle of the said treatment device in 50 timing means closed thereby at the expiration
cluding a timer, means operated by the timer
of a predetermined period, and a circuit con
adapted to energize the valve actuating means at
nected with the said switch and said testing
predetermined intervals of time to move the valve
means for initiating operation of the said elec
means from backwash position to regenerating
trical testing means upon the closing of the said
position if the valve means has not been oper
switch.
ated by the testing means and to move the valve
‘20. The combination in a water treatment de
means to service position if the valve means has
not been operated thereto by the testing means,
and means operated by said timer to open the
circuit to the testing means after the valve means
has been returned to service position for termi
nating the control of the valve means by the
testing means, whereby the treatment device is
locked out of automatic operation.
18. In a water treatment device, the combina 65
tion of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat
ing solution, conduits connected with said tank
for introducing raw water to be treated therein
introducing regenerating solution and carrying
away treated water and. a drain conduit, valve
means for controlling the ?ow through the tank
movable successively between service, backwash,
regenerating and rinse positions, a circuit, elec
trically operated means in said circuit for actu
ating the valve means, a ?rst testing means in
vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
treating the water, a source of regenerating so—
lution, conduits connected with said tank for in
troducing water to be treated therein introducing
regenerating solution and carrying treated water
therefrom and a drain conduit, valve means con
trolling the flow through said tank, testing means
for testing for the presence of regenerating so
lution in the e?luent of the tank, means respon
sive to said testing means for actuating the valve
means, timing means for initiating operation of
the testing means upon the lapse of a predeter
mined time, and a conductivity electrode disposed
in the drain e?luent and electrically connected
with said timing means for initiating operation
of the same after the appearance of regenerating
solution in the e?luent of the tank.
21. The combination in a water treatment de
Vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
2,405,479
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.28
treatingwater, a source .of. regenerating solution,
conduits connected with said tank. for introduc
ing water to betreated. therein introducing re
generating solution and carryingtreated water
.means including switch means insaid circuit,,and
.a signalmeans electrically connected with: the
therefrom and a drain conduit, valve means con
. trolling the ?ow through said tank, .a circuit,
electrically operated meansin said circuit for
actuating the valve means whenthe circuit is
energized, testing .means for testing the e?iu
.ent forhardnesswhen .the valveoccupiesthe
.service position and for absence of regenerating
switch means for indicating the presence of hard
ness .in the e?luent when the valve actuating
means is energized.
,24. The combination in a water softenerof a
treatment tank, a source of regeneratingisolu
tion,.conduits connected with the tank for intro
ducing raw water to be treated therein intro
ducing regenerating solution. andcarrying away
treated water. and. a_drain.conduit, valve means
solution. intheeiiluent when the valve means
.occupies rinse .position including. a cell connected
.for controlling the. ?ow through said. tank,..mov
with the tankv for receiving ‘effluent from the tank,
vgenerating, andrinse positions, a ‘?rst testing
able successivelybetween scrvice,.,backwash, re~
.a. second testing. means. connected to receive drain 15 means including..a..ce1l connected with thetanl:
for .testingrthe'e?luent of.-. the ,tankicr hardness
a Water from-said tank. for testing the drain Water
.forturbidityin the backwash position, signal
means .forlindicating the presenceof hardness
in. theservice water, the. absence of turbidity. in
‘during the. servicelpositioni and. for regenerating
solutionduring rinse_..position, electrically oper
.ated valve actuating means for actuating the valve
thedrain water and theabsence of regenerating 20 means tomove. the . valve means. from'service po
. solution, in the drain water,.electrica1 circuits con
sition .to backwash position whenuthe hardness
nectingsaid testing means to said signal means,
.meanscontrolledby the .testingmeans to ener
gize and. deenergize. said last-mentioned circuits,
testing means. indicateshardness inthe .e?luent
cfithetank, a signaLelectrically connected with
the ?rst testing..means,for .indicatinghardness
7. and ,manuallyoperated- control means including 25 in the e?luentturbidity. testingmeans including
a. push button in said. ?rst mentioned circuit for
.controlling the same formoving said. valve means
frornservicev position through successive positions
a cell connected withrthetdrain.conduit tore
ceive liquid .from the tank for testing e?luent
going to the _drain.for.turbidity while said valve
_. and return to serviceposition through successive
means occupies backwash vposition, .means re
actuation ofsaid push buttonas indicated by the
sponsive tothe turbidity testing means to ener
gize said valveactuating means to move the valve
.signalmeans.
