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Патент USA US2405483

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Aug. 6, 194é.
Filed Oct. 2, 1943 .
4 Sheets~$heet 1
Even/Z07" ,
Mf79/261472” '
14ZZormeys' I
Aug. 6, 1946.
i .
2,405,483 "
Filed Oct._ 2, 1943
4 Sheets~5heet 2_
Patented Aug. 6, 1946
Cecil P. Abrams, Anoka, Minn.
Application October 2, 1943, Serial No. 504,667
9 Claims. (01. 209-111)
This invention relates to apparatus for auto
matically inspecting certain manufactured arti
cles. While various kinds of articles may be test
ed or inspected, the invention particularly deals
means for directing .said article along another
path to reject the same should the light be not
properly re?ected from said surface.
It is still further an object of the invention to
provide an apparatus for testing the surface of
an article comprising means} for moving a beam
of light along said surface, said light being re
ticular embodiment of the invention illustrated,
?ected from said surface, means for moving said
it is shown as constructed and arranged for test
ing or inspecting a surface of general cylindri 10 article along one path if said surface is continu
ous and means actuated by means of the light
cal, conical or spherical form. Speci?cally the
re?ected from said surface for moving said article
invention is illustrated for testing a cylindrical
along the path to reject the same if said beam of
part such as the metal cup of a shotgun shell.
with articles having a surface which must meet
certain requirements. While various types of
surfaces may be inspected or tested in the par
These shells must meet certain requirements as 1
light moves over an interruption in said sur
It is still further an object of the invention to
spect the cups and reject the imperfect ones be
provide an apparatus for inspecting or testing
fore the cup is assembled with paper cylinders
an article and particularly a surface thereof com
into a shotgun shell. If the metal cup is found to
prising movable means for causing a beam of ‘light
be defective and discarded, much time, labor and
expense will be saved over having the defect dis 20 to travel along said surface, said light being re
?ected from said surface to a photoelectric cell
covered after the assembly of the article has been
and means for moving said article along one
made. The inspection is made by means of light
path if said light is continuously re?ected from
and the rejection of imperfect caps accomplished
said surface and means controlled by said photo
by means of an electric circuit controlled by a
photoelectric cell. It has heretofore been pro 25 electric cell for moving said article along another
path to reject said article if said light is not con
posed to test articles in the above manner but
tinuously ‘reflected from said surface due tov said
the mechanism for so doing has been very com
beam’ of light passing over an imperfection in
plicated and cumbersome. In some such at
said surface.
tempts the article itself has been moved to var
ious stations and rotated while having a sta ~80 ti It is more speci?cally an object of the inven
on to test or inspect a cylindrical member hav
tionary beam of light directed thereon. This re
ing an open end and an internal surface of gen
quires much accurate positioning of the article
eral cylindrical form comprising means for hold_
and excessive mechanism.
ing said article in stationary position, moving
It is an object of this invention to provide a
simple and e?icient apparatus for testing or in-J‘J35 means for causing a beam of light to travel along
said surface, means for moving said last men
specting certain manufactured articles in which
tioned means into the open end of said article
the article is held in stationary position while a
and into operative position, means for moving
beam of light is moved along the surface thereof
said second mentioned means out of said article,
to be tested or inspected.
It is a further object of the invention to pro-i 2 :40, means for moving said article in one path if
said beam of light is reflected from said surface
vide an apparatus in which the article having a
and means for moving said article in another
surface to be tested is held stationary and a ro
path-to reject the same if said beam of light is
tatable means for directing light is disposed adja
not continuously re?ected from said surface.
cent said article and light is transmitted by said
means to move along said surface together with-ii:45 It is still more speci?cally an object of the
invention to‘ provide such an apparatus as set forth
means actuated by a photoelectric cell for reject
in the preceding paragraph in which said mov
ing the said article should said light travel over
able means for directing said beam of light along
imperfections in said surface so that it would not
said surface is in the form of a rotating mirror
be re?ected therefrom.
