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Патент USA US2405502

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‘Aug. 6, 1946.
v >
F_ R_ HARRls
A
2,405,502
HYDRAULIC SHOCK-ABSORBER
Filed June 16, 1944
5‘Sheets-Shéet 1
Aug. 6, 1946.
’
F. R. HAR'RI‘S
‘
HYDRAULIC SHOCK-ABSORBER:
Filed June 16, 1944
2,405,502
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INVENTOR. 54
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Aug. , 1946.
F. R. HARRIS
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HYDRAULIC SHOCK-ABSORBER
Filed June 16, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTOR. '
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Aug. 3, 1946.
F. R. HARRIs'
‘2,405,502
HYDRAULIC SHOCK-ABSORBER
' Filed June 16, 1944.
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Patented Aug. 6, 1946
2,405,502
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFKIE.
2,405,502
HYDRAULIC SHOCK ABSORBER
Frederic R. Harris, New York, N. Y.
Application June 16, 1944, Serial No. 540,555
15 Claims.
(01. 114-45)
1
2
This invention relates to improvements in shock
absorbers; and more particularly shock absorbers
for mounting upon ?oating dry- docks to facilitate
absorber, broken away at one side, to illustrate
the inside construction.
the raising of ships therein.
Figure 10.
In my application for patent on a shock-ab
sorbing ?oating dry dock, Serial No. 487,735, ?led
Figure 11 is a vertical section on line I |—l l of
Figure 12 is an enlarged section on line 12-12
of Figure 10.
.
May 20, 1943, which issued as Patent No. 2,390,300
on December 4, 1945, I have set forth the useful
ness of shock-absorbing equipment for cushion
Figure 13 shows in section on line |3--l3 of
Figure 14 another form of base or pedestal for
the shock-absorber, to be mounted at the middle
ing a ship as the dock lifts it out of the water. 10 of the floor of the dock in line with the keel
and thus preventing serious collisions betwen the
blocks.
floor of the dock and the bottom of the ship. In
such operations, a shock-absorber incorporating
of Figure 13.
Figure 14 is a horizontal section on line [4-14
I
hydraulic principles'has marked advantages; and
Figure 15 is a top plan of a base for a shock
the chief object of this invention is to provide a 15 absorber adapted to be mounted in line with the
hydraulic shock-absorber suitable in design for
bilge blocks.
suchv a, purpose.
Figure 16 is a front view on line l6—! 6 of Fig
Another object of the invention is to provide a
ure 15 of the base shown in Figure 15.
shock-absorber of the hydraulic type which is
Figure 17 is a vertical section on line "-41 of
built to utilize the water that ?oats the dock as 20 Figure 15.
the cushioning medium, is simple in construc
Figure 18 is a horizontal section on line l8--l8
tion but strong and durable, resistant to damage,
of Figure 19.
and capable of giving the desired cushioning ef
Figure 19 is a side view of another design of a
feet for long periods of service.
'
base or pedestal for shock-absorbers under the
A further object of the invention is to provide 25 keel of a'ship.
ef?cient shock-absorbing equipment suitable for
Figure 20 is a View of the base seen from the
both the bottom or ?oor of the dock and the side
right of Figure 19; and
walls thereof; so that both the bottom and the
Figure 21 shows a detail.
sides of a vessel in the dock are protected against
damage.
In the following description I have set forth
The same numerals identify the same parts
throughout.
The pontoon hull of a ?oating dry dock is
shown at l in Figures 4 and 5, with the side or
wing walls 2. The deck or floor of the dock may
cise structural details thereof. In practice, many
have the usual extension or outrigger 3 at each
changes can be made without'deviating from the C? Di end. The keel blocks 4 are shown near the mid
essential character of the invention or exceeding
dle of the floor, and. at the sides of the ?oor near
its scope.
the ends are rows of similar blocks 4a usually
On the drawings, which are a part of the dis
called bilge blocks. Near the ends of the ?oor,
closure herein:
in line with the keel blocks are shock-absorbers
Figure 1 is a top view of a hydraulic shock
5, and additional shock-absorbers of the same
absorber according to this invention, intended for
construction are placed in suitable numbers along
the sides of a, ?oating dock.