‘
".22. LThe combination. in awater treatment de
.vice.cf..a.treatmentl tank,‘ asubstance therein for
-.treating.thelwater, a. source of regenerating solu
tion,.conduitsconnectedwith said tank for in
troducing water to be treated. therein introduc
ing regenerating solution and carrying treated
water therefromand a drain conduit, valve means
controlling .the. flowthrough said tank, light-sen
from backwash .positionto regenerating position
when theturbiditytesting means indicates less
thanra predetermined turbidity in the drainer
?uent, asignal electrically connected with the
turbidity testing means and energized by the
same, for indicating. a.turbidity test, said ?rst
testing means operating .to ,energize the valve
actuating-.means to move the valve means back
..sitive testing means to test turbidity of the drain 40 to service position when test indicates absence
.water,_sa_id .means including. atest cell having
of_regenerating solutionin the e?luent of the
windows, means iorpassing drain water from the
tank,..and a .signalelectrically connected-with
drainconduit towaste through said cell,»a source
said ?rst testingmeans and energized by the lat
.of light, alight sensitive cell, said source of. light
ter when rtestindicates absence of regenerating
.and light sensitive cellcbeing. located. to pass light
solution in thee?‘luent and thezwater. is clear.
.‘fromthe. source. through the water insaid test
.25. .In ..a .water treatment: device, :the combi
,celLonto. the light-sensitive cell, means-respon
.nation .of..a treatment tank having a. sourceof
sive to said lightsensitive cell :and including a
. regenerating.solutioman inlet for hard water and
.circuit, ,electrically -operated valve actuating
r€generating~solutiornservice outlet for .soft wa
means in said, circuit. for -. actuating. said valve 5.0 ter . and: a. drain, valve. means for controlling the
‘means ata predetermined. turbidity of. the drain
water‘ for moving the. valve means. toeanother po
‘ sition, a signal means, and a.circuit..connected
.with 'the turbidity testing. means. for: energizing
..flowv through the. said tank-movable betweeniserv
. ice, . regenerating , and . rinse positions, ..meansifor
driving 1 said . valve. means "between .said :positions,
..testing.means. fortesting the water for hardness
said signal means during the test of the turbidity. 55 when , the‘v valve occupies. the. service; positionand
.23. The combinationin. a water. softener of a
.for.-absence..of brinein the eliiuent When the
treatment‘tank, a sourceof regenerating solu
.valve means; occupies the rinse-position, -.means
tion, conduits connected withsaid tank forin
operated by said testing means to control the
'troducing raw Watertobe. treated thereinintro
operation of said driving means, an electrode im
ducing regenerating solution and. carrying away
mersed insaid drain effluent, a' circuit to the said
treated water and a drain conduit,.valve, means
electrode. energizedupon initiation of regenera
for controlling the ?ow through said tank mov
tion bythe said control means, said circuit being
able-successively between service, backwash, re
generating,’ and rinse positions, testing means. in
cluding a' cell connectedwiththe tank for test
ing the-e?iuent of’ the tank for hardness during
the-service position~ and for regenerating solution
duringregenerating position, electrically operated
completed by the presence Of-‘I‘Ggener?ingsolll
tion at said electrode, timing means in said cir
cuit'started by completion thereof, "a switch on
said timingmeans operable attheexpiration of
.a predetermined period,. and circuits, connected
with the said- switch for-initiating operation'of
the said electrical .testingmeans at'the closing
rthroughsaidpositions in succession, means re- 7 of the said switch.
:sponsive'to the testing means for. energizing the
.26. .In awaterv treatment system; thercombina
valveactuating means to move the valve means
tion of a liquidtreatment devicer'requiringperi
valve actuating means .forvmoving said valve
i from service position to backwash position when
the testing means indicates hardness in the ef
"iiuentto the service conduit, the . last mentioned
odic regeneration including a‘ water treatment
tank, .a-source of regeneration solution, conduits
for . raw , water, service water; regeneration .solu
‘
2,405,479
29
30
tion, and a drain conduit and valve means for
controlling the flow therethrough movable
through the service, backwash and rinse steps in
ice position and for regenerating solution during
a regeneration cycle, a source of liquid supply,
a pump for drawing liquid from the source of
supply, a water storage tank for water delivered
by the said pump and. passed through the treat
ment device, an electrically controlled motor for
the said pump including a plurality of independ
ent circuits therefor, a pressure switch in one of
the circuits of the electrically controlled motor,
said pressure switch being connected to said stor
the rinseiposition, turbidity testing means in
cluding a cell connected to receive liquid from
the tank for testing e?‘luent‘going to the drain for
turbidity while said valve means occupies the
backwash position, valve actuating means for
moving said valve means through said positions
in succession, control means including means re
sponsive to the ?rst testing means for energizing
the valve actuating meansto move the valve
means from service position to the backwash po
sition when the ?rst testing means indicates hard
age tank and responsive to a predetermined
ness in the eiiluent to the service conduit, and
means responsive to the turbidity testing means
amount of stored liquid so that the said pump
will be operated upon the liquid reaching the 15 to energize the valve actuating means to move
predetermined amount, a relay in another of the
the valve from the backwash position to the re
said circuits for controlling the ?ow of current to
generating position when the turbidity testing
said motor, means for energizing said relay upon
means indicates less than a predetermined tur
movement of said valve means to backwash and
bidity in the drain effluent, said control means
rinse positions and for de-energizing the same 20 being also responsive to the ?rst testing means
upon movement of said valve means to service
to energize the valve actuating means to move
position whereby operation of the said pump will
the valve means back to the service position when
be sustained once the said relay has been ener
the ?rst testing means indicates the absence of
gized irrespective of the position of the said pres
regenerating solution in the drain ef?uent of the
sure switch.