by an electric motor and in which said
It is another object of the invention to provide»;
means for directing said article along said other
an apparatus for testing an article having a sur
path to reject the same comprises a photoelectric
face to be tested comprising means for causing
cen, an electrical circuit controlled thereby and
a beam of light to travelalong said surface, means
' means actuate d'by operation of said electrical
for directing said article along one path if said
to the ?nished structure and it is desirable to in
light is properly re?ected from said surface andsi'?li ‘These and other objects and advantages of the
projects under a cylindrical ?ange on a member
29, having its upper portion ?tted into the lower
end of tube 2%. Member 29 has a central cylin
drical bore into which ?ts and is movable a lens
holding member 39. A leaf spring 3| is secured to
5 the side of member 29 by headed screw 32 and car
ries at its lower end a pin 33 adapted to extend
invention will be fully set forth in the following
description made in connection with the accom
panying drawings in which like reference char
acters refer to similar parts throughout the sev
eral views and in which:
Fig. l is a view in side elevation of an appa
ratus embodying the present invention some parts
transversely through an aperture‘in member 29.
being shown in different positions in dotted lines;
'Pin 30 has a collar disposed between spring 3|
Fig. 2 is a View in side elevation as seen from
and member 29. Pin 33 is adapted to be received
the side opposite that viewed in Fig. l, certain lo in an aperture in member 39 to hold the same in
parts being indicated in different positions in
place in member 29. It will be seen that the low
dotted lines;
er endof spring 3| and the pin 33 can be easily
Fig. 3 is a View in front elevation of said :ap
withdrawn to permit removal or insertion of
paratus, certain parts being broken away ‘and
~ member 30. Member 30 has a central bore which
others shown in vertical section together with a
wiring diagram;
Fig. 4 is a partial vertical section taken on line
4-4 of Fig. 3' as indicated by the arrows, the
same being shown on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 5 is a central vertical section through said 20
apparatus taken substantially on line 5—5 of Fig.
2, certain parts being omitted;
Fig. 6 is a horizontal section taken substantial
ly on line 5-45 of Fig. l as indicated by the arrows,
certain parts being omitted;
Fig. 7 is a partial view similar to Fig. 6 show
ing some parts in di?erent positions;
Fig. 8 is a View partly in side .elevation and
partly in vertical section taken substantially on
line 8——3 of Fig. 2, as indicated by the arrow, {:30
some parts being omitted and
is enlarged and threaded at its upper end to re
.ceivea threaded sleeve 34. A pair of lenses 36 and
3'? are disposed in sleeve 34, lens 36 being seated
against a shoulder formed in the lower end of
sleeve 3t, lens 36 beingv of convexo-convex form
and lens 3'! being of plane-concave form, fitting
against the upper side of lens 35. Said lenses are
held in place in member 35, by a suitable retainer
such as a split spring snap ring 38 being disposed
above lens 31, Member 30 has projecting down
wardly therefrom at opposite sides segmental
portions sea between which extends a small shaft
or pin 40 having a portion cut away between por
tions 35a to form a ?at surface 40a. A mirror or
elliptical form, as shown in Figs. 8 and 9, is se
cured with its bottom surface against surface 48a,
the same having a pin d3 projecting through
Fig. 9 is a horizontal section taken on line 9-4!
member 49, said pin being riveted over a small
of Fig. 8 as indicated by the arrows.
washer 44 engaging the side of member All. Mir
Referring to the drawings a machine is shown
rior 42 is thus ?rmly secured to the shaft 68.
comprising a frame it illustrated as in the form (=35
Slide 12 has secured to one side thereof by
of a vertically extending channel member having
suitable screws 45, a bar 41. ‘A plate 48 is se
the spaced flanges ‘lila‘and said channel member
cured to bar 41 by headed screws 49, said plate
has secured to the front side of its web portion
extending transversely at one side of one of
by'a threaded stud Ha, nut lib and washer Hc,
flanges lilo. A pair of bars 58 are secured to the
a member H of trapezoidal shape in horizontalcno side of said ?ange Hm by screws 5|, which bars
cross section, the same forming .a guide means
are spaced to form a guideway for a slide 52.