the sides of the ?oor between the inner ends of
Figure 2 is a section on line 2-2 of Figure 1.
the rows of bilge blocks 4a. On the inner or
Figure 3 is a similar section, showing the parts
inboard faces of the walls 2 abut halfway between
in a different position.
the ?oor of ‘the hull and the top are the side
Figure 4 is an end view of part of a dock and
wall shock-absorbers 6, in a ‘row extending the
Figure 5 is a top view showing how such a shock
entire length of the‘ dock. I vshall describe the
one or more embodiments of the invention; but
I do not wish to be necessarily limited to the pre
absorber is mounted in operative position.
latter ?rst, referring to Figures 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7.
Figure 6 is a section on line 6-6 of Figure 2.
The side wall shock-absorber includes a plunger
Figure 7 is a section on line ‘l—'! of Figure 2.
50 or piston 7 in a cylinder or casing 8. Attached
Figure 8 is a section on line 8—8 of Figure 11,
to the plunger are hollow posts 9 which project
showing a shock-absorber for the deck or floor
from the cylinder 8 and carry at their outer ends
of a?oating dock.
a head 10 having a thick covering of rubber‘ or
Figure 9 is a section on line 9-9 of Figure 8.
some other resilient material II. The cylinder
Figure 10 is a top view of the same shock 55 8 has a movable cover 'plate l2, with openings
2,405,502
3
-
4
through which the posts or legs 9 pass freely,
plates l2 without uncovering the outer ends of
and this plate can slide in any direction across
the cylinders 8. As the dock is sunk, water can
enter and escape from the cylinders by way of
the space between the plates 26 and closures I2.
The heads l0 have perforated rims 33 ‘surround
the open end of the casing 8. Between the plate
12 and head Hi, the posts 9 are encircled by hel~
ical springs III which normally force the head i0
outward to the position shown in broken lines in
Figure 2, so that the plunger 7 is held near to the
outer end of the cylinder 8. When the dock is
submerged and a ship ‘is moved into it, the eas
ings 8 all ?ll with water; and ii the dock and the
'ship should lurch or swing, so that the hull moves
close to either side 2 as the dock is raised, the
ing the posts 9, and the rim is braced by diametral
ribs 34. The springs I3 force the heads i8 out
ward, and as the dock is sunk, the cylinders 8 ?ll
with water ?owing in between the plates 12 and
26; these two plates being separated to a sui?cient
extent to let water ?ow between them, and if
the side of the ship should collide with either
beams l4 af?xed to the outside of these casings
wall 2, the impact is taken up by the cushions H,
springs I3 and the water in the cylinders, which
may in part be forced out by the plungers ‘i. To
this end the plungers ‘I ?t somewhat loosely in
and running from end to end ‘thereof. Adjacent
the cylinders 8, the diameter of these plungers
impact is deadened by the combined effect of the
water in the cylinder and the springs i3.
The cylinders 3 are secured to the clock by
being somewhat less than the inside diameter of
the upper and lower sides of the cylinders in po
said cylinders. Hence, damage is averted. The
sition on the walls 2, the beams l4 are affixed at
the bases of the cylinders to horizontal beams I5. 20 pistons ‘I can tilt in the cylinders 8, and these
shock-absorbers are effective at various angles or"
Each lower beam I5 rests at the end-s upon rein
impact.
_
forced iron wedges i6 welded thereto and to the
The hydraulic shock-absorbers 5 for the bot
side walls 2,,and the upper beams {5 are a?ixed
at their ends to reinforced spacers ll of greater
tom of the dock comprise bases made of crossed
height, and with inclined lower faces, so the ends 25 I-beams 35, in pieces or sections, welded ?ange
of the cylinders are in vertical planes and the
t0 ?ange and web to web, and supporting on their
outer ends upright I-beams or columns 36, four
posts 9 may be horizontal. The bottom of each
on each base and inclined slightly outward. At
cylinder is braced bycrossed T-beams l8, verti
the‘tops of these pedestals thus built are heads
cal andhorizontal, the ends of vertical beams 18
being joined to the inner ends of beams or ribs 30 3'! or ?xed pistons, the tops of which are thus
[4, web to web and ?ange to ?ange; and in line
mounted at a level slightly below the tops of the
blocks 4 and 4a, surrounded by hollow annular
with the webs of the vertical beams 18 and be
yond the adjacent beams I4 are stiffening plates
?oats'or movable cylinders 38. On the top of
each ?oat, surrounding the inner edge, is a bufe
I9,between' the ends of the beams J4 and the
webs of the beams 15., The beams 18 are all of 35 fer or cushion ring 39,01? rubber or any other
course in pieces, joined at the pointsof inter—
suitable material. At the bottoms theseh?oats
have stops 4!! projecting beyond the inner edges
section so that they are all in the same plane.