25 tank.
27. The combination in a water treatment de
30. In a water treatment device, the combi
vice of a treatment tank, a source of regenera
nation of a treatment tank, a source of regenerat
tion solution, conduits for raw water, service wa
ing solution connected with the tank, conduits
ter, regeneration solution and a drain conduit,
connected with the tank for introducing raw wa
valve means in said conduits movable through
ter to be treated therein introducing regenerat
steps to effect a cycle of regeneration, electrically
ing solution and for carrying away treated wa
operated control means connected to said valve
ter and a drain conduit, valve means for con
means, electrically operated testing means con
trolling the flow through the tank movable suc
nected to said service conduit operative in at
cessively between service, backwash, regenerating
least one of said steps to test the effluent of said
and rinse positions, a circuit, electrically operated
tank, a circuit connecting said testing means and
means in said circuit for actuating said valve
said control means for energizing said control
means, testing means including a cell connected
means in response to a test, said circuit including
with the tank for testing the e?iuent of the tank
a latch-in relay for maintaining said circuit closed
for hardness during service position for turbidity
in the event of a temporary electrical power fail 40 during the backwash position and for regenera
ure to resume operation of said cycle at the point ‘ tion solution during rinse position, means includ- ‘
left off upon the resumption of power supply.
ing circuits and relays responsive to the testing
28. The combination in a water treatment de
means for energizing the valve actuating means
Vice of a treatment tank, a substance therein for
to move the valve means from service position,
treating the water, conduits connected with said
for energizing the valve actuating means to move
tank for introducing Water to be treated therein
the valve means from backwash position to re
and carrying treated water therefrom and a drain
generating position, and for energizing the valve
conduit, valve means controlling the flow through
actuating means to move the valve means back
said conduits, light sensitive testing means to test
to service position in response to tests on the
turbidity of drain water when the valves occupy
effluent, an automatic clean-up device-to return
the backwash position, said means including an
the treatment device to service position in the
observation cell having windows in its opposite
event that fault develops during the regenera
ends, means for passing drain water from the
tion cycle of the said treatment device including
drain conduit to waste through said observation
a timer, means operated by said timer adapted
cell, a source of light, a light sensitive cell, said ‘ to energize the valve actuating means at predeter
source of light and light sensitive cell being lo
mined intervals of time to move the valve means
cated at opposite ends of said observation cell, a
from backwash position to regenerating position
relay energized by said light sensitive cell, a cir
if the valve means has not been operated by the
cuit coupled with said relay, and a second relay
testing means and to move the valve means to
connected in said circuit and energized thereby
service position if the valve means has not been
at a predetermined turbidity of the drain water,
operated thereto by the testing means, means op
and means energized by the operation of said sec
erated by said timer to open the circuit to the
ond relay for operating said valve mechanism to
testing means after the valve means has been re
move the valves out of backwash position.
turned to service position for terminating the
29. The combination in a water softener of a
control of the valve means by the testing means,
softener tank, a source of ‘regenerating solution,
whereby the treatment device is locked out of
conduits connected with said tank for introduc
automatic operation, signal means for indicating
ing raw water to be treated therein, introducing
faulty operation of the testing means, and means
regenerating solution, carrying away treated wa
operated by said timer for energizing the signal
ter and a drain conduit, valve means for control
means when the valve actuating means is ener
ling the ?ow through said tank movable succes~
gized by said timer.
sively between service, backwash, regenerating,
31. In a water treatment device, the combi
and rinse positions, a ?rst testing means includ
nation of a tank, a source of regenerating solu
ing a cell connected with the tank for testing the
tion, inlets for raw water and regenerating so
eiiluent of the tank for hardness during the serv
lution, an outlet for service water and a drain,’
£2,405,479
.131
32
a valve means?for controlling therl?owr through the
ringzmeansuciosedithereby:at the expirationcf; a
:predetermined'period, a-circuit connected with
‘said; tank, testing means‘ to test'fori the: ‘presence
of'regenerating solution in the e'?iuentQ-of ‘said
tank-an electrode immersed in the drain e?iu
ent-of the said tank, a circuit including said elec
troole»v arrangedito be closedby the presence of
high 'percentage regenerating solution-in said
.‘draineiiiuent, timing means in said. circuit start
1 edzbyclosing of the same, a switch on said tim
the-said switch~ and‘rsaid » testing means for ‘ ini
tiatingf operation of the said’ testing means upon
the closing of the said switch, a signal means for
‘indicating when said testing means is inopera
tion, and a circuit connecting the signal means
with the timer and energized by said timer.
’ FRED W. -WI-IITLOCK.
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