for a vertically movable slide l2. Frame member
it will be secured to abase I3 of any suitable con
Slide member i2 has a guideway
headed screw 53 is threaded into slide member
.52 and extends through a vertically extending
slot 48a in plate 5.8. A jam nut 55 is provided on
> therein ?tting on guide member H and. an aid-‘5.3315 screw 53 and engages plate 48. It will be seen
~ justable gib M will preferably be disposed be"
that plate 48 is thus connected to slide 52 and by
tween members ll and i2 in order to maintain
. loosening screw 53 and. nut 54 adjustment can be
an accurate ?t between said parts. Slide member
. had between slide 52 and plate 43. Slide 52 at
G2 has forwardly projecting ears or lugs [2a aper
its lower end has secured thereto a cam roller 55
tured to receive a pivot member H‘: which also‘3150 arranged to rotate on a stud of threaded into slide
passes through and hasswingingly mounted there
on a projection 16a of a motor frame or casing l6.
. 52. Cam roller ES-is engaged by a cam 51 secured
Projection [5a has a flat outer surface ‘adapted
to a shaft 58 journalled in member ii! and ex
tending transversely thereof. Shaft 58 has se
to engage a similar surface on slide member l2
cured thereto a pulley 59 adapted to be rotated by
when said member is in operative position. Gas-LL557 belt 63 running over another pulley (not shown)
ing l6 has mounted therein the usual motor ?eld
vand which will be driven by some suitable source
coils H which will be arranged in circumferential
of power. With the described construction it will
relation and an armature I8 is disposed for ro
tation within said ?eld coils. Said parts are
be seen that slide I2 and motor casing 56 together
with tube 28 and parts carried thereby will be
shown diagrammatically as representing an elec-r“ 580 raised at each revolution of shaft 58. The upper
trio motor. Armature l8 has ‘secured thereto
position of said parts is indicated in dotted lines
and extending axially therethrough a tube 25.
in Fig. 2.
Said tube is mounted at the tOp and bottom of
Shaft 58 also has secured thereto at the other
casing iii in suitable ball bearings 2i and 22.
side of the machine, a cam E5 adapted to engage
Ball bearings 2! are mounted in casing l6 and b15465 a cam roller 58 journalled on a stud 6‘! secured
a ?anged collar or cap 23 secured in any suitable
manner to the bottom of easing l6 about tube 26
and bearings '22 are carried in a ?anged cap 24
in a lever arm 68 pivoted on a stud 59 secured in
the side of >member H). A torsion spring ll] is
coiled about stud 5i! and engages member Iii at
which may be secured in any suitable manner as
one end and has its other end engaging the outer
by cap screws 25 to'the top-cover l?b of easing 1 6.55m side of lever 68. Spring 1B tends to move cam
Said cover lab will be‘ secured to casing it by '
roller 68 toward cam 65. Lever 68 carries a pin
- suitable capscrews :26. The lower end’ of tube 20
tea arranged to engage the side of member If)
is threaded and the'same receives a threaded
act‘as a stop. Lever '68 has pivoted thereto
sleeve 28 having a knurled periphery. Sleeve ‘28
has a lower inwardly extending ?ange 28a whichid? at its lower end‘ by pivot bolt ‘H a link 12, the
other end of which is pivoted by a bolt ‘I3 to a bar
or rod ‘I4 extending through and projecting from
a downwardly extending portion 15a of a slide
member ‘I5. The said downwardly extended por
tion 15a works in a suitable slot in plate 80. Slide
member ‘I5 is guided between blocks 1‘! over
which is secured a plate ‘I8 by screws 19 disposed
adjacent the corners thereof. Blocks 1'! rest upon
a plate 80 supported upon spaced bars or blocks
8| and 82 and secured to base member I3 by
headed bolts 83, having washers 84 disposed be
tween the heads thereof and plate 80.