to engage the heads 37, and limit the upward
The pieces'are-weldedi together and toy the bot
movement of’, the ?oats 38 when thefdock is sunk.
toms of the cylinders, and welding can be utilized
wherever else it is needed to secure any of the 49 ‘Each ?oat 38 consists of an inner wall 4| and
parts together. The horizontal beams 18 are ' an outer wall 42, joined by radial partitions 43
having openings 44 with rim 45. At the inner
made fast to the ribs or beams M at the sides of
the cylinders, 8;’Vand the’ latter beams [4 are
made fast at their ends near the bottoms of the
walls 4|, each alternate partition is forked at 45,
enclosing a triangular space 41-; and the wall 4!
at spaces 41 has openings 48, atrequired points
cylinders to vertical channel beams 20 which are 45
on the ?oat, to connect these spaces to the atwelded web to web and ?ange to ?ange to the
mosphere. At the lower ends of these spaces the
beams IS; the webs of the channel beams being
bottoms of the cylinders also are open, as shown
extended to make junction with the Webs of the
beams 15 at 2 l. Sti?ener plates !9 are also placed
in Figure 11. The water can enter and?ow
7
between the ?anges of the beams 20 adjacent the 50 through the spaces 46.
beams R4 at the sides of the cylinders welded in
Attached to the webs 49 of each base beam 35,
place. The whole assemblage of each cylinder is
onboth faces at the outer ends, are three stif
thus strongly made and strongly mounted in
fening plates 50, two of which are in line with
place on the side wall 2.
g
both ?anges 5| of the upright I-beams 33. The ,
The plungers ‘I for the cylinders comprise back
plates 22 with thick rims 23, consisting of rings
headon these ‘beams comprises a' top plate 52
welded to the circumferential edges of the plates.
with the outer ?anges of the beams 36,_and two
with a circular rib 53 on its lower facein line
transverse inverted T-beams 54, which rest on
The inner ends of the hollow posts 9 are welded
the tops of the colums 3B; the rib_53 resting on
to the plates, and braced by ribs or webs 24 con
necting the posts to one another and to the rim 60 the lower ?anges of beams 54. These beams 54
are welded together in pieces, web to web and
23. The cylinders 8 all have outward extending
?ange to ?ange to make them fast; and the top
rims 25. To these rims are bolted annular plates
52 is a?xed to the ?anges of beams 54 at their
26 having radial ribs 21 on their outer faces to ,
upper edges. On the top of the plate 52 is a
engage the cover plates 12. The latter have
strengthening rim 28, joined by dia'metral stif 65 peripheral ring 55 bolted'thereon, and welded to
fening ribs 29. In each of the quadrants thus
formed’ each cover plate I2 has an opening 30
for one of the posts 9,'and over each opening is
a ?at covering rings 3|, surrounding the post 9.
A similar ring 32 surrounds each post'at the head
l0, and the springs I3 abut the rings 3| and 32.
The plungers can therefore tilt in the cylinders
as indicated in Figure 3, making the closure plates
l2 slide on the ribs 21, and causing some move
ment of the rings 3! from side to side on. the
this ring is a thick depending rim 56 with round
ed exterior, as illustrated in Figure 9, envelop
ing the rib 53 and beams 54. stiffener plates 5'!
are welded to the webs of the. crossbeams 54 in
line with the inner ?anges of the beams 36.