The articles to be inspected or tested such as
the cups 90 are fed by gravity down a slide or
stationary support IIIia by means of astaple
A member or shell I20 is secured to the top of
cap 24 by screws I2! extending through the pe
ripheral ?ange thereof. A tube I22 has its lower
end ?tted in and supported in member I20, which
tube has a laterally projecting portion I 22a some
distance above member I20. A lamp I23 which
includes a high candlepower concentrated ?la
ment lamp bulb !23a is carried in an oscillatable
member I24 forming part of a shell socket I25,
through which extends the conductor I26 for
lamp I23. A contact member I21 is shown con
nected to conductor ‘I26 and held in engagement
with the tip contact I231) of lamp I23 by a com
pression coiled spring I28. Member I24 is dis
chute 9!, having a. width substantially equal to
the diameter of cups 90. Said chute at its lower
end is secured to the top of plate 80 by having
posed in a semi-spherical seat formed in a sleeve
screws 92 pass through ?anges 9Ia and 9Ib which
I 29 threaded into the upper end of a shell I301
extend laterally from said chute, said screws be
ing threaded into plate 80. One side of chute 9! 20 secured in the upper end of tube I22 in any suit
able manner. Member I24 also engages a semi
is bent at a right angle to form a guiding portion
spherical seat formed in a transversely extending
9! c. It will be noted that one side of ‘block 'I'! is
plate or washer I3! secured in shell I30. The
in substantial longitudinal alignment of one side
end of shell I30 is threaded and receives a
of chute 9!. An angle member 94 is secured to
the top of plate 80 by screws 95, the vertical ?ange 25 lens-carrying sleeve I32 threaded therein, in
which are disposed lenses I33 and I34, the same
of which is parallel to and spaced from guide
held by a member I35 secured in the lower
portion 9! c. The slide ‘I5 moves between portion
end of sleeve I32. Lens I34 is convexo-convex
9Ic and the vertical ?ange of angle member 94
and is engaged by the lower side of upper lens I 39
substantially midway therebetween and has its
end of concave form and adapted to ?t against 30 which is concave and the upper side of which is
?at. A shell I38 is secured in tube I22 below
the side of one of the cups 90.
A pair of blocks 98 of substantially cylindrical
form are pivoted on studs 99 journalled in plate
80 and said studs have secured to their lower ends
member I35 and carries a member I39 which ex
tends diagonally and traverses the opening into
projection I 22a. Member I39 is of transparent
beneath said plate respectively links I90 and IOI. 35 material such as glass and has its lower surface
lightly silvered or otherwise constructed to form.
Said links have adjacent the ends thereof remote
a mirror. Said member I39 however is arranged
form studs 99 elongated slots IBM and I 0Ia. A
for the passage of light therethrough. The pro
pin I03 extends vertically through slots I00a and
J'ection I22a has secured therein a tube I40 in
IOIa, which pin is secured to a horizontally ex
tending bar I04 secured to a downwardly extend 40 which is carried a socket I4I adapted to‘receive
a photo electric cell I42. While cell I42 can be
ing portion ‘15a of slide '15 by the headed screws
I05. Portion 75a extends downwardly through
plate 80. Members 98 have secured to one side
thereof semi-cylindrical members I06 having flat
top portions.
of any photo emissive type it may be either gas~
?lled or of the vacuum type. ‘In practice an
R. C. A. 924 photo cell has been found very satis
factory for the purpose. The line conductors are
shown as I44 and I45. Conductors‘ I46 and I4‘!
The portion 9 la and the vertical flange of mem
extend from the line conductors respectively to
ber 94 align respectively with the sides of a chute
the terminal leads I I6 and I I‘! of the motor hav
I08, the upper end portion of which rests upon
ing armature’ I8. A switch I45 is provided for
and is secured to plate 80, said chute I08 extend~
ing downwardly in an inclined direction from 50 controlling the motor circuit. A conductor I49
extends from line conductor I44 to the primary
plate 80. A short distance from plate I 08 said
of a transformer I50~and a conductor I5! extends
chute is divided to have diverging portions "28a,
from the other end of said primaryto the other
having their adjacent sides I 08?) meeting in an
line conductor I45. A switch I52 is disposed in
acute angle. A pivot member H0 is mounted for
oscillating movement in the bottom of chute I08 55 conductor I5! for controlling lamp I 23. A c0n~
ductor I53 extends from the secondary of trans
and has secured thereto a plate or gate I I I adapt
former I59 to the live or ?lament side of lamp
ed to swing therewith. Pivot I!!! has secured to
I23 and the other side of said lamp and the other
its lower end one end of an arm l I2, to the other
end of the said secondary are shown as grounded.
end of which is secured a rod I l3, which in turn
is secured to the core II4a of a solenoid II4 hav 60 A conductor I55 extends from line conductor I45
to one end of the winding H41) of solenoid H4.
ing a winding II4b. Core II4a is provided with
A switch I54 is disposed in conductor I55 for con
a chamber II4c from which an aperture II4d
trolling the circuit thereof. Conductor I55 is also
leads into the chamber in which core H412 moves.
connected by another conductor I 50 to one of the
A valve seat is formed about aperture I Md which
seat is engaged by a ball I! 8 which is engaged 65 power supply terminals of a suitable electronic
ampli?er which may involve one or more vacuum
by a small compression coiled spring II9 which
tube ampli?er stages of the conventional variety.
at its other end engages the end of the chamber
Another conductor I 58' extends from line con
“40. The small opening I Me leads from cham
ductor I44 ‘to the stationary contact I?iia of a re
ber II4c through core H411 to the atmosphere
lay !90. Another conductor I?l'extends from the
or outsidevthe chamber in which core I Ma moves.
armature I50b of relay I60 to the other end of
A very small passage H4)‘ leads from chamber
the winding II4b of solenoid H4. A conductor
N40 to the chamber within the solenoid in which
I62 also extends from conductor I59 to the other
core I Met moves. One end of a tensile spring I I5
power supply terminal of ampli?er I57. Con
is secured to the end of rod I! 3, the other end
ductor I 83 extends from photo electric cell I 42
of said spring being secured to some suitable
to a signal voltageinput terminal of theampli?er
I51. A conductor I65 ‘extends from a signal out
put terminal of ampli?er I51 to one end of the
winding of relay I60. Another conductor I55 ex
tends from the other end of the winding of relay
£55 to one terminal I61a of a switch I61. A con
ductor I68 extends from the other signal output
terminal of ampli?er I51 to a contact I611) of
switch I61. Contacts It'la and I6'Ib are adapted
. ‘
from the upper surface of member I39 as indi
cated by arrow I19. However ample light passes
through member I39 for the desired purpose.
The beam of light passes downwardly and is re
?ected from mirror 42 as indicated by line I8!
in Fig. 8 so that it is directed against the surface
90a. Since mirror 42 is rotating the beam of light
is caused to travel around surface 96a throughout
its whole extent. The beam will be of su?icient
to be connected by a pole or contact I610 of a
scope to cover the width of surface 90a. The
switch I61. Switch I61 is disposed in a switch boX 10 light directed on surface 90a is re?ected from said
I10 mounted on a bracket I1I connected to the
surface as indicated by line I82 in Fig. 8 and
front side of slide II by screws I12. The contact
again strikes mirror 42 and is re?ected upwardly
I610 is carried by an adjustable threaded me longitudinally of tube 20 as indicated by the ar
her or screw I13 mounted in a bracket I14 secured
rows I83 in Figs. 5 and 8. This re?ected light
to the front side of slide I2 by one or more screws
passing upwardly in tube 20 strikes the mirror
I15. Member I13 is provided with a lock or ad—
under surface of member I39 and is reflected so
justing nut I15 which engages the top of
as to pass longitudinally of tube I40 as indicated
bracket I14.