When‘the ‘dock is sunk ‘and a ship moved in
between the walls 2, the ship, as the dock is
raised again, will gradually settle'ron the shock
absorbers 5.
Since the members 38 are airtight,
they "riseinj the water till checked by the stops
15
2,405,502
lt?‘engaging the heads 52. . When the bottom of
the ship, indicated at S in Figure 11, makes con
wall at each side of said hull, hydraulic;shock
tact. with the ?oats, it will press down on the
‘said walls, and hydraulic shock-absorbing units
absorbing units mounted on the inner faces of
gaskets 38, trapping water between it and the
on the deck of said hull between said walls, each
heads 52. This Water is expelled between the 5 of said units comprising an open cylinder and a
heads 52 and the inner walls 4| of the ?oats,
piston therein of a diameter small enough to
and. some by way of openings 48 and spaces 4?.
permit water in the cylinder to ?ow past the
The diameter of the head 52 is smaller than the
piston’.
‘
inside diameter of the walls 4! of the ?oats, and
.2. A ?oating dry dock having a hull with side
water can thus pass between them. Thus, any 10 walls thereon, said dock being equipped on the
collisions between the ?oor of the hull I of the
deck of the hull and the opposing inboard faces
dock .and the bottom of the ship along the keel
of said walls with shock absorbers, each of which
and bilge blocks are cushioned and damage
comprises an automatically adjustable member
averted. A side swing of the ship is taken up
to engage the outside of a ship in said dock
by .the shock-absorbing units 16 described above. 15 squarely at Varying angles of impact, and a
' In Figures 13 and 14, the base for the shock
member loosely ?tting said adjustable member
absorber is made by attaching to the ?oor of the
to permit ?uid to pass between saidmembers.
dock a pair of parallel runners in the shape of
3. A ?oating dry dock having ‘a hull and side
T-beams 59} On top of the ?anges of these
walls, said dock being equipped on the deck of the
beams is an octagonal plate 60, welded into 20 hull and the opposing inboard faces of said walls
place; and on the upper face of .this plate are
with shock-absorbers, each comprising a cylinder
four reinforced angle irons 6!. These irons are
and a piston one of which is movable and tilt
bolted to the plate ‘60, with reinforcing plates 62
able with respect to the other, the cylinder being
on the under face of the plate 63. Running
open to be ?lled with water when the dock is
between opposite angle irons 61 are crossed I~
sunk.
beams 63, pieced together and welded in place,
ll. The dry dock according to claim 3 wherein
with the upper faces ?ush throughout. Upon
the piston has a periphery curved in the direc
these beams the I-beams 36 are welded to make
tion of its main axis, and ?ts the cylinder
the pedestal for the head 38. At the sides of
loosely.
beams 63 are stiffening plates 57 in'line with
5. A ?oating dry dock having a hull and side
the inner ?anges of beams 35. This type of base
walls thereon, and shock-absorbers on the oppos
is well adapted for shock-absorbers under the keel
ing inboard faces of said walls and the deck of
of the ship.
the hull between same, each of said shock
‘For the sides of the dock, in‘the line of the
absorbers comprising an automatically adjust
bilge blocks a base such as is shown in Figures 35 able member to engage the outside of a ship
l5, l6 and 17 is employed. Here the parallel
in said dock squarely at all angles of impact,
runners 59 are spanned by three I-beams 65,
and a member loosely ?tting said adjustable
secured by bolts 56 at their ends to the top faces
member to permit ?uid to pass between said
of the Webs of the runners 59. Strengthening
members.
plates 62 are placed under said webs and are 40
6. A ?oating dry dock comprising a hull and
also held fast by the bolts 66. On topof the
side walls thereon, and shock-absorbers on the
I-beams is a pair of T-beams 68, the tops of
inner faces of said walls and the deck of the
which are inclined at the correct angle for the
dock between them, each shock-absorber includ
uprights 36 and heads 3'! attached thereto to
ing a cylinder and piston, one of which is mov
enable the ?oats to be parallel to the ship's bot 45 able and tiltable with respect to the other, the
tom along the bilge blocks. stiffening plates 61
cylinder being open to be ?lled with water when
are attached to the webs and ?anges of the
the dock is submerged to receive a ship.