The operation of the novel method and the de
scribed apparatus is as follows:
The cups 50 which are to form the end of shot
gun shells are fed into the chute ill in any suit
able manner and slide down said chute by grav
ity. The speci?c surface to be tested is the frusto
conical surface 95s at the in er side of the cup _.
at its open end. Pulley 59 will be driven as de
scribed, thus rotating shaft 58 and operating cam
65. As the high side of cam 65 engages cam r-oll—
or 65, lever 68 is swung to the right as shown in
Fig. 1 substantially to the dotted line position and
this moves slide ‘I5 to the right as shown in Figs.
1 and 6. Slide 15 moves far enough to the right as
shown in Fig. 6 so that the lowermost cup 90 in
chute QI moves in front of slide 15, said cup slid
ing down until it is stopped against the vertical
flange of member 94. At this time cam 51 has
been rotated to bring its high side against cam
by the arrows I84. This re?ected light transmit
ted from the mirror surface of member I39 is
directed onto photoelectric cell I152. Photoelec
tric cell I42 is thus actuated and through its con
ductor I63 effects a bias on tube I51 and when
the tube is so biased no current will flow in con
ductors I65 and I68. It may be stated that when
mirror 42 was lowered to position within the cup,
member I13 was lowered and switch It‘! closed.
The circuit from ampli?er I 5'l through switch I61
and relay IE0 is therefore closed. As described
however no current ?ows in this circuit as long
as the light is being re?ected from surface 90a
and the reflected light is directed on photoelectric
cell I42. Should there be some imperfection in
surface 90a so that the light is not re?ected there
- from back to mirror 42, there would be an absence
5“ thus raising slide 52 and with it slide
or cessation of the re?ected light and this would
effect cell I42 so that it no longer would bias am
pli?er I51 and current would begin to flow in the
circuit of relay I60. When this happens relay
I2 and motor casing It with the parts carried
I60 is energized and armature Itllb is moved into
thereby. As previously indicated, by manipula-. 40 engagement
with contact IGlla. This closesthe
tion of screw 53 and nut 54 the points between
which plate 48 and slide I2 will rise and fall under
the action of cam 51 can be adjusted. Portion 39a
and mirror 42 can thus be accurately positioned.
The lower end of portion 30a. and mirror 62 are L
thus raised above the top plane or edge of cup
Bil so that said cup can slide under portion 300..
It will be understood that switch I48 will be
closed so that motor armature I8 will be rotated.
Switch I52 will also be closed, thus illuminating .
lamp I23, and switch I54 will be closed thus put
ting in operation the circuits of amplifying tube
I51. It will be understood that switches I48, I52
and I54 are manually operated. On further revo
lution of shaft 58 slide ‘I5 is moved to the left as ,
shown in Figs. 1 and 6 and the cup 90 which has
moved in front of the slide, is moved to the left
and into engagement with members I05 as illus
trated in Fig. 6. The cup is now axially aligned
with tube 20 and tube I22 as shown in Fig. 5. 60
Cam 53 now moves so that its lower side is in
engagement with cam roller 51. and tube 20 and
circuit through solenoid H4 and the core Iléc
is drawn into said solenoid moving to the left
as shown in Fig. 3, swinging arm I I2 and the plate
or gate II I so that the latter swings to the dotted
line position shown in Fig. 3. Normally if the
surface 00a is continuous and perfect the-cup
would be directed so as to move into chute I08
and through the portion I08a thereof at the left
of Fig. 3. When gate III is swung to the posi
tion shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3 the cup will
be directed through the portion I08a of chute I08
at the right in Fig. 3 and will thus be rejected.
After the mirror 42 has made the required num
ber of revolutions it is again raised by operation
of cam 51, slide 15 is again moved to the right
and another cup is engaged and moved into axial
alignment with tube 20. This cup will engage
the cup previously acted upon and the latter will
be pushed toward chute I08. As stated the cups
are positioned against members I06. Each time
slide 15 moves to the right it also moves bar I04
to the right and through the links 99 and I00
parts carried thereby are lowered. Portion 30a
turns blocks or members 98 about their axis or
and mirror 42 are thus lowered to the position
pivots 99. Said members 90 are moved to the
shown in Fig. 8. As the motor armature I8 is 65 position shown in Fig. 7 and it will be seen that
rotated member 311 and mirror 42 are being ro
the members I05 are then moved with their ?at
tated. The light from lamp I23 passes through
sides respectively parallel and parallel with the
V lenses I33 and I34 which direct it longitudinally
movement of bar I05; In this position the cup
through tube 20 and focus itsu?iciently so that
9%! which is engaged by the cup next to be acted
a beam of light is directed onto mirror 42 as 70
upon can be moved between members I 06 and
shown by arrows I80 in Figs. 5 and 8. This light
into chute I38. In order that gate II will be held
must pass through the member I39 and owing to
in position a sufficient period .to discard or re
the said member being constructed as a mirror,
' ject the imperfect cup, the described structure of
some of the light will be absorbed by member I39.
Some of the light will also probably be reflected 75 core IHIq, has been provided. When solenoid H4
9 -.
is deenergized, which occurs when mirror 42 is
lifted and member ' I13 moves upward 'to'open
switch "51, core I “la would be immediately moved
to the right in Fig. 3 by spring “5a. However
due to the ball valve H8 which acts as a check
valve, core “4a is given a dash-pot action and
movesslowly ‘to the right under action of spring
H5. Core I Illa, canvvonly move as air is permitted
to pass into its chamber through passage “4f.
Gate II I is thus held in the dotted line position
shownfor the proper period to direct the imper
fect cup into the portion I 08a of chute I08 at
the right in Fig. 3. The operation of the ma
chine is thus icontinuous'a‘nd the cups are con
tinuously and rapidly fed into position, inspect
- 3. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
articleihaving in'combination, means for posi
tioning'an article having an open-ended annu
lar surface to be tested, a source of light, a ro
tatable mirrorifor receiving said light from said
source and directing it to travel along said sur
face, said light being re?ected from said surface
back to said mirror, means for lifting and low
ering said mirror, means for. positioning said ar
ticle ‘with the axis of said annular surface sub
stantially aligned withthe axis of rotation of
said 'mirror while said mirror is lifted, said mirror
being lowered into said article, means for rotat
ing, said mirror to cause a beam of light to be
directed on and travel around said surface, said
ed or tested and the imperfect cups rejected.‘
light being re?ectedfrom said surface, and means
Motor casing I6 and parts carried thereby can
controlled by said re?ected light for moving said
be swung upward to the dotted line position
article along a certain path.
shown in Fig. 1.
4. The structure set forth in claim 3 and means
From the above description it will be seen that 20 for varying the vertical position of said mirror
I have provided a novel and comparatively sim
ple and very e?icient apparatus for examining or
when lifted and lowered.
5. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
inspecting manufactured parts for detection, im
article having in combination, means for posi
tioning an article having a surface to be tested,
gressecl to and through the machine very rapidly 25 a lamp, a power rotated mirror for receiving
and the articles having imperfections are reject
light from said lamp and re?ecting it to cause it
ed and directed into a separate receptacle from
to travel along said surface, said light being re
those which are perfect. By moving the beam
?ected from said surface back to said mirror and
of light along the surface it is possible to have a
again re?ected toward said lamp, means for re
comparatively simple apparatus. The machine 30 ceiving said re?ected light from said mirror and
operates automatically and needs very little at
directing it transversely to the path from said
tention by an operator. The apparatus has been
lamp to said mirror, a light-sensitive means on
amply demonstrated in actual practice and
which said re?ected light is directed, an electrical’
found to be very successful and e?icient.
circuit controlled by said last mentioned means,
It will, of course, be understood that various 35 and means controlled by said circuit for deter
mining the path of said article if no re?ected
changes may be made in the form, details, ar
rangement and proportions of the parts without
light is directed on said light-sensitive means.
perfections or defects.