beams 68 and 65 and the runners 59 wherever
'7. The dry dock according to claim 6 wherein
needed.
the piston has a rim curved in the direction of
Figures 18 to 21 inclusive show an alternative 50 its main axis to facilitate tilting of the movable
form of base and pedestal for shock-absorbers to
part, and ?ts loosely in said cylinder.
engage the vessel’s keel. In this construction
8. The dry dock according to claim 6 wherein
two parallel I-beams 59 are attached to the floor
the shock-absorbers on the side walls have the
of the dock and on top of said beams is a plate
cylinders ?xed and the pistons are movable with
‘58 on which the columns 35 stand. The beams 55 respect thereto; and the shock-absorbers on the
69, plate 10 and columns 35 are all Welded to
hull deck have the pistons ?xed and the cylinders ‘
gether. The corners of the plate ‘Hi and the
movable thereon.
outer corners of the top ?anges of the beams 69
9. A ?oating dry dock having a hull and side
are cut away as shown.
walls, shock-absorbers mounted on the inner faces
Both forms of shock-absorber thus include a
of said walls and the deck of said hull; each of
piston member and a cylinder member, one of
said shock-absorbers comprising a cylinder and
which is movable and tiltable with respect to the
a piston, one of which is movable and tiltable
other. In the shock-absorbers on the side walls,
with respect to the other, and bases "for said
the piston moves and tilts in its cylinder; and
shock-absorbers, some of said bases being higher
in the shock-absorbers for the deck or ?oor of 65 on one side than on the other to mount the
the hull, the cylinder or ?oat 38 is movable and
shock-absorber at an incline to the surface sup
can tilt with respect to the piston ?xed to its
porting same.
upright pedestal in line with the central keel
10. A shock-absorber for a dry dock to engage
blocks, or inclined pedestal in line with the side
the outside of a ship therein, comprising a cyl
bilge blocks. The rims of the pistons ‘I and 52
inder member and a piston member, one of
are curved in the direction of the main axis to
which is movable and tiltable with respect to the
facilitate the tilting movement.
Having described my invention, what I believe
to be new is:
1. A ?oating dry dock having a hull and a
other, and ?ts the other loosely enough for the
passage of ?uid between the two, the movable
member carrying a cushioning element, said
piston having a rim which is curved in the direc
2,405,502
8
7
tion of the main axis thereof, to facilitate the
tilting of the movable member.
,
11. A shock-absorber for a dry dock to en
gage the bottom of a ship therein, said shock
absorber comprising a base on the deck of the
dock, columns secured to the base, a piston af
?xed to the upper ends of said ‘columns and an
posts uniting said head and said piston, a trans
versely slidable closure plate for the cylinder, said
plate having openings for said posts, and'com
pression springs between the plate and said head.
14. A shock-absorber for a ?oating dry dock
to engage the outside of a ship therein, said
shock-absorber comprising a cylinder having its
inner end closed and its outer end open, a piston
in the cylinder, a cushioned head outside of the
12. A shock-absorber for a. dry dock to engage
the bottom of a vessel therein, said shock 10 cylinder, posts uniting said head to said piston,
said cylinder having a rim surrounding its outer
absorber comprising a pedestal on the deck of
annular ?oat loosely encircling the piston.
end, the rim. having radial ribs on its outer face,
a closure plate engaging said ribs and having
openings for said posts, rings on the posts abut
wall connected by radial reinforcing partitions 15 ting the plate to close the openings and springs
encircling said posts abutting said head and said
therein and. means forming longitudinal chan
rings.
nels with openings at their 'lower ends and
15. The shock-absorber according to claim 14
through said inner wall adjacent said piston.
wherein said cylinder has reinforcing ribs along
13. A shock-absorber for a dry dock to engage
the outside of a ship therein, said shock 20 its sides and a base comprising cross beams to
which it is af?xed at its closed end.
,
absorber comprising a piston, a cylinder to re
FREDERIC R. HARRIS.
ceive the piston,‘ an external cushioned head,
the dock, a piston ?xed to the top of the pedestal,
and a hollow annular ?oat loosely encircling said
piston, said ?oat having an inner and an outer
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