The articles are pro
departing from the scope of applicant’s inven
6. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
article having in combination, a motor, a member
tion, which generally stated, consists in a device
capable of carrying out the objects above set 40 extending axially of said motor, rotated there
with and having a passage therethrough, a lamp
forth, in the parts and combinations of parts dis
adjacent one end of said passage, a power ro
closed and de?ned in the appended claims.
tated mirror carried by and rotated with said
The term “mirror” is herein used in a broad
and liberal sense to cover any de?ecting or wave
member at one end thereof and having its sur
tions of the mirrors of the apparatus described.
What is claimed is:
sage, means for positioning an article having an
bending devices capable of performing the func 45 face inclined to the longitudinal axis of said pas
annular surface with the axis of said surface sub
stantially aligned with, the axis of rotation of
said member, means for disposing said mirror in
ticle having in combination, means for position
ing an article having an annular surface, a source 50 position to re?ect light from said lamp onto said
surface to cause it to travel along said surface,
of light, a rotatable mirror for receiving said light
said light being re?ected from said surface back
from said source and directing it to travel along
to said mirror and from said mirror along said
said surface, said light being re?ected from said
passage, means between said mirror and lamp for
surface back to said mirror, power means for ro
tating the mirror, means for receiving said re 55 re?ecting said re?ected light transversely of said
passage, a light-sensitive means onto which said
?ected light and transmitting it in a certain di
re?ected light is directed by said last mentioned
rection, and means controlled by said re?ected
means, and means controlled by said light-sen
light for moving said article in a. certain path if
sitive means for determining the subsequent path
said surface is interrupted so that no light is re
60 of said article.
?ected from said mirror.
1. An apparatus for testing a surface on an ar
2. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
7. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
article having in combination, a- motor rotatable
article having in combination, means for posi
about a vertical axis, a tube extending axially of
tioning an article having an annular surface, a
said motor, a power rotated mirror at the lower
source of light, power rotated means for receiv
ing said light from said source and directing the 65 end of said tube having an inclined surface, said
tube and mirror being rotated by said motor, a
same to causeit to travel around said annular
lamp disposed to direct a beam of light axially
surface, said means being constructed and ar
of said tube, means for feeding an article having
ranged to receive light re?ected from said sur
an annular surface into position vertically
face and re?ect the same, means for receiving
aligned with said mirror, said mirror causing the
said re?ected light and directing it in a certain
beam of light from said lamp to be re?ected onto
path, and means located in said path and con
and to travel around said surface, said light being
trolled by said re?ected light to direct said arti
re?ected from said surface back to said mirror
cle in a certain path if said surface is interrupted
and from said mirror upwardly in said tube, a
so that no light is re?ected.
75 second mirror in said tube between said lamp and
first mentioned mirror for receiving said reflected
light and directing it transversely of said tube,
a light-sensitive means on which said re?ected
light is directed, and means controlled by said
light-sensitive means for determining the sub
sequent path of said article.
9. An apparatus for testing a 'surfaceon an ar
ticle having in combination, a lamp, a rotatable
mirror, means for raising andlowering said mir
ror, means operated in synchronism ‘with said
means for feeding an open-ended article having
a surface to be tested into alignment with the
axis ofrotation of said mirror so that said mirror
8. An apparatus for testing a surface on an
may be lowered into said article, means for To
article having in combination, a chute down
tating said mirror to cause a beam of light from
which articles are fed, said articles having an an
nular surface to be tested, a reciprocating mem 10 said lamp to be re?ected onto'and to travel
ber adapted to engage said articles and respec
tively‘move the same, a pair of spaced stops
against which article is positioned by said mem
her, power rotated means for directing a beam of
around said surface, said light being‘reflected
from said surface to said mirror and re?ected
from said mirror, and means controlled by said
re?ected light for determiningjthe path of said
light upon and causing itjto travel around said 15 article when said mirror is. again lifted. '
surface, and means for moving said stops to per
mit said articles to pass therebetween when
moved by said reciprocating member.